Aezanis, Temple of Zeus, 117-138 AD 
History/Classics 310
Athenian Empire: 480-404 B.C.



 Book List  
 Reserve Readings 
 Themistocles Decree 
 Megarian Decree 
 Athenian Treaties 

 Early Sparta and Athens 
 514-482 B.C.  
 Pentekontaeteia, 479-431 B.C. 
  Peloponnesian War  

 Finances in Athens 
 Greek Coinage and Measures 


I.  The Archidamian War (431-421 B.C.) 
II. Peace of Nicias (421-414 B.C.)
III.  Decelean (or Ionian) War (414-404 B.C.)
I.  The Archidamian War (431-421 B.C.) 
431 B.C.   Thebans attack Plataea; Athenians besiege Potidaea
    Sparta appeals to Syracuse for naval aid
    Athens allied to Leontini and Rhegium since 433/2
    Peloponnesian Invasion of Attica
    Athenian fleet raids Peloponnesus; Athenian fleet raids Northwest Greece, capturing Sollium and Astacus and winning over Cephallenia
    Withdrawal of Peloponnesians from Attica; Athenian counterinvasion of Megarid
    Funeral Oration of Pericles
430 B.C.   Peloponnesian Invasion of Attica
    Plague ravages Athens
    Athenian fleet under Hagnon ravages northeastern Peloponnesus; then sent against Potidaea
    SURRENDER OF POTIDAEA; continued resistance in the CHALCIDICE supported by king PERDICCAS, 430-424
    Peloponnesian fleet attacks Zacynthus
    Phormio stationed at Naupactus to blockade Corinth-ian Gulf
    Athenians propose peace terms to Sparta; Pericles stripped of power
429 B.C.   Pericles reelected strategos
    Peloponnesian army besieges Plataea
    PHORMIO wins battles of NAUPACTUS and Rhion; Corinthian trade is disrupted.
    Peloponnesian fleet raids Saronic Gulf
428 B.C.   Peloponnesian Invasion of Attica
    Athenians introduce EISPHORA (direct land tax)
    REVOLT OF MYTILENE; Paches sent to Lesbos
    Outbreak of War between Syracuse and the Ionian cities of Sicily
    Spartan and Athenian naval demonstations
427 B.C.   Peloponnesian Invasion of Attica
    DEATH OF KING ARCHIDAMUS; Succession of Agis II
    Rise of CLEON and NICIAS in Athens
    FALL of and DEBATE over MYTILENE
    Suppression of revolt in Colophon
    Leontini and Rhegium appeal for aid against Syracuse; Athenian fleet sent under Laches and Eurymedon
    CIVIL WAR IN CORCYRA (427-425)
    Second outbreak of Plague in Athens
426 B.C.   Spartan Overtures for peace to Athens
    Return of king PLEISTOANAX from exile
    Last outbreak of Plague in Athens
    Campaigns of DEMOSTHENES in Aetolia and Northwest Greece vs. Corinthians and allies.
    Athenian fleet in Sicily captures Messana; Athens votes reinforcements under Pythodorus
425 B.C.   Peloponnesian Invasion of Attica
    Great Athenian naval expedition to Northwest Greece; Demosthenes fortifies PYLOS
    Athenians lose Messana; Deterioration of Athenian alliances in Sicily
    Athenians intervene in civil war in Corcyra
    Athenians secure Northwest Greece and destroy Corinthian naval power
    ATHENIAN VICTORY AT PYLOS: Capture of 292 Spartan prisoners and Spartan fleet
    Tripling of Tribute; CLEON calls for all out victory
424 B.C.   Athenians take Nisaea, but fail to capture Megara
    BATTLE OF DELIUM: Athenian invasion of Boeotia fails
    BRASIDAS invades the Chalcidice
    Conference of Gela: Athenian leave Sicily
    BRASIDAS takes Acanthus and AMPHIPOLIS
423 B.C.   Athens and Sparta concludes one year armistice
    Rebellions throughout the CHALCIDICE vs. Athens
422 B.C.   End of the Armistice; CLEON sails to Chalcidice
    Movement to peace in Athens and Sparta
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II. Peace of Nicias (421-414 B.C.) 
421 B.C.   Conclusion of Peace of Nicias; Corinth, Thebes, and Megara refuse to sign.
    Corinthian Dipolmatic Intrigue to create New Argive League to renew war
    Erosion of Peace Parties in Sparta and Athens
420 B.C.   Rise of ALCIBIADES and war party in Athens
    War party emerges in Sparta under ephors Xenares and Cleobulus
    Athens-Argos-Elis-Mantinea Alliance
419 B.C.   Alcibiades' Expedition into Peloponnesus
418 B.C.   Battle of Mantinea: Collapse of Athenian-Argive Alliance
417 B.C.   Rivalry of Nicias and Alcibiades in Athens
    Ostracism of Hyperbolus
416 B.C.   Rivalry of Nicias and Alcibiades
    Athenian expedition against Melos
    War between Leontini and Syracuse, and war between Segesta and Selinus in Sicily
    Segesta appeals to Athens
415 B.C.   Athenians send Sicilian Expedition under Nicias, Alcibiades, and Lamachus
    Recall and Flight of Alcibiades
    Battle of Dascon: Athenians defeat Syracusans
    Siege of Syracuse begins
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III.  Decelean (or Ionian) War (414-404 B.C.) 
414 B.C.   Siege of Syracuse pressed by Nicias
    Arrival of Alcibiades in Sparta
    Spartan aid under GYLIPPUS sent to Syracuse
    Nicias loses initiative to Gylippus
    Sparta declares war
413 B.C.   King Agis invades Attica and fortifies DECELEA
    Siege of Athens
    Reinforcements under Demosthenes sent to Nicias
    Failure to capture Epipolae
    Retreat and Destruction of Athenian Expedition in Sicily
412 B.C.   Outbreak of Rebellions in Athenian Empire
    King Agis negotiates for Persian aid
    Flight of Alcibiades from Sparta
411 B.C.   Failure of Oligarchic coup of 400 in Athens; moderate 5,000 take power
    Recall of Alcibiades by the Athenians
410 B.C.   BATTLE OF CYZICUS: Athenian fleet destroys Spartan-Persian fleet in Hellespont
    Restoration of full democracy; Athens rejects Spartan peace offerings
409 B.C.   Alcibiades campaigns in Ionia
    Spartans retake Pylos and Megarians recapture Nisaea
408 B.C.   Alcibiades retakes Byzantium and Chalcedon
407 B.C.   Alcibiades received in triumph in Athens
    Spartans send LYSANDER as navarch; arrival of prince CYRUS THE YOUNGER to supervise the Persian war effort.
406 B.C.   Battle of Notium: Fall of Alcibiades from power
    Fleet of Lysander and Cyrus sweeps Ionia
    Spartans recall Lysander
405 B.C.   Exile of Alcibiades
    BATTLE OF ARGINUSSAE: Athenian naval victory
    Trial of the Six Generals
    Lysander appointed sub-navarch to revive Spartan navy and renew Persian alliance
404 B.C.    BATTLE OF AEGISPOTAMAI: Defeat of Athenian navy by Lysander
    Siege and Capitulation of Athens
    Imposition of oligarchic “Thirty Tyrants” in Athens by Lysander
 To Top
Dr. Kenneth W. Harl 
Office: History 211 (504)862-8621 
Fax: (504) 862-8739 
Home: (504)866-5392 
 Tulane University
Last updated 03/19/98
by Annette Lindblom