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South Africa Company administered the territory of Northern Rhodesia from
1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s,
advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed
to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining
copper prices and a prolonged drought hurt the economy.
is a landlocked country in Southern Africa that borders Mozambique, Zimbabwe
Tanzania, Malawi, Angola, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and
Namibia. Its border with
Zimbabwe is a natural border, with the Zambezi River forming the boundary
between the two countries
is comprised of a variety of ethnic groups.
The majority of the population is African at 98.7%.
European comprise 1.1% while the other groups comprise 0.2%.
There are two main religious groups in Zambia, the first being
Christians at 50%-75%, and the second being Muslim and Hindu 24%-49%, with
indigenous beliefs at 1%. Even
though English if the official language of Zambia, major indigenous
vernaculars such as Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga, and
about 70 other indigenous languages are still spoken daily.
gained its independence in October 1964 from the United Kingdom (UK).
It legal system is based on English common law and customary law with
judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council.
Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule, but the
subsequent vote in 1996 saw blatant harassment of opposition parties. In
2001, Zambia held elections that were marked by administrative problems with
at least two parties filing legal petitions challenging the results.
The elections resulted in Levy M. Wasa assuming the presidency as
well as becoming Head of State, with Eroch Kavindele becoming vice
president. The president
appoints the vice president as well as the members of the Cabinet.
The members of the Cabinet are chosen out of the National Assembly,
which is a body of the government that represents popular elected delegates
from various areas of the country representing the people.
Opposition parties currently hold a majority of seats in the National
contains many natural resources such as copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal,
emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, and hydropower. However, despite progress in privatization and budgetary
reform, Zambia's economy has a long way to go. Privatization of
government-owned copper mines relieved the government from covering mammoth
losses generated by the industry and greatly improved the chances for copper
mining to return to profitability and spur economic growth. However, low
mineral prices have slowed the benefits from privatizing the mines and
reduced incentives for further private investment in the sector. In late
2000, Zambia was determined to be eligible for debt relief under the Heavily
Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative, but Zambia has not yet finalized
its Poverty Reduction Strategy paper. Unemployment rates remain high, but
GDP growth should continue at about 4%. Inflation should remain close to
20%. Agriculture and industry
are the main components and employers of the Zambian economy, comprising
more than 50% of each case.
Other problems faced by Zambia is the fact that Zambia is a transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for Southern Africa and possibly Europe. Another problem that hinders growth in Zambia is a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers. Another problem that faces the majority of the population is unemployment because the rate increases and is already at 50% today. Other issues that face Zambia are increasing number of refugees that inundate the country from surrounding war-torn countries. Also, mismanagement and destruction of the natural resources as well as corruption by the government have also hurt Zambia tremendously. All of these factors coupled together have had devastating affects for the general health and well being of the population.
|Zambias education system is doing moderately well, with a literacy rate of 78.9% for the entire process. This level entails the female literacy rate (72.6%) and the male literacy rate (85.7%). Another more than 89% of the young females and 84% of the young males in Zambia are enrolled in gross primary school. This number drops dramatically for secondary school, with 30% of the females and 23% of the males attending this level of school. This drop in enrollment rates could be attributed to the lack of government spending on education, since the government allots only 2% of its budget to education.|
|Zambia contains a majority young population, with 47% of the population between 0-14, and 50.4% of the population is 15-64, with only a little over 2% of the population over 65. The life expectancy for Zambia is extremely low, at only 37.35 years for the entire population. As a result, the life expectancy for females is only 37.66 years and only 37.05 years for males. More than 86% of the population are living in poverty, and more than 68% of the population has access to improved water and 74% have access to improved sanitation. However, the government still faces a lack of adequate water treatment facilities, and this presents various human health risks. Another health risk that concerns the population in Zambia deals with the AIDS epidemic. Many estimates for Zambia state that they have explicitly taken into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS. This can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.). Currently in Zambia, the adult prevalence rate for HIV/AIDS is 19.95% (1999 est.) which means that the population living with AIDS exceeds 870,000 people. The AIDS epidemic as well as other environmental problems such as air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation continue to inhibit Zambias progress into the future.|
|Food & Diet|
|The difficulties that face Zambia when focusing on nutrition deals with the lack of food that are available. This is another result of the civil war as well as soil erosion and desertification. Due to these as well as other factors, the amount of agriculture produced by Zambia dropped significantly. This resulted in less food total, and since the agriculture business was both a big employer as well as a food source, the decrease in amount of agricultural product affected how much the population ate and brought in as work. This is due to the fact that vegetables and other agricultural products are a big part of the diet, so a decrease in agriculture affected the population a lot. Almost 1.901 kcal per day is consumed in the diet, with1.805 kcal coming from vegetable products and only .096 kcal coming from animal sources. Within the vegetables consumed by the population, maize and starchy roots such as cassava are the main staples in the diet. Another nutritional fact is that a significant number of populations consume alcoholic beverages. Using this fact in conjunction with the decrease in the amount of food could lead to serious health and nutritional issues for the population affected by this statistic.|
8. Europa World Year Book 2001, 42nd edition, 1st volume