From Central America, A Nation Divided, 3rd ed., byRalph Lee Woodward, Jr. (Copyright, Oxford University Press, 1998).

A Selective Guide to the

Literature on Central America

The focus of international attention on Central America in the 1980s resulted in an explosion of scholarly and journalistic writing about the region, not only on its contemporary situation, but on many periods of its history. This bibliographical essay reflects the surge in historical and other publication during the past two decades. Many works mentioned in earlier editions of this work have been eclipsed by newer works and are thus not mentioned here. Those earlier edition, however, may have utility for those seeking greater detail on some topics. This essay provides an introductory guide to the literature for both the general reader and the specialist. It concentrates for the most part on books, but the reader should remember that periodical literature and unpublished (or obscurely published) theses and dissertations also constitute important sources of additional information and interpretation on the region which the serious student should consult. The Handbook of Latin American Studies and the Hispanic American Periodicals Index are the most convenient guides to the periodical literature.

The first section surveys a brief selection of materials in the English language for the general reader. The second is devoted to a selection of travelers' accounts. The third and most extensive section deals with the history of the isthmus. Subsequent sections treat the economy, inter-state relations, the society, culture, and the arts. The final section discusses bibliographies and current periodicals of the region.

I. Selected works in English

Whereas there were once very few works in English on Central America, the recent outpouring of scholarly research and publication has now provided the English-language reader with a wealth of material. The present section calls attention to only a small portion of that literature, providing a highly selective list of works that will provide an introduction to the study of Central America. Many more works in English are to be found in each of the subsequent sections. Héctor Pérez Brignoli, A Brief History of Central America (Berkeley, 1989) is a useful brief synopsis. Also excellent as an overview of Central American history are the various relevant chapters of the Cambridge History of Latin America, edited by Leslie Bethell (11 vols., Cambridge, 1984-95). The essays for the 19th and 20th centuries from that work have been republished separately in a paperback edition, Central America since Independence (Cambridge, 1991). An economic focus, sharply critical of both native and foreign elites, is provided by Frederick Stirton Weaver, Inside the Volcano: The History and Political Economy of Central America (Boulder, 1994). Jeffrey Paige, Coffee and Power: Revolution and the Rise of Democracy in Central America(Cambridge, Mass., 1997), offers an important interpretation of modern Central American politics, as does Robert Williams in States and Social Evolution: Coffee and the Rise of National Governments in Central America (Chapel Hill, 1994). Another provocative interpretation of the differences among the Central American states drawn from genealogical research on national elites is Samuel Stone, Heritage of the Conquistadors: Ruling Classes in Central America from Conquest to the Sandinistas (Lincoln, 1990).

Three, more detailed works provide a more comprehensive history of the isthmus: Murdo MacLeod, Spanish Central America: A Socioeconomic History, 1520-1720 (Berkeley, 1973), is a masterful description and analysis of the 16th and 17th centuries; Miles Wortman, Government and Society in Central America, 1680-1840 (N.Y., 1982), provides and overview of the Bourbon century and federation period, which, if less impressive than MacLeod's treatment is nonetheless convenient; and James Dunkerley, Power in the Isthmus, A Political History of Modern Central America (London, 1988), is a massive work which is primarily concerned with the political history of the 20th century, but which includes a fine opening chapter covering the 19th century. For the economic history of 20th-century Central America, see Víctor Bulmer-Thomas, The Political Economy of Central America since 1920 (Cambridge, 1987). Also useful, although uneven in quality, are the Country Studies, in the Area Handbook Series of the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress (formerly U.S. Army Area Handbooks). The series of Historical Dictionaries of the Latin American countries published by the Scarecrow Press are also uneven, but are nevertheless useful for reference, as is Glen Taplin, Middle American Governors(Metuchen, N.J., 1972), published in the same series. For general reference, however, the Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture (5 vols., N.Y., 1996) is the most useful single work. For the geography of the region see Robert West and John Augelli, Middle America: Its Lands and Peoples (2d ed., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1976). The forthcoming Atlas of Central American History, by Carolyn Hall and Héctor Pérez Brignoli (Norman, edp. 1999), will advance the historical geography of the region immensely.

Useful for their description of the evolution of the culture and society of Central America are Eric Wolf, Sons of the Shaking Earth (Chicago, 1959); William Sanders and Barbara Price, Mesoamerica and the Evolution of a Civilization (N.Y., 1968); and Mary Helms, Middle America, A Culture History of Heartlands and Frontiers (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1975). Doris Stone, Pre-Columbian Man Finds Central America (Cambridge, Mass., 1972), is an excellent introduction to the archaeology of Central America. A wide assortment of current statistical data may be found in the Statistical Abstract of Latin America (Los Angeles, 1958-, annual) and in the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Statistical Yearbook for Latin America and the Caribbean (Santiago de Chile, 1986- ). Much current statistical and other data may be obtained via the Internet. The Mexico & Central American Handbook (Bath, England, and N.Y., 1990- , annual) provides a handy guide to basic current information on each Central American state.

Several monographic studies offer more detail on historical topics or periods. Christopher Lutz's Santiago de Guatemala, 1541-1773: City, Caste, and the Colonial Experience (Norman, 1994) offers a superb demographic history of the capital city of colonial Central America, and W. George Lovell's Conquest and Survival in Colonial Guatemala: A Historical Geography of the Cuchumatán Highlands, 1500-1821 (Rev. ed., Montreal, 1992) provides depth on the colonial history of a heavily-populated Indian region of western Guatemala. W. L. Sherman, Forced Native Labor in 16th-Century Central America (Lincoln, 1979) is both informative and insightful regarding Spanish enslavement of the Indian population in the early colonial period, as is Linda Newson, Indian Survival in Nicaragua (Norman, 1987). Troy Floyd, The Anglo-Spanish Struggle for Mosquitia (Albuquerque, 1967), details the colonial rivalry for the eastern coast of Central America, and is well supplemented by Robert Naylor, Penny Ante Imperialism: The Mosquito Shore and the Bay of Honduras, 1600-1914: A Case Study in British Informal Empire (Rutherford, N. J., 1989); Craig Dozier, Nicaragua's Mosquito Shore: The Years of British and American Presence(Tuscaloosa, 1985); and Charles Hale, Resistance and Contradiction: Miskitu Indians and the Nicaraguan State, 1894-1987 (Stanford, 1994) for the more recent period. D. J. McCreery, Rural Guatemala, 1760-1940 (Stanford, 1994), is the definitive work on rural labor in Guatemala and the evolution of the agro-export economy.

Mario Rodríguez, The Cádiz Experiment in Central America, 1808-1826(Berkeley, 1978), brilliantly describes the origins of Central American liberalism and its roots in the Spanish constitutional experiment of 1812, while Louis Bumgartner, José del Valle of Central America, Durham, N.C., 1963), illuminates the life and career of one of Central America's most important leaders during the period when the isthmus gained independence. T. L. Karnes, Failure of Union, Central America, 1824-1975 (2d ed., Tempe, Az., 1975), surveys the repeated failures at federation, while W. J. Griffith, Empires in the Wilderness: Foreign Colonization and Development in Guatemala, 1834-1844 (Chapel Hill, 1965), explores in depth efforts to establish foreign colonies on Central American shores. R. L. Woodward, Jr., first in Class Privilege and Economic Development: The Consulado de Comercio of Guatemala, 1793-1871 (Chapel Hill, 1966), tracing the history of the merchant guild in Guatemala, and then in Rafael Carrera and the Emergence of the Republic of Guatemala, 1821-71 (Athens, Ga., 1993), focuses on the conservative dictatorship of Rafael Carrera in Guatemala within the context of the development of Central America during the first half-century of independence. Lowell Gudmundson, Costa Rica Before Coffee: Society and Economy on the Eve of the Export Boon (Baton Rouge, 1986), explains the early development of the Costa Rican rural society and its elite. Mario Rodríguez, A Palmerstonian Diplomat in Central America (Tucson, 1964), traces the influential career of Frederick Chatfield. Bradford Burns, Patriarch and Folk: The Emergence of Nicaragua, 1798-1858 (Cambridge, Mass., 1991), is a perceptive interpretation of 19th-century Nicaragua.

The 20th century has received more attention, but much of it has been of rather transitory quality. T. F. Anderson, Politics in Central America (N.Y., 1982), is a fine political overview, although it omits Costa Rica, covered by Charles Ameringer in Democracy in Costa Rica (N.Y., 1982). Also useful for understanding the development of the state in modern Central America is Howard Lentner, State Formation in Central America: The Struggle for Autonomy, Development, and Democracy (Westport, Conn., 1993), a work written from a rather severe Costa Rican bias. A series published by the Inter-Hemispheric Education Resource Center and written by Tom Barry, et al, on each Central American Country, entitled Inside . . . (Albuquerque, 1992-95), is useful for basic data on each country.

Nicaragua has received considerably attention from English-speaking writers. Neill Macaulay, The Sandino Affair (2d ed., Durham, N.C., 1985); William Kamman, A Search for Stability, 1925-1933 (Notre Dame, Ind., 1968); Jeffrey Gould, To Lead as Equals: Rural Protest and Political Consciousness in Chinandega, Nicaragua, 1912-1979 (Chapel Hill, 1990); Richard Millet, Guardians of the Dynasty (Maryknoll, N.Y., 1977); and Knut Walter, The Regime of Anastasio Somoza (Chapel Hill, 1993), all reveal especially important aspects of Nicaraguan history before the Sandino Revolution of 1979. The large literature on the Sandinista Revolution and its aftermath is dealt with in the historical section, but especially useful volumes include Dennis Gilbert, The Sandinistas: The Party and the Revolution (Oxford, 1988); Rose Spalding, Capitalists and Revolution in Nicaragua: Opposition and Accommodation, 1979-1993 (Chapel Hill, 1994); and Mark Everinghham, Revolution and the Multiclass Coalition in Nicaragua(Pittsburgh, 1996). On the peace process see James Dunkerley, The Pacification of Central America: Political Change in the Isthmus, 1987-1993 (London, 1994).

David Browning's El Salvador, Landscape and Society (Oxford, 1971) is a splendid contribution to Salvadoran history. T. F. Anderson has shed light on two important periods with his Matanza: El Salvador's Communist Revolt of 1932 (2d ed., Willimantic, Conn., 1992), on the 1932 revolt, and The War of the Dispossessed (Lincoln, 1981), on the 1969 "soccer war." The most perceptive work coming out of the "soccer war", however, is William Durham, Scarcity and Survival in Central America: Ecological Origins of the Soccer War (Stanford, 1979). On more recent events in El Salvador, see J. A. Dunkerley, The Long War: Dictatorship and Revolution in El Salvador (London 1982); Philip Russell, El Salvador in Crisis (Austin, 1984); and Tommie Sue Montgomery, Revolution in El Salvador: From Civil Strife to Civil Peace (2d ed., Boulder, 1995).

On Honduras see J. A. Morris, Honduras: Caudillo Politics and Military Rulers (Boulder, 1984), and Darío Euraque, Reinterpreting the Banana Republic: Region & State in Honduras, 1870-1972 (Chapel Hill, 1997)

Jim Handy, Gift of the Devil, A History of Guatemala (Boston, 1984) provides a brief overview of Guatemalan history, and his Revolution in the Countryside: Rural Conflict & Agrarian Reform in Guatemala, 1944-1954 (Chapel Hill, 1994) is a major contribution to understanding the revolutionary period. Two books by Paul Dosal have enhanced our understanding of politics and economic interest groups in modern Guatemala: Power in Transition: The Rise of Guatemala's Industrial Oligarchy, 1871-1994 (Westport, Conn., 1995), and Doing Business with the Dictators: A Political History of United Fruit in Guatemala, 1899-1944 (Wilmington, Del., Del., 1993). K. J. Grieb has given us a detailed study on a Guatemalan Caudillo, the Regime of Jorge Ubico, 1931-1944(Athens, Ohio, 1979), while Piero Gleijeses, Shattered Hope: The Guatemalan Revolution and the United States, 1944-1954 (Princeton, 1991), has covered the revolution with particular reference to the United States. Richard Adams, Crucifixion by Power: Essays on Guatemalan Social Structure, 1944-1966 (Austin, 1970) offers perceptive analyses and insights into the structure of society in modern Guatemala, while Robert Carmack (ed.), Harvest of Violence: The Maya Indians and the Guatemalan Crisis (Norman, 1988), contains descriptive accounts of the military repression in the post-revolutionary period. Rigoberta Menchú, I, . . . Rigoberta Menchú: An Indian Woman in Guatemala (London, 1984), and Susanne Jonas, The Battle for Guatemala: Rebels, Death Squads, and U.S. Power (Boulder, 1991), also illustrate of the plight of the Guatemalan masses since 1954.

In addition to his excellent study of Central American political leaders found in The Democratic Left in Exile (Miami, 1974), Charles Ameringer has written a fine biography of José Figueres, Don Pepe (Albuquerque, 1978). J. P. Bell, Crisis in Costa Rica (Austin, 1971) remains the best account in English of the 1948 revolution, and Bruce Wilson, Costa Rica: Politics, Economics, and Democracy (Boulder, 1998) is excellent for modern Costa Rica.

On Belize there are now several useful histories, including Narda Dobson's general History of Belize (London, 1973); O. N. Bolland, The Formation of a Colonial Society (Baltimore, 1977), and Belize: A New Nation in Central America(Boulder, 1986); Wayne Clegern, British Honduras, Colonial Dead End, 1859-1900 (Baton Rouge, 1967); and C. H. Grant, The Making of Modern Belize(Cambridge, 1976). Liter Hunter Krohn, et al (eds.) Readings in Belizean History(2d ed., Belize City, 1987) is a useful collection of previously-published articles on Belizean history.

On Panama and the Canal, David McCullough, Path Between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal, 1870-1914 (N.Y., 1977), is excellent on building the canal, as are Walter LaFeber, The Panama Canal: The Crisis in Historical Perspective (3d ed., N.Y., 1989); and John Major, Prize Possession: The United States and the Panama Canal, 1903-1979 (Cambridge, 1993), on subsequent relations with the United States. On U.S. Policy in Central America in general, see John Coatsworth, Central America and the United States: The Clients and the Colossus (N.Y., 1994); Walter LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions: The United States and Central America (2d ed., N.Y., 1993); and Thomas Leonard, Central America and the United States: The Search for Stability(Athens, Ga., 1991).

II. Travel Accounts

The observations of travelers and foreign residents are often enormously informative. Central America has a particular wealth of such literature, especially for the 19th and 20th centuries. Such accounts must be used with care because of the peculiar biases and interests of their authors and their individual shortcomings in observation. Their value varies depending on the topic of interest, and thus the following is only a representative selection.

Few foreign travelers came to Central America during the colonial period and fewer still wrote accounts. There are some notable exceptions, however. David Jickling has compiled excerpts from the writings of visitors to Guatemala, mostly in the colonial period, in La ciudad de Santiago de Guatemala: Por sus cronistas y viajeros (Antigua Guatemala, 1987). For the 16th century there is the Relación breve y verdadera de algunas cosas de las muchas que sucedieron al padre Fray Alonso Ponce en las Provincias de la Nueva España . . . escrita por dos religiosos, sus compañeros (2 vols., Madrid, 1873). Grace Metcalf has indexed that work in the Boletín Bibliográfico de Antropología Americana 7 (1943-44), pp. 56-84. Also very informative and entertaining, but subject to distortions stemming from the author's fierce anti-Spanish bias, is Thomas Gage, New Survey of the West Indies, originally published in London in 1648, with several subsequent editions under a variety of titles. Lionel Wafer, a physician who accompanied a buccaneering expedition, described the isthmus in A New Voyage and Description of the Isthmus of America (London, 1699). Later, another Englishman, John Cockburn, recorded his adventures in A Journey Over Land from the Gulf of Honduras to the Great South Sea (London, 1735). Captain John Henderson, An Account of the British Settlement of Honduras (London, 1809) is an early view of the British activities on the eastern coast.

Independence brought more visitors to the isthmus. F. D. Parker, Travels in Central America, 1821-1840 (Gainesville, Fla., 1970), examines and analyzes the most important of these early accounts, while Ricardo Fernández Guardia assembled and translated a selection of the 19th-century travel accounts in his Costa Rica en el siglo XIX (2d ed., San José, 1970). One of the first British accounts to appear during the first decade of independence was Orlando Roberts, Narrative of Voyages and Excursions on the East Coast and in the Interior of Central America(Edinburgh, 1827), in which he pointed to the advantages of direct commerce with the natives of the Nicaraguan coast. Life in Guatemala was depicted in A Brief Memoir of the Life of James Wilson (London, 1829), and in Henry Dunn, Guatimala, or, the Republic of Central America, in 1827-8 (London, 1829). Two Dutch accounts by J. Haefkens are Reize naar Guatemala (2 vols., Hague, 1827-28), and Central Amerika, vit een geschiedkundig, aardrijskundigen statistiek oogpunt beschouwd (Dordrecht, 1832). Explaining economic conditions in the early republic is L. H. C. Obert, Mémoire contenant un aperçu statistique de l'état de Guatemala (Bruxelles, 1840). The first major North American account was George Washington Montgomery, Narrative of a Journey to Guatemala in Central America, in 1838 (N.Y., 1839). It was soon followed by one of the most perceptive and informative accounts ever to be written about Central America, that of U.S. envoy John Lloyd Stephens, Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan(2 vols., N.Y., 1841, with many subsequent editions). About the same time, Thomas Young published a revealing description of the Honduran north coast and Bay Islands, Narrative of a Residence on the Mosquito Shore (London, 1842). Other descriptive accounts of the 1840s include Philippe la Renaudière, Mexique et Guatemala (Paris, 1843); the pro-Liberal autobiographical account of Joseph Sue, Henri le Chancelier: Souvenirs d'un voyage dans l'Amérique Centrale (Paris, 1857); Robert Dunlop, Travels in Central America(London, 1847); Frederick Crowe, The Gospel in Central America (London, 1850); and John Baily, Central America (London, 1850).

The peak of travel literature popularity occurred in the latter half of the 19th century, when a number of notable works described Central America. The most informative were the works of E. G. Squier, the U.S. envoy to Central America, written in the 1850s and dealing principally with Honduras and Nicaragua, but providing much data on the other states as well. C. F. Reichardt, Centro-Amerika (Braunschweig, 1851), has an excellent map and notes on the principal towns. There were several French accounts around mid century: the French chargé d'affaires, Victor Herrán, Notice sur les cinque états du Centre-Amérique (Bordeaux, 1853); André Cornette, Relation d'un voyage de Mexico á Guatémala dans la cours de l'année 1855 (Paris, 1858); Charles E. Brasseur de Bourbourg, Aperçu d'un voyage dans les états de San-Salvador et de Guatémala(Paris, 1857); and Arthur Morelet, Voyage dans l'Amérique Centrale, l'ile de Cuba, et le Yucatan (2 vols., Paris, 1857; English edition in London, 1871). Another useful European impression is Karl Ritter von Scherzer, Travels in the Free States of Central America (London, 1857). The astute observations of the Chilean chargé d'affaires, Francisco Solano Astaburuaga, made principally from Costa Rica, are found in his Repúblicas de Centro América (Santiago de Chile, 1857). An important U.S. account was William V. Wells, Explorations and Adventures in Honduras, Comprising Sketches of Travel in the Gold Regions of Olancho, and a Review of the History and General Resources of Central America(N.Y., 1857). Sympathetic descriptions of William Walker's foray into Central America are Walker's own The War in Nicaragua (Mobile, 1860); and Lawrence Oliphant, Patriots and Filibusterers (London, 1860). Detailed descriptions of the isthmus in the following decade are Wilhelm Marr, Reise nach Central Amerika ( 2 vols., Hamburg, 1863); Felix Belly, A travers l'Amérique Centrale (2 vols., Paris, 1868); and Frederick Boyle, A Ride Across a Continent: A Personal Narrative of Wanderings through Nicaragua and Costa Rica (London, 1868). The wife of a British diplomat, Mrs. H. G. Foote, published perceptive observations of Central America in the 1860s in her Recollections of Central America and the West Coast of Africa (London, 1869). On Panama the observation of Charles Bidwell, The Isthmus of Panama (London, 1865), who served as British Consul there for nineteen years are very informative. See also F. N. Otis, History of the Panama Railroad and of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company (N.Y., 1867), written by the medical officer of the Panama Railroad. Another is Chauncey Griswold, The Isthmus of Panama, and What I saw There ((N. Y., 1852). J. W. Boddam-Wetham, Across Central America (London, 1877), describes Guatemala, including the Verapaz, Los Altos, and the Petén, in the early years of the Barrios regime, with detailed information on economic and social conditions. The French vice-counsel in El Salvador, Joseph Laferrière, recorded his impressions in De Paris à Guatemala; notes de voyages au Centre-Amérique, 1866-1875 (Paris, 1877). Other valuable French accounts of the period are Louis Verbugghe, À travers l'Isthme de Panama (Paris, 1879); and Alexandre Lambert de Sainte-Croix, Onze mois au Mexique et au Centre-Amérique (Paris, 1897). Otto Stoll published a descriptive account, Guatemala: Reisen und Schilerungen aus den Jahren 1878-1883 (Leipzig, 1886), as well as a pioneering ethnographical work on the Guatemalan Maya, Zur Ethnographie der Republik Guatemala (Zürich, 1884). British accounts by Mary Lester (María Soltera, pseud.), A Lady's Ride across Spanish Honduras (Edinburgh, 1884), and Anne and Alfred Maudslay, A Glimpse of Guatemala and some Notes on the Ancient Monuments of Central America(London, 1899), are both entertaining and informative. Social and political observations are blended exotically with zoological and botanical data in Thomas Belt, The Naturalist in Nicaragua (London, 1874). The best of many North American accounts is Helen Sanborn (the Chase & Sanborn coffee heiress), A Winter in Central America and Mexico (Boston, 1866). E. Bradford Burns, Eadweard Muybridge in Guatemala, 1875: The Photographer as Social Recorder(Berkeley, 1986), is a fine collection of photographs of rural Guatemala, while photographer Henry G. Morgan, Vistas de Costa Rica (San José, 1989), displays 56 illustrative rural and urban scenes of Costa Rica in 1892. Other late 19th-century U.S. accounts are Frank Vincent, In and Out of Central America (N.Y., 1890); Hezekiah Butterworth, Lost in Nicaragua(Boston, 1898); R. H. Davis, Three Gringos in Venezuela and Central America (N.Y., 1896); and Albert Morlan, A Hoosier in Honduras (Indianapolis, 1897). Henry Blaney, The Golden Caribbean (Boston, 1900), describes Central American banana lands and includes lovely water colors of Central American ports and cities at the turn of the century. J. W. G. Walker, head of the U.S. Canal Commission, wrote a valuable report, Ocean to Ocean: An Account, Personal and Historical, of Nicaragua and its People (Chicago, 1902). A useful description of the Mosquito Coast in 1899 is Charles N. Bell, Tangweera: Life and Adventures Among Gentle Savages(Austin, 1989). For an excellent collection of Guatemala City photographs from the mid-19th century through the 1930s, see Diego F. Molina, Cuando hablan las campanas: Album fotográfico del ayer (Guatemala, 1989).

The early 20th century saw a continuation of the popularity of travel accounts, but their quality seems to have suffered, for many are little more than rehashes of earlier accounts and reinforcements of older prejudices. The classic among such trash is G. L. Morrill, Rotten Republics (Chicago, 1916). More objective is Nevin Winters, Guatemala and her People of Today (Boston, 1909), but greater detail appears in C. W. Domville-Fife, Guatemala and the States of Central America (N.Y., 1913). Other descriptive accounts are Frederick Palmer, Central America and its Problems: An Account of a Journey from the Río Grande to Panama(N.Y., 1910); G. P. Putnam, The Southland of North America (N.Y., 1913); and W. H. Koebel, Central America (London, [1917]). James Bryce, South American Observations and Impressions (N.Y., 1912), contains extensive description of the Panama Canal construction. Perceptive accounts by Spaniards are José Segarra and Joaquín Julía, Escursión por América: Costa Rica (San José, 1907); and Jacinto Capella, La ciudad tranquilla (Guatemala) (Madrid, 1916). Dana Munro relates the experiences of the first U.S. Ph.D. candidate doing dissertation research on the isthmus in A Student in Central America, 1914-1916(New Orleans, 1983).

Several travel accounts illuminate the years between the World Wars, beginning with R. W. Babson, A Central American Journey (Yonkers, N.Y., 1920). Eugene Cunningham describes in lively style his overland jaunt through the isthmus in Gypsying through Central America (N.Y., 1922). Similar is Morely Roberts, On the Earthquake Line: Minor Adventures in Central America(London, 1924), which pays greater attention to social conditions and customs. L. E. Elliott, Central America, New Paths in Ancient Lands (London, 1924), provides greater detail. Wallace Thompson, Rainbow Countries of Central America (N.Y., 1926), is descriptive and informative. Arthur Ruhl, The Central Americans (N.Y., 1928), offers impressions of these countries on the eve of the Great Depression; and John W. and Evan Hannstein Smith, Twentieth-Century Pioneer: The Adventures of J. W. Smith in the American Southwest, Mexico, and Central America (South Woodstock, Vt., 1993), tells the story of a Texan who settled in Central America before and during the Depression. Aldous Huxley, Beyond the Mexique Bay(N.Y., 1934), is delightful as well as informative. His fascination with Guatemala is shared by several others in the 1930s, notably J. H. Jackson, Notes on a Drum (N.Y., 1937); Vera Kelsey and Lilly de Jongh Osborne, Four Keys to Guatemala (N.Y., 1939); and Erna Fergusson, Guatemala (N.Y., 1938). Frances Emery-Waterhouse, the wife of a United Fruit Company engineer, describes life in the banana country of Guatemala in the late 1930s and early 1940s in Banana Paradise (N.Y., 1947). William Krehm, Democracies and Tyrannies of the Caribbean(Westport, Conn., 1984), is a vivid, day-by-day account of events as seen by a Time magazine reporter in the 1940s.

Many of the accounts since World War II do no more than gloss over the region's picturesque scenery and people. A few, however, provide insight into the political, social, or economic conditions. Ralph Hancock, The Rainbow Republics(N.Y., 1947) reflects conditions and appearances in the mid-1940s. Jean Hersey, Halfway to Heaven, A Guatemala Holiday (N.Y., 1947), offers more sentimental insight into Guatemalan life. Hakon Morne, Caribbean Symphony(N.Y., 1955), describes the adventures of a Finnish couple in Panama, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. Maria Schwauss, a German woman, describes her Guatemalan experiences in Tropenspiegel: Tagebuch einer deutschen Frau in Guatemala(Halle, 1949). David Doge, How Lost was my Weekend (N.Y., 1948), is an amusing and irreverent description of the problems of a foreign writer attempting to establish residence there. Maud Oakes, Beyond the Windy Place, Life in the Guatemalan Highlands (N.Y., 1951), recounts her experiences in Todos Santos and Huehuetenango. Tord Wallstrom, Wayfarer in Central America (N.Y., 1955), is a Swedish journalist's perceptive observation. Lilly de Jongh Osborne, Four Keys to El Salvador (N.Y., 1956), is descriptive of El Salvador at mid-century, and Donald E. Lundberg, Adventures in Costa Rica (2d ed., San José, 1968), provides a great deal of specific information on that country. Nicholas Wollaston, Red Rumba: A Journey through the Caribbean and Central America(London, 1962), includes a number of interviews with ordinary citizens. Hans Helfritz, Zentralamerika; die Ländebrücke im Karibishen Raum (Berlin, 1963), contains detailed descriptions of the region. Selden Rodman, Road to Panama (N.Y., 1966), is a travel guide with chapters on each country from Mexico to Panama. Albert Lisi, Round Trip from Poptún, A Journey in Search of the Maya (N.Y., 1968), describes adventures in highland Guatemala and the Petén. Attention to contemporary art occupied Manuel González, De Guatemala a Nicaragua: Diario del viaje de un estudiante de arte (México, 1968). Very useful is the impressionistic travel guide, containing current political, social, and economic descriptions, prepared by Hilda Cole Espy and Lex Creamer, Jr., Another World: Central America (N.Y., 1970). Paul Kennedy, an American journalist, has provided a useful survey of the post-war years in Middle Beat: A Correspondent's View of Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador (N.Y., 1971). The articles describing the travels in Central America of Luis Marañón Richi, Secretary to the Spanish Minister of Commerce, Centroamérica paso a paso (Madrid, 1968), are descriptive and perceptive. Doug Richmond, Central America: How to Get There and Back in One Piece with a Minimum of Hassle (Tucson, 1974), reflects the situation in the 1970s. Graham Greene, Getting to Know the General: The Story of an Involvement (N.Y., 1984), relates Greene's visits to Panama and conversations with Gen. Omar Torrijos during the canal treaty debates (1976-78). Herbert Knapp, Red, White, and Blue Paradise: The American Canal Zone in Panama (San Diego, 1984), is a fervent defense of the U.S. Panama Canal Zone by a resident.

The crises of the 1980s provoked many accounts by foreign visitors, but among the most sensitive and poignant are three on Guatemala: Jean-Marie Simon, Guatemala: Eternal Spring - Eternal Tyranny (N.Y., 1987); Victor Perera, Unfinished Conquest: The Guatemalan Tragedy(Berkeley, 1993); and W. G. Lovell, A Beauty that Hurts: Life and Death in Guatemala(Toronto, 1995). Lou Dematteis and Chris Vail, Nicaragua, A Decade of Revolution (N.Y., 1991), provides stunning photographs from both sides in the Nicaraguan civil war of the 'eighties. Other contemporary accounts of note include Lester Langley, The Real Stakes: Understanding Central America Before its Too Late (N.Y., 1985); Tom Buckley, Violent Neighbors: El Salvador, Central America, and the United States(N.Y., 1984); Christopher Dickey, With the Contras: A Reporter in the Wilds of Nicaragua (N.Y., 1987), one of the more useful eye-witness accounts of the contra war in Nicaragua; and Peter Canby (ed.), The Heart of the Sky: Travels Among the Maya (N.Y., 1992).

Among current travel guides, see the latest edition of the Mexico & Central American Handbook, Fodor's Central America, or for the more adventuresome Lonely Planet's Central America on a Shoestring (3d ed., Oakland, Calif., 1997). Beatrice Blake and Anne Becher, The New Key to Costa Rica (7th ed., San José, 1987) is an excellent guide to Costa Rica.

III. History

A. General Histories and Reference Works

The dearth of general histories of the isthmus has in recent years been relieved by both brief syntheses of Central American history, and more detailed, collaborative histories. The most ambitious of the latter projects is that of the Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO), under the general editorship of Edelberto Torres-Rivas, Historia general de Centroamérica (6 vols., Madrid, 1993; 2d ed., San José, 1994). Elizabeth Fonseca has written a very convenient, one-volume summary of this set, Centroamérica, su historia (San José, 1996). H. H. Bancroft's History of Central America (3 vols., San Francisco, 1886-87), retains some utility, as do the briefer histories of F. D. Parker, The Central American Republics (London, 1964), and Mario Rodríguez, Central America(Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1965), but they have been largely eclipsed by Pérez Brignoli, Brief History of Central America (Berkeley, 1989), Weaver, Inside the Volcano (Boulder, 1994), and Bethell (ed.), Central America since Independence(Cambridge, 1991), as well as by this work. In addition, from an Honduran perspective, there is Rodolfo Pastor Fasquelle, Historia de Centroamérica(México, 1988); and still useful, especially for the Pre-Columbian and Hispanic periods, with less than half of the final volume devoted to independent Central America, is Ernesto Chinchilla Aguilar, Historia de Centroamérica (3 vols., Guatemala, 1974-77). Mario Monteforte Toledo, Centro América: Subdesarrollo y dependencia (México, 1972), remains useful from a dependency framework and for the considerable statistical data it includes. Gerhard Sandner, Zentralamerika und der Ferne Karibische Westen: Konjunkturen, Krisen u. Konflikte, 1503-1984(Stuttgart, 1985), is a splendidly detailed historical geography of the region. A valuable collection of essays on the emergence of the national states in the several states of the isthmus is Arturo Taracena and Jean Piel (eds.), Identidades nacionales y estado moderno en Centroamérica (San José, 1995). Dana Munro, The Five Republics of Central America (N.Y., 1918), surveys the 19th century, but is most useful for detail and analysis on the early 20th century. Another older survey is Antonio Batres Jáuregui, La América Central ante la historia (3 vols., Guatemala, 1916-49), but it contains nothing after 1921. Of more antiquarian than historical value is Federico Hernández de León, El libro de efemérides (6 vols., Guatemala, 1925-63), which contains a chapter of historical data for each day of the year. Miguel A. Gallardo (comp.), Cuatro constituciones federales de Centro América (San Salvador, 1945), provides a useful compilation of the federal constitutions from 1824 to 1921, but see also Ricardo Gallardo (ed.), Las constituciones de la República Federal de Centroamérica (2 vols., Madrid, 1958). Current Central American constitutions may be consulted on the Internet at "Constitutions of the Americas," ( LatAmerPolitical/Constitutions/constitutions.htm). For general reference, with hundreds of entries on Central American topics, Barbara Tenenbaum (ed.), Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture (5 vols., N.Y., 1996), is indispensable.

The military history of Central America through about 1920 is surveyed in some detail in J. N. Rodríguez, Estudios de historia militar de Centroamérica(Guatemala, 1930); and Pedro Zamora Castellanos, Vida militar de Centro América (Guatemala, 1934). For more recent periods see Gabriel Aguilera Peralta, El fusil y el olivo: La cuestión militar en Centroamérica (San José, 1989). Adrian English, Armed Forces of Latin America: Their Histories, Development, Present Strength, and Military Potential (London, 1984), is an excellent reference work for Central America's military forces.

Modern histories of the individual states are still few, but several recent volumes have begun to fill the vacuum. For Guatemala, Jorge Luján Muñoz, Historia general de Guatemala (5 vols., Guatemala, 1993-96) has brought together an impressive array of scholarly essays on that country's history. Francis Polo Sifontes, Historia de Guatemala (Guatemala, 1988), is a school text for Guatemalan history, but is rather thin on the 20th century. Jim Handy, Gift of the Devil, A History of Guatemala (Boston, 1984), on the other hand, deals primarily with the period since 1944, but is a readable survey. Also focussing mainly on the period since 1944 is the innovative interpretation of Nelson Amaro, Guatemala: Historia despierta (Guatemala, 1992). Another brief survey, concentrating principally on the 19th and 20th century is Fernando González Davison, Guatemala 1500-1970 (reflexiones sobre su desarrollo histórico) (Guatemala, 1987). Mónica Toussaint has both a brief survey of Guatemalan history from the late colonial period to 1920, Guatemala (México, 1988), and a compilation of articles and documents on Guatemalan history, Guatemala (México, 1988). A major contribution to the social history of Guatemala is Marta Casaus Arzú, Guatemala: Linaje y racismo (San José, 1992), using detailed genealogical data to trace the elites from colonial times to the present and concluding that racism is responsible for the repression of the indigenous majority. Regina Wagner, Historia social y económica de Guatemala, 1524-1900 (Guatemala, 1994), has synthesized the work of a several scholars into a readable and convenient socio-economic survey. Manuel Eduardo Hübner and Enrique Parrilla Barascut, Guatemala en la historia: Un pueblo que se resiste a morir (Guatemala, 1992), perpetuates the liberal interpretation of Guatemala's history in considerable detail to 1945. Carlos Guzmán-Böckler and Jean-Loup Herbert, Guatemala: Una interpretación histórico-social(Mexico, 1970), is a thoughtful, Marxist history in a dependency framework that pays considerable attention to Guatemala's unique social structure and ethnic divisions. J. C. Castellanos Cambranes (ed.), 500 años de lucha por la tierra: Estudios sobre propiedad rural y reforma agraria en Guatemala (2 vols., Guatemala, 1992), is a solid collection of articles on land tenure, social class, and land reform from the colonial period to the present. Clemente Marroquín Rojas, Historia de Guatemala (Guatemala, 1971), is injudicious in its use of the facts, but offers interesting hypotheses in it's nationalistic interpretation. A collaborative work of considerable utility that looks at government policy toward the majority indigenous population from the Conquest to the present, is Carol Smith and Marilyn Moore (eds.), Guatemalan Indians and the State, 1540 to 1988 (Austin, 1990). A useful source on that topic is Jorge Skinner-Klée (comp.), Legislación indigenista de Guatemala (2d ed., Guatemala, 1995). Juan de Dios Augilar details the military history, principally since independence, in Los cuarteles de Guatemala (Guatemala, 1993). Francis Polo Sifontes, Nuestros gobernantes, 1821-1981 (Guatemala, 1981), briefly sketches Guatemala's chiefs of state. Luis Mariñas Otero, Las constituciones de Guatemala(Madrid, 1958), is valuable both for its documents and its commentary. Works on recent Guatemalan history are dealt with elsewhere in this essay. Other useful reference works include J. L. Arriola, El libro de las geonimías de Guatemala; diccionario entimológico (Guatemala, 1973), describing thousands of Guatemalan place names; Carlos Haussler Yela, Diccionario general de Guatemala (3 vols., Guatemala, 1983), a compendium of biographical sketches and other entries on events and places in Guatemalan history; and Alfredo Guerra Borges, Compendio de geografía económica y humana de Guatemala (2 vols., Guatemala, 1981), is the most detailed economic geography. Regina Wagner has chronicled the substantial German influence in Los alemanes en Guatemala, 1828-1844 (2d ed., Guatemala, 1996).

Narda Dobson's History of Belize (London, 1973) is the most comprehensive general history of Belize, although she ignores major Spanish sources. Mexican approaches, with greater emphasis on the modern period and relations with Mexico are M. E. Paz Salinas, Belize, el despertar de una nación(México, 1979); and Mónica Toussaint Ribot, Belice: Una historia olvidada(México, 1993). For the 20th century, see O. Nigel Bolland, Belize: A New Nation in Central America(Boulder, 1986). Other useful surveys include D. A. G. Waddell, British Honduras: A Historical and Contemporary Survey (London, 1961); W. D. Setzekorn, Formerly British Honduras (2d ed., Athens, Ohio, 1981); John Burdon, Brief Sketch of British Honduras, Past, Present and Future(London, 1927); William Donohoe, A History of British Honduras (Montreal, 1946); and Archibald Gibbs, British Honduras: An Historical and Descriptive Account of the Colony from its Settlement, 1670 (London, 1883). The early history of settlement is treated by O. N. Bolland, The Formation of Colonial Society: Belize from Conquest to Crown Colony (Baltimore, 1977). See also Bolland and Assad Shoman, Land in Belize, 1765-1871 (Mona, Jamaica: 1977), and Bolland, Colonialism and Resistance in Belize: Essays in Historical Sociology. (Benque Viejo del Carmen, Belize, 1988). The diplomatic history of the settlement to the 20th century is R. A. Humphries, The Diplomatic History of British Honduras, 1638-1901 (London, 1961). For recollections of the early Menonite colonists in Belize, see Gerhard S. Koop, Pioneer years in Belize (Belize City, 1991).

For Honduras, Luis Mariñas Otero, Honduras (Madrid, 1963), is easily the most complete history. Mario Argueta and Edgardo Quiñónez, Historia de Honduras (2d ed., Tegucigalpa, 1979) is a traditional textbook history. Medardo Mejía, Historia de Honduras (6 vols., 1983-1990), offers considerable detail with little analysis. For a brief survey, there is Alison Acker, Honduras, the Making of a Banana Republic (Boston, 1988), and from a Honduran perspective, Marvin Barahona, Evolución histórica de la identidad nacional (Tegucigalpa, 1991), but for the periods which they cover, Darío Euraque's Reinterpreting the Banana Republic: Region and State in Honduras, 1870-1972 (Chapel Hill, 1996) and James Morris, Honduras: Caudillo Politics and Military Rulers (Boulder, 1984) are more authoritative. Mariñas also compiled Las constituciones de Honduras(Madrid, 1962). An excellent anthology or readings and documents on Honduras within the context of New World history, is Héctor Pérez Brignoli, et al. (eds.), De la sociedad colonial a la crisis de los años 30 (Tegucigalpa, 1972). Another large collection of readings and documents on Honduran history is Pablo Yankelevich (comp.), Honduras (México, 1990). Honduran labor history is treated by Víctor Meza, Historia del movimiento obrero hondureño (Tegucigalpa, 1980); Mario Argueta, Historia laboral de Honduras: de la conquista al siglo XIX(Tegucigalpa, 1985); and Mario Pozas, Luchas del movimiento obrero hondureño(San José, 1989). Marcelingo Bonilla, Diccionario histórico-geográfico de las poblaciones de Honduras (2d ed., Tegucigalpa, 1952), has some reference value, and Carlos Aguilar B., Texto de enseñanza de la geografía de Honduras (2 vols., Tegucigalpa, 1969-70), is a complete school geography. Rodolfo Pastor F., Biografía de San Pedro Sula, 1536-1954 (San Pedro Sula, 1989), is an excellent survey of the history of that major Honduran city. Mario Argueta, Los alemanes en Honduras: Datos para su estudio (Tegucigalpa, 1992), briefly chronicles German merchants in Honduras from the late 19th century to World War II; and his Diccionario histórico-biográfico hondureño (Tegucigalpa, 1990), is a useful reference, although it is superseded by Ramiro Colindres Ortega (ed.), Enciclopedia hondureña ilustrada: De personajes históricos y figuras contemporáneos (4 vols., Tegucigalpa, 1994).

Browning's brilliant 1971 Landscape and Society and Russell's 1984 El Salvador in Crisis are the most important surveys of Salvadoran history, but Roque Dalton, El Salvador (Havana, 1963), Mario Flores Macal, Origen, desarrollo y crisis de las formas de dominación en El Salvador(San José, 1983), and Rafael Guidos Vejar, Ascenso del militarismo en El Salvador (San José, 1982), are also insightful on the political history. An earlier work of great value is Rodolfo Barón Castro's monumental study of the development of the Salvadoran population from pre-Columbian times through 1942, La población de El Salvador(Madrid, 1942). Manuel Vidal, Nociones de historia de Centro América (especial para El Salvador) (10th ed., San Salvador, 1982), is useful for placing El Salvador in the context of Central America, but is thin on the 20th century. Similarly, José Figeac, Recordatorio histórico de la República de El Salvador (S. S., 1938), offers much detail on the 19th century, rather cursory coverage of the colonial period, and nothing on the 20th century. Francisco Gavidia, Historia moderna de El Salvador (2d ed., San Salvador, 1958), extends only to 1814. Jorge Lardé y Larín, El Salvador: Historia de sus pueblos, villas y ciudades (San Salvador, 1957), details local history, while a large number of biographical sketches and a brief account of the founding of San Salvador is provided in the Academia Salvadoreña de la Historia, San Salvador y sus hombres (San Salvador, 1938). María and Freddy Leistenschneider, Gobernantes de El Salvador (San Salvador, 1980), provides a handy reference for biographical data on El Salvador's chiefs of state, and they also have begun to publish individual monographs on the Administración del general Francisco Malespín (San Salvador, 1983); Administración del general Francisco Morazán (San Salvador, 1982); Administraciones del Coronel Joaquín San Martín (San Salvador, [198?]); Dr. Rafael Zaldívar, recopilación de documentos históricos relativos a su administración (San Salvador, 1977); and Teniente Coronel Oscar Osorio y su administración (San Salvador, 1981). J. N. Rodríguez Ruíz, Historia de las instituciones jurídicas salvadoreñas (San Salvador, 1951), is a competent history of Salvadoran judicial development to the mid-20th century. The multi-volume Diccionario histórico enciclopédico de la República de El Salvador, published intermittently since 1927 in a variety of formats, is a sometimes inconsistent and confusing series of historical materials, but it contains much of value. The Diccionario geográfico de la República de El Salvador, published irregularly by the Dirección General de Estadística y Censos in San Salvador since 1940, provides a handy guide to place names. For Salvadoran constitutions prior to 1960, see Ricardo Gallardo, Las constituciones de El Salvador (2 vols., Madrid, 1961). Salvadoran labor history is dealt with by Rafael Menjívar, Formación y lucha del proletariado industrial salvadoreño (San Salvador, 1979).

The destruction of the national archives in the 1931 earthquake has severely handicapped Nicaraguan historians, but recently they have begun to write general histories of the country as well as competent monographs. The Sandinista Revolution attracted much new study by foreigners. The broad lines of Nicaraguan history were well laid out by David Radell in his Ph.D. dissertation, An Historical Geography of Western Nicaragua: The Spheres of Influence of León, Granada and Managua, 1519-1965 (Berkeley, 1969). Notable in his efforts to combine Nicaraguan nationalism with Marxist methodology is Jaime Wheelock Román, Native Roots of the Nicaraguan Anticolonial Struggle (N.Y., 1979), and Imperialismo y dictadura (México, 1975). Other competent general histories include David Close, Nicaragua: Politics, Economics and Society (London, 1988), and Francisco Lainez, Nicaragua: Colonialismo español, yanki y ruso(Guatemala, 1987). Detail and analysis characterize a collaborative history by Alberto Lanuza, J. L. Vásquez, Amarú Barahona, and Amalia Chamorro, Economía y sociedad en la construcción del estado en Nicaragua (San José, 1983). Traditionally, many Nicaraguan historians have concentrated on the rich local history of antiquarian nature, or on retelling the story of the William Walker episode or the U.S. intervention of 1912-33. Aldo Díaz Lacayo, Gobernantes de Nicaragua (1821-1956) (Managua, 1996) provides brief sketches of the chiefs of state. The best early histories are those of Tomás Ayón, Historia de Nicaragua desde los tiempos más remotos hasta 1852 (3 vols., Managua, 1882-89; 3d ed., 1977), which despite its title extends only to 1821; and J. D. Gámez, Historia de Nicaragua desde los tiempos pre-históricos hasta 1860 en sus relaciones con España, México y Centroamérica (3d. ed., Managua, 1975), especially useful for diplomatic history. Gámez also wrote an informative history of the Mosquito coast, Historia de la costa de Mosquitos, hasta 1894, a useful sequel to Floyd's Anglo-Spanish Struggle for Mosquitia, which extends only to 1790. See also the excellent work of Barbara Potthast, Die Mosquitoküste im Spannungsfeld Britischer und Spanisher Politik, 1502-1821 (Cologne, 1988). A brief survey of Nicaraguan history may be found in T. W. Walker, Nicaragua, Land of Sandino(3d., Boulder, 1991). Traditional political histories of some utility include Alberto Medina, Efemérides nicaragüenses y artículos históricos (Managua, 1961). A. S. Aguilar, Reseña histórica de la diócesis de Nicaragua (Madrid, 1958), contains both documents and detailed commentary on the ecclesiastical history. Nicaragua's labor history has been surveyed by Carlos Pérez Bermuda and Onofre Guevara, El movimiento obrero en Nicaragua (Managua, 1985). For the many Nicaraguan constitutions through the mid-20th century, see Emilio Alvarez Lejarza, Las constituciones de Nicaragua (Madrid, 1958). Roser Solá Montserrat, Geografía y estructuras económicas de Nicaragua (Managua, 1990), is a detailed, university text on Nicaragua's geography.

A useful introduction to Costa Rican history, especially its more recent development, is Marc Edelman and Joanne Kene (eds.), The Costa Rica Reader(N.Y., 1989). The growth of a strong school of history at the University of Costa Rica has resulted in historical publications of high quality in recent years, and has begun to produce more general works on the social and economic history of the country, notably Vladimir de la Cruz (ed.), Historia general de Costa Rica (6 vols. San José, 1988-89); V. H. Acuña Ortega and Iván Molina Jiménez, Historia económica y social de Costa Rica (1750-1950) (San José, 1991); Carlos Meléndez Ch., Historia de Costa Rica (San José, 1979); J. L. Vega Carballo, Historia social y económica de Costa Rica: Fuentes y bibliografía (San José, 1977), Hacía una interpretación del desarrollo costarricense (4th ed., San José, 1973), and Orden y progreso: La formación del estado nacional en Costa Rica (San José, 1981); and J. A. Cordero, El ser de la nacionalidad costarricense (2d ed., San José, 1980). Samuel Stone, Dinastía de los conquistadores (San José, 1976), studies in great depth the political and genealogical ties among Costa Ricans from the Conquest to the present in a model of scholarship and ingenuity. Richard, Karen, and Mavis Biesanz, The Costa Ricans (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1983), is a vivid portrayal of life in Costa Rica. Several older histories still have some utility, including C. L. Jones, Costa Rica and Civilization in the Caribbean (Madison, 1935); and Carlos Monge A., Historia de Costa Rica (San José, 1947). A major 19th-century history is Francisco Montero Barrantes, Elementos de historia de Costa Rica (2 vols., San José, 1892-94). Montero also wrote a descriptive Geografía de Costa Rica (Barcelona, 1892), but that has been superseded by Carolyn Hall's fine Costa Rica, A Geographical Interpretation in Historical Perspective (Boulder, 1985). Hernán Peralta compiled the Constituciones de Costa Rica(Madrid, 1962). Vladimir de la Cruz, Las luchas sociales en Costa Rica, 1870-1930 (San José, 1980), provides a history of the emergence of the labor movement in Costa Rica, but see also Edwin Chacón León, El sindicalismo en Costa Rica (San José, 1980). An excellent urban history is Carlos Araya Pochet and Priscilla Albarracín González, Historia de régimen municipal en Costa Rica (San José, 1986). Eugenio Herrera Balharry, Los alemanes y el estado cafetalero(San José, 1988) is a careful study of German infiltration of the Costa Rican coffee elite. A German approach, Jochen Fuchs, Costa Rica: von der Conquista bis zur "Revolution;" historische, ökonomische und soziale Determinanten eines konsensualistisch-neutralistischen Modells in Zentralamerika (Berlin, 1991), emphasizes the uniqueness of the Costa Rican experience to the extent that Fuchs doubts that it serves as a model for success elsewhere.

Greater attention has been given to the Panama transit route than to the history of the country generally, but there are several useful surveys: Almon Wright, Panama: Tension's Child, 1502-1989 (N.Y., 1990); Ernesto Castillero R., Historia de Panamá (8th ed., Pan., 1982); David Howarth, Panama, Four Hundred Years of Dreams and Cruelty (N.Y., 1966); Guy Vattier, Les grandes heures de l'histoire de Panama (Paris, 1965); and John and Mavis Biesanz, The People of Panama (N.Y., 1955). Rodrigo Espino and Raúl Martínez, Panamá(México, 1988), is a brief history from the Spanish conquest through 1903, with emphasis on the 19th century. Another brief history is Ricaurte Soler, Panamá: Historia de una crisis (Panamá, 1989). Soler has also compiled El pensamiento político en Panamá en los siglos XIX y XX (Panamá, 1988), an anthology of Panamanian political thought. John Niemier, The Panama Story (Portland, Ore., 1968), tells Panama's history since 1850 as reflected in the Panama Star & Herald. Manuel Alba C., Cronología de los gobernantes de Panamá, 1510-1967 (Panamá, 1967), provides biographical sketches of its chiefs of state, and Jorge Conte Porras, Panameños ilustres (San José, 1988), is another useful biographical reference work. Carlos Guevara Mann, Panamanian Militarism: A Historical Interpretation (Athens, Ohio, 1996), provides insight on Panama's military history. Andrés Achong, Orígenes del movimiento obrero panameño (Panamá, 1980), and M. A. Gandásegui, et al., Las luchas obreras en Panamá, 1850-1978 (Panamá, 1980), are serious studies of the history of Panamanian labor. See also the section on 20th-century Panama in III-F, below.

B. Pre-Columbian Central America

The literature on the indigenous peoples of Central America, particularly on the Maya, is vast, and the works mentioned here are only an introduction to the study of pre-Columbian life. Susan F. Magee (comp.), Mesoamerican Archaeology, A Guide to the Literature and Other Information Sources (Austin, 1981), suggests earlier sources for the study of Central American Indians, but the most valuable tool is Robert Wauchope, et al. (eds.), Handbook of Middle American Indians(Austin, 1964-76, with later supplements), which contains articles by leading scholars on various aspects of indigenous culture and history.

An excellent introduction to the Indian civilizations of all Central America is Doris Stone, Pre-Columbian Man Finds Central America (Cambridge, Mass., 1972), which treats more fully than do most general works the non-Mayan parts of the isthmus. The standard general histories of the Maya is S. G. Morley, G. W. Brainerd, and R. J. Sharer, The Ancient Maya (4th ed., Stanford, 1983), and Michael Coe, The Maya (5th ed., N.Y., 1993). Other useful surveys include Norman Hammond, Ancient Maya Civilization (New Brunswick, N.J., 1982); J. S. Henderson, The World of the Ancient Maya (Ithaca, N.Y., 1981); and J. Eric Thompson, The Rise and Fall of Maya Civilization (2d ed., Norman, 1966). Another important introduction to the region is Frederick W. Lange, Paths to Central American Prehistory (Niwot, Colo., 1996). Jeremy Sabloff, The New Archaeology and the Ancient Maya (N.Y., 1990), is a fine survey of the archaeology of the Mayan area and of newer interpretations resulting from new archaeological methods being applied in the region. An important, if controversial, new interpretive history of the Maya, using recently-deciphered Mayan hieroglyphs and emphasizing the importance of ritual blood sacrifice is Linda Schele and David Freidel, A Forest of Kings: The Untold Story of the Ancient Maya (N.Y., 1990). Schele and Mary Ellen Miller developed this thesis earlier in a richly-illustrated exhibition catalog, Blood of Kings: Dynasty and Ritual in Maya Art (Fort Worth, 1986). See also R. E. W. Adams, ed., The Origins of Maya Civilization(Albuquerque, 1973). Two collections of essays edited by T. Patrick Culbert provide a considerable range of research and insight by leading scholars: The Classic Maya Collapse (Albuquerque, 1973), and Classic Maya Political History: Hieroglyphic and Archaeological Evidence (Cambridge, 1991). Other useful anthologies include Mark Graham (ed.), Reinterpreting Prehistory of Central America (Niwot, Colo., 1993), and Arlen and Diane Chase (eds.), Mesoamerican Elites: An Archaeological Assessment (Norman, 1992). A useful study of early Maya scholars is R. L. Brunhouse, In Search of the Maya: The First Archaeologists (Albuquerque, 1973). See also Robert Wauchope, They Found the Buried Cities (Chicago, 1965); and Gordon Willey and Jeremy Sabloff, A History of American Archaeology (San Francisco, 1974).

English translations of Adrián Recino's Spanish versions of the highland Maya epic have been published by the University of Oklahoma Press at Norman: Popol Vuh (1950); and Annals of the Cakchiquels (1953). The latter also includes a translation of the Title of the Lords of Totonicapán. A more careful recent translation of the Popol Vuh, directly from the Quiché and using all available sources, is Munro Edmonson, The Book of Counsel, The Popol Vuh of the Quiché Maya of Guatemala (New Orleans, 1971). Ptolemy Tompkins, This Tree Grows out of Hell: Mesoamerica and the Search for the Magical Body (San Francisco, 1990), is a highly interpretive synthesis of ritual, belief, and philosophy that draws on Mayan symbolism and iconography of the classic lowland Maya and the Popol Vuh of the 16th-century Quiché. Robert Carmack has provided a detailed study of written sources for Quichean history in his Quichean Civilization: The Ethnohistorical, Ethnographic, and Archaeological Sources (Berkeley, 1973) and The Quiché Mayas of Utatlán, the Evolution of a Highland Guatemalan Kingdom(Norman, 1981). See also Carmack and D. T. Wallace, eds., Archaeology and Ethnology of the Central Quiché (Albany, 1976); and J. W. Fox, Quiché Conquest: Centralism and Regionalism in Highland Guatemalan State Development (Albuquerque, 1978). On the Pacific coastal region, see Frederick Bove, Formative settlement patterns on the Pacific Coast of Guatemala: A Spatial Analysis of Complex Societal Evolution (Oxford, 1989). Payson Sheets (ed.), Archaeology and Volcanism in Central America: The Zapotitlan Valley of El Salvador (Austin, 1983) is an anthology of original articles on the effects volcanic activity on El Salvadoran culture. On the frequently-neglected region of southeastern Central America Frederick Lange and other distinguished scholars collaborated on The Archaeology of Pacific Nicaragua (Albuquerque, 1992). Frederick Lange and Doris Stone, Archaeology of Lower Central America(Albuquerque, 1984), is another important collection of papers on that region, as is William R. Fowler (ed.), The Formation of Complex Society in Southeastern Mesoamerica (Boca Raton, Fla., 1991). Fowler deals with the Pipiles of El Salvador in The Cultural Evolution of Ancient Nahua Civilizations: The Pipils-Nicarao of Central America (Norman, 1989). T. P. Culbert and D. S. Rice (eds.), Precolumbian Population History in the Maya Lowlands (Albuquerque, 1990), deals with Copán, Quiriguá, Tikal, and other sites in the central Petén region.

A guide to the archaeology of Central America, with many pictures, is Claude Baudez, Central America (London, 1970). See also Joyce Kelly, The Complete Visitor's Guide to Mesoamerican Ruins (Norman, 1982). There is much excellent scholarship on Mayan ruins and relics. Frederick Lange (ed.), Precolumbian Jade: New Geological and Cultural Interpretations (Salt Lake City, 1993), is a monumental work on the history and role of jade in the region. Tatiana Proscouriakoff, A Study of Classic Maya Sculpture (Washington, 1950), remains among the most useful of volumes. For a guide to Belizean ruins see Anabel Ford, The Ancient Maya of Belize: Their Society and Sites (Santa Barbara, Calif., 1994). Two especially noteworthy photographic renderings of Maya ruins and relics are Merle Greene's rubbings, Maya Sculpture (Berkeley, 1972); and Francis Robicsek, Copán, Home of the Mayan Gods (N. Y., 1972). On Honduras, the best general work is Robert R. Reyes Mazzoni, Introducción a la arqueología de Honduras, 2 vols. (Tegucigalpa, 1976). P. F. Healy, Archaeology of the Rivas Region, Nicaragua (Waterloo, Ont.,1980) is a detailed description of a section of the Pacific coastal plain. On Costa Rica, see Doris Stone, Pre-Columbian Man in Costa Rica (Cambridge, Mass., 1977); Luis Ferrero Acosta, Costa Rica precolumbina (2d ed., 1977); and Oscar M. Fonseca Z., Historia antigua de Costa Rica: Surgimiento y caracterización de la primera civilización costarricense (San José, 1992).

A useful map of Mesoamerica extending from Mexico through Honduras and El Salvador, is the National Geographic Society, Archaeological Map of Middle America (Washington, n.d.), scale 1:2,250,000.

C. The Hispanic Period (1502-1821)

Murdo MacLeod, Spanish Central America (Berkeley, 1973), and Miles Wortman, Government and Society in Central America (N.Y., 1982), provide a survey of colonial Central American history. Both have ample bibliographies. A useful guide to Panamanian colonial history is Carlos Manuel Gasteazoro, Introducción al estudio de la historia de Panamá: Fuentes de la época hispánica(2d ed., Panamá, 1990), and a major work on colonial Panama is Christopher Ward, Imperial Panama: Commerce and Conflict in Isthmian America, 1550-1800 (Albuquerque, 1993). A more general colonial history of Panama is C. A. Araúz and Patricia Pizzurno, El Panamá hispano, 1501-1821 (Panamá, 1991). Note also that several of the works mentioned in Section III-A are principally histories of the Spanish period.

There are several major chronicles and contemporary accounts of the colonial period. Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés, Historia general y natural de las Indias (5 vols., Madrid, 1959), originally published in the mid-16th century, is a passionate account of the conquest of the isthmus by an arch foe of Pedrarias. Bartolomé de las Casas tells his story in the polemical Breve relación de la destrucción de las Indias Occidentales (México, 1957) and in the more historical Historia de las Indias (3 vols., México, 1965). The Colección Somoza(17 vols., Madrid, 1955-57), edited by Andrés Vega Bolaños, provides documents on Nicaragua during the first half of the 16th century. The first major history of Central America was that of Antonio de Remesal, Historia general de las Indias Occidentales, y particular de la Gobernación de Chiapa y Guatemala (2 vols., México, 1988), first published in 1619. Toribio de Motolinia, Memorias e historia de los indios de la Nueva España (Madrid, 1970), or History of the Indians of New Spain (Washington, 1950), also includes some description of Central America. A fuller description is found in the fifth book of Antonio Vásquez de Espinosa, Compendium and Description of the West Indies (Madrid, 1969). An important description of the Vera Paz and Lacandón region of Guatemala is the 1635 account by Martin Alfonso Tovilla, Relaciones histórico-descriptivas de la Verapaz, el Manché y Lacandón, en Guatemala (Guatemala, 1960). The late-17th-century work of Francisco Antonio de Fuentes y Guzmán, Recordación florida (2 vols., Guatemala, 1933), offers great detail on the social and economic life of the kingdom. Long delayed in publication, the chronicle of a Dominican friar, Francisco Ximénez, Historia de la provincia de San Vicente de Chiapa y Guatemala (3 vols., Guatemala, 1967), was written about 1700. Francisco Vásquez, Crónica de la Provincia del Santísimo Nombre de Jesús de Guatemala(4 vols., Guatemala, 1937-44), treats the history of the Franciscan order in Guatemala through the 17th century. Jaime Incer Barquero, Nicaragua, viajes, rutas y encuentros, 1502-1838: Historia de las exploraciones y descubrimientos, antes de ser Estado independiente, con observaciones sobre su geografía, etnia y naturaleza (San José, 1990), uses a variety of European forays into Nicaragua through the early 19th century to describe the physical appearance of the country. A valuable work of an 18th-century Guatemalan archbishop is Pedro Cortés y Larraz, Descripción geográfico-moral de la Diócesis de Goathemala, 1768-1770(2 vols., Guatemala, 1958). Antonio Gutiérrez y Ulloa describes the province of San Salvador as it was in 1807 in Estado general de la provincia de San Salvador(San Salvador, 1962). Near the close of the colonial era Domingo Juarros wrote his informative Compendio de la historia de la ciudad de Guatemala (2 vols., Guatemala, 1936), which is considerably more than just a history of the capital city. Soon thereafter, a translation by John Baily provided an abridged English edition, A Statistical and Commercial History of the Kingdom of Guatemala(London, 1823).

Of the traditional histories of Central America the most well known is José Milla and Augustín Gómez Carillo, Historia de la América Central desde 1502 hasta 1821 (5 vols., Madrid, 1892-1905). The first two volumes, written by Milla, cover the period through 1686. Another informative work, written soon after independence, is that of Archbishop Francisco de Paula García Peláez, Memoria para la historia del antiguo Reyno de Guatemala (3 vols., Guatemala, 1851-52). The burst of historical writing around the close of the 19th century produced several colonial surveys in addition to the Bancroft volumes. Some, such as M. M. de Peralta, Costa Rica, Nicaragua y Panamá en el siglo XVI, su historia y sus límites (San José, 1883), were stimulated by the boundary disputes among the states. Among those on Costa Rica is León Fernández, Historia de Costa Rica durante la dominación española (Madrid, 1889). A Honduran perspective came from Eduardo Martínez, Historia de Centro América (Tegucigalpa, 1907); and a Salvadoran one from Santiago Barberena, Historia de El Salvador (2 vols., San Salvador, 1914-17). Ayón's Historia de Nicaragua, mentioned above, is still a standard for colonial Nicaragua. Later, Nicaraguan Sofonías Salvatierra, Contribución a la historia de Centro-América (2 vols., Managua, 1939), offered some new materials and viewpoints, particularly on economic history, based on his research in Spain. J. Antonio Villacorta Calderón, Historia de la Capitanía General de Guatemala (Guatemala, 1942), became the standard colonial history at mid-century. More recent works, notably André Saint-Lu, Condition colonial et conscience créole au Guatemala (1524-1821) (Paris, 1970); Severo Martínez Peláez, La patria del criollo: Ensayo de interpretación de la realidad colonial guatemalteca (Guatemala, 1970); Germán Romero Vargas, Estructuras sociales de Nicaragua en el siglo XVIII (Managua, 1988); and Lowell Gudmundson, Estratificación socio-racial y económica de Costa Rica: 1700-1850(San José, 1978), have emphasized the social history to a greater degree than older works and have explored the development of the creole mentality. Costa Rica's colonial history has been further elucidated by Claudia Quirós, Historia de Costa Rica: La era de la encomienda (San José, 1990); and Eugenia Ibarra Rojas, Las sociedades cacicales de Costa Rica (siglo XVI) (San José, 1990). A more traditional new history of colonial Guatemala is José Antonio Móbil and Ariel Déleon Meléndez, Guatemala: Su pueblo y su historia (Guatemala, 1991). Mario Monteforte Toledo, et al. Las formas y los días: El barroco en Guatemala (Madrid, 1989), approaches the colonial social structure through its artistic production. A careful and useful study of colonial scribes is Jorge Luján Muñoz, Los escribanos en las Indias Occidentales y en particular en el Reino de Guatemala (Guatemala, 1977).

There are several accounts of the discovery and conquest of Central America. See J. H. Parry and R. J. Keith (eds.), New Iberian World, A Documentary History of the Discovery and Settlement of Latin America to the Early 17th Century (5 vols., N.Y., 1984), especially Vol. 3, Central America and Mexico, for commentary and a large collection of contemporary documents translated to English. C. L. G. Anderson, Old Panama and Castilla de Oro(Washington, 1911) surveys the exciting early days in Panama, supplemented by his Life and Letters of Vasco Núñez de Balboa (Westport, Conn., 1941); Kathleen Romoli, Balboa of Darien (Garden City, N.Y., 1953); and Octavio Méndez Perreira, Núñez de Balboa, el tesoro del Dabaibe (2d ed., Buenos Aires, 1943). Mary Helms, Ancient Panama, Chiefs in Search of Power (Austin, 1979), relates the history of Panamanian Indian elites during the Spanish conquest. Pablo Alvarez Rubiano wrote a documentary history on Pedrarias Dávila (Madrid, 1944). S. J. Mackie edited Pedro de Alvarado's Account of the Conquest of Guatemala in 1524 (N.Y., 1924), and J. E. Kelly wrote a popular biography, Pedro de Alvarado, Conquistador (Port Washington, N.Y., 1932). More thorough is Adrián Recinos, Pedro de Alvarado, Conquistador de México y Guatemala (México, 1952); and J. M. García Aoveras, Pedro de Alvarado(Madrid, 1986). Also relevant are Robert Chamberlain, Conquest and Colonization of Yucatán, 1517-1550 (Washington, 1948) and Conquest and Colonization of Honduras, 1502-1550 (Washington, 1953); Frans Blom, The Conquest of Yucatán (Boston, 1936); R. H. Valle, Crístobal de Olid, conquistador de México y Honduras (México, 1950); and Ricardo Fernández Guardia, Historia of the Discovery and Conquest of Costa Rica (N.Y., 1913). More recently, Carlos Meléndez, Juan Vásquez de Coronado, conquistador y fundador de Costa Rica(San José, 1966); and Víctor Urbano, Juan Vásquez de Coronado y su ética en la conquista de Costa Rica (Madrid, 1968), are both excellent biographies of the conqueror of Costa Rica. Carlos Molina Montes de Oca, Garcimuñoz: La ciudad que nunca murió; los primeros cien días de Costa Rica (San José, 1993), details the early settlement efforts in the western half of the Central Valley.

Among the most valuable of studies of the conquest and early colonization period are Sherman's Forced Native Labor in Sixteenth-Century Central America(Lincoln, 1979); Peter Gerhard, The Southeast Frontier of New Spain (Princeton, 1979); Linda Newson, Indian Survival in Colonial Nicaragua (Norman, 1987), and The Cost of Conquest: Indian Decline in Honduras under Spanish Rule(Boulder, 1986); Salvador Rodríguez Becerra, Encomienda y conquista: Los inicios de la colonización en Guatemala (Sevilla, 1977); Wendy Kramer, Encomienda Politics in Early Colonial Guatemala, 1524-1544: Dividing the Spoils (Boulder, 1994); and Murdo MacLeod and Robert Wasserstrom (eds.), Spaniards and Indians in Southeastern Mesoamerica: Essays on the History of Ethnic Relations (Lincoln, 1983). Much can be learned, too, from Nancy Farris' monumental Maya Society under Colonial Rule: The Collective Enterprise of Survival(Princeton, 1984). Other useful works on the period include Grant Jones, Maya Resistance to Spanish Rule: Time and History on a Colonial Frontier(Albuquerque, 1989); Severo Martínez Peláez, Motines de indios: La violencia colonial en Centroamérica y Chiapas (Puebla, 1985); Elías Zamora Acosta, Los mayas de las tierras altas en el siglo XVI: Tradición y cambio en Guatemala(Sevilla, 1985); Karl Sapper, The Verapaz in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries(Los Angeles, 1985); Juan Contreras y López de Ayala, Vida del segoviano Rodrigo de Contreras, gobernador de Nicaragua (1534-1544) (Toledo, 1920), with its large documentary appendix; Rodolfo Barón Castro, Reseña histórica de la villa de San Salvador (2d ed., 1996), thoroughly documented, but covering only the period 1525-46; Carlos Molina Argüello, El gobernador de Nicaragua en el siglo XVI (Sevilla, 1949); Leticia Oyuela, Un siglo en la hacienda: Estancias y haciendas ganaderas en la antigua Alcaldía Mayor de Tegucigalpa, 1670-1850 (Tegucigalpa, 1994); Ernesto Alvarado García, Los forjadores de la Honduras colonial (Tegucigalpa, 1928), and El significado histórico de la ciudad de Gracias (Tegucigalpa, 1936); and María del Carmen Mena García, La sociedad de Panamá en el siglo XVI (Sevilla, 1984). Héctor M. Leyva(comp.), Documentos coloniales de Honduras (Tegucigalpa, 1991), is a valuable collection of colonial documents from Spanish and Guatemalan archives, along with an index to other documents published elsewhere. A valuable collection of documents from the A.G.I. on colonial Panama is C. F. Jopling, Indios y negros en Panamá en los siglos XVI y XVII: Selecciones de los documentos del Archivo General de Indias (South Woodstock, Vt., and Antigua Guatemala, 1994). Manuel Rubio Sánchez, in the first (and only) volume of his Historia del Ejército de Guatemala: Siglo XVI-- antecedentes (Guatemala: 1987), relates the military history of Central America from the Spanish conquest to defense of isthmus against early foreign interlopers.

International rivalry has been the subject of extensive historical writing, although considerably more attention has been paid to the Caribbean island areas than to the mainland. Of particular utility for students of Central America are R. A. Humphreys, Diplomatic History of British Honduras, 1638-1901 (London, 1961); J. A. Calderón Quijano, Belice, 1663(?)-1821 (Sevilla, 1944); and Troy Floyd, The Anglo-Spanish Struggle for Mosquitia (Albuquerque, 1967). John Prebble, The Darien Disaster (N.Y. , 1968), is the most complete of a stream of works on William Paterson's ill-fated isthmian colony. Pedro Pérez Valenzuela made notable contributions with Historia de piratas: Los aventoras del mar en la América Central (Guatemala, 1936), and Santo Tomás de Castilla: Apuntes para la historia de las colonizaciones en la costa atlántica(Guatemala, 1955). On slavery and the slave trade, see Rafael Leiva Vivas, Tráfico de esclavos negros a Honduras (Tegucigalpa, 1982); and Pedro Tobar Cruz, La esclavitud del negro en Guatemala (Guatemala, 1953).

Several studies of colonial institutions offer glimpses into life and society in the kingdom. Silvio Zavala, Contribución a la historia de las instituciones coloniales en Guatemala (5th ed., Guatemala, 1986), deals with labor institutions in the colonial period and compares them with those of México. L. B. Simpson, The Repartimiento System of Native Labor in New Spain and Guatemala(Berkeley, 1938), is a brief but classic description of the system in Guatemala. Manuel Rubio Sánchez, Alcaldes mayores (2 vols., San Salvador, 1979), is a thorough study of El Salvador's colonial alcaldes mayores, justicias mayores, governors, intendents, corregidores, and jefes políticos. H. H. Samayoa Guevara made significant contributions with his Implantación del régimen de intendencias en el Reino de Guatemala (Guatemala, 1960) and Los gremios de artesanos en la ciudad de Guatemala, 1524-1821 (Guatemala, 1962). M. A. Burkholder and D. S. Chandler, From Impotence to Authority: The Spanish Crown and the American Audiencias, 1687-1808 (Columbia, Mo., 1977), describe the 18th-century trend toward greater peninsular authority in the Guatemalan and other audiencias. Ernesto Chinchilla Aguilar has described El ayuntamiento colonial de la ciudad de Guatemala (Guatemala, 1961). R. J. Shafer, Economic Societies in the Spanish World, 1763-1821 (Syracuse, N.Y., 1958), has an excellent chapter on the Guatemalan sociedad económica, but more detail is provided in J. L. Reyes M., Apuntes para una monografía de la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País(Guatemala, 1964), and Elisa Luque Alcaide, La sociedad económica de amigos del país de Guatemala (Sevilla, 1962). R. L. Woodward details the role of the merchant guild in Privilegio de clase y desarrollo económico, Guatemala 1793-1871 (San José, 1981), with documentary appendices not included in the 1966 English edition. Marco Antonio Falla, La factoria de tabacos de Costa Rica (San José, 1972), and V. H. Acuña Ortega, Historia económica del tabaco: Epoca colonial (San José, 1974), are both useful studies of the tobacco industry in Costa Rica.

J. C. Pinto Soria has written a number of interesting studies on Guatemala's colonial development, which are synthesized in his Raices históricas del estado en Centroamérica (2d ed., Guatemala, 1983). See also Pinto's brilliant essay, El valle central de Guatemala, 1524-1821: Un análisis acerca del origen histórico-económico del regionalismo en Centroamérica (Guatemala, 1988); and Pinto and Edelberto Torres-Rivas, Problemas en la formación del estado nacional en Centroamérica (San José, 1983). Stephen Webre, ed., La sociedad colonial en Guatemala: Estudios regionales y locales (Antigua Guatemala, 1989), brings together seven diverse and perceptive studies on aspects of colonial life. George Lovell, Conquest and Survival in Colonial Guatemala (Montreal, 1992) is a splendid history of the Cuchumatán highlands in the colonial period. A useful work on colonial land and settlement in Costa Rica is Carlos Meléndez, Costa Rica, tierra y poblamiento en la colonia (San José, 1977). Other important regional studies include Germán Romero Vargas, Las sociedades del Atlántico de Nicaragua en los siglos XVII y XVIII (Managua, 1995), and Alberto Osorio Osorio, Chiriquí en su historia, 1502-1903 (2 vols., Panamá, 1988). Manuel Rubio Sánchez made major contributions to the economic history of the isthmus with his studies, based on thorough archival research, on Comercio terrestre de y entre las provincias de Centroamérica (Guatemala, 1973); Historia del añil o xiquilite en Centro América (2 vols., San Salvador, 1976); Historia del cultivo de la grana o cochinilla en Guatemala (Guatemala, 1994); Historia del puerto de la Santísima Trinidad de Sonsonate o Acajutla (San Salvador, 1977); Historia del Puerto de Trujillo (3 vols., Tegucigalpa, 1975); and Historia de El Realejo(Managua, 1975). Francisco de Solano, in addition to his highly significant Tierra y sociedad en el Reino de Guatemala (Guatemala, 1977), and several detailed articles on the 18th-century economy, has written Los Maya del siglo XVIII(Madrid, 1976). Richmond Brown has analyzed the remarkable career of the founder of the House of Aycinena in Guatemala, Juan Fermín de Aycinena, Central American Colonial Entrepreneur, 1729-1796 (Norman, 1997), greatly extending a pioneering chapter on the Aycinenas by Miles Wortman in Notable Family Networks in Latin America (Chicago, 1984).

Christopher Lutz's demographic study Santiago de Guatemala, 1541-1773(Norman, 1994), has been supplemented by a series of studies done in collaboration with William Swezey, George Lovell, and others. A splendid guide to the literature on colonial Central American demographic history is Lovell and Lutz, Demography and Empire: A Guide to the Population History of Spanish Central America, 1500-1821 (Boulder, 1995). Also, Lutz and Karen Dakin, have compiled Nuestro pesar, nuestra aflicción: Tunetuliniliz, tucucuca; memorias en lengua náhuatl enviadas a Felipe II por indígenas del Valle de Guatemala hacia 1572 (México. 1996), a collection of 22 Nahuatl-language memorias sent to the Crown by citizens of indigenous communities around Santiago de Guatemala. Sidney Markman, Architecture and Urbanization of Colonial Central America (2 vols. Tempe, Az., 1993-95) is a compilation of primary documentary and literary sources and a geographical gazetteer of both literary and visual sources. J. J. Pardo, Efemérides de la Antigua Guatemala, 1541-1779 (3d ed., Guatemala, 1984), is a very extensive chronology of events relating to the city's history. The standard work on the architecture of that city is Sidney Markman's Colonial Architecture of Antigua Guatemala(Philadelphia, 1966), but V. L. Annis, The Architecture of Antigua Guatemala, 1543-1773(Guatemala, 1968), is also a beautifully illustrated guide, and Luis Luján Muoz, El arquitecto mayor Diego de Porres, 1677-1741 (Guatemala, 1982), is a fine study of the life and work of a major colonial architect. Other important contributions to colonial urban history include D. T. Kinkead, ed. Urbanization in Colonial Central America (Sevilla, 1985), and Pedro Pérez Valenzuela, La nueva Guatemala de Asunción (2d ed., 2 vols., Guatemala, 1964), which details the 1773 destruction of the Guatemalan capital and its move to its present location. Other useful works on this topic are María Cristina Zilbermann de Luján, Aspectos socioeconómicos del traslado de la Ciudad de Guatemala (1773-1783) (Guatemala, 1987); Gisela Gellert and J. C. Pinto Soria, Ciudad de Guatemala: dos estudios sobre su evolución urbana, 1524-1950(Guatemala, 1990); and Inge Langenberg, Urbanisation und Bevölkerungsstructur der Stadt Guatemala in der ausgehenden Kolonialzeit: Eine sozialhistorische Analyse der Stadtverlegung und ihrer Auswirkungen auf die demographische, berufliche, und soziale Gliederung der Bevölkerung (1773-1824) (Köln, 1981), a more thorough sociodemographic study of the early history of Nueva Guatemala. José Reina Valenzuela, Comayagua antañona, 1537-1821(Tegucigalpa, 1968), and Carlos Meléndez, La ciudad de Lodo: Cartago (San José, 1964), are among the few descriptions of colonial cities in the rest of Central America, along with Irma Leticia de Oyuela, Historia mínima de Tegucigalpa: Vista a través de las fiestas del patrono San Miguel a partir de 1680 hasta fines del siglo XIX (Tegucigalpa, 1989), which traces Tegucigalpa's history from the 16th through the 19th centuries.

The colonial Church has received much attention from historians, although they have been hindered by the inaccessibility of ecclesiastical archives in Central America. The most important recent work in this area is Adriaan C. van Oss, Catholic Colonialism: A Parish History of Guatemala, 1524-1821 (Cambridge, 1986). Also important is Nancy Johnson Black, The Frontier Mission and Social Transformation in Western Honduras: the Order of Our Lady of Mercy, 1525-1773 (Leiden, 1995). In addition, the first volume of a projected, 4-volume, official history by Luis Diez de Arriba, Historia de la iglesia católica en Guatemala (Guatemala, 1988), covers the colonial period. Diez de Arriba has also published a work on the history of the Esquipulas shrine, Esquipulas: 400 años: "fe blanca en un Cristo negro" (Guatemala, ca. 1996). Lewis Hanke, The Spanish Struggle for Justice in the Conquest of America (Philadelphia, 1949), is the best introduction to the voluminous work on Bartolomé de Las Casas, but see also H. R. Wagner and H. R. Parish, The Life and Writings of Bartolomé de las Casas (Albuquerque, 1967). On Guatemala's Bethlehemite order, see José García de la Concepción, Historia betlemítica (Sevilla, 1723; 2d ed., Guatemala, 1956); David Vela, El Hermano Pedro en la vida y en las letras(Guatemala, 1935); and Mario Gilberto González R., El pedagogo de la caridad (Guatemala, 1982). Among other studies on the Church, see Ernesto Chinchilla Aguilar, La inquisición en Guatemala (Guatemala, 1953); Andrés Saint Lu, La Vera Paz, esprit évangelique et colonisation(Paris, 1968); Heinrich Berlin, Historia de la imaginería colonial en Guatemala (Guatemala, 1952); and María Concepción Amerlinck, Las catedrales de Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala (México, 1981). For Honduras, see José Reina Valenzuela, José, Historia eclesiástica de Honduras. Tomo 1, 1502-1600 (Tegucigalpa, 1983); and J. M. Tojeira, Panorama histórico de la Iglesia en Honduras (Tegucigalpa, 1986); for Nicaragua, Edgar Zúñiga C., Historia eclesiástica de Nicaragua. v. 1, La cristianidad colonial, 1524-1821 (Managua, 1982). The church in colonial Costa Rica has been dealt with by Ricardo Blanco Segura, Historia eclesiástica de Costa Rica: del descubrimiento a la erección de la diócesis, 1502-1850 (2d ed., San José, 1983), and Víctor Sanabria Martínez, Reseña histórica de la Iglesia en Costa Rica desde 1502 hasta 1850 (San José, 1984).

The intellectual history of colonial Central America is reviewed in Constantino Láscaris Comneno, Historia de las ideas en Centroamérica (San José, 1970). Carlos Meléndez provides a brief survey of the 18th century in La ilustración en el antiguo reino de Guatemala (San José, 1970). See also John T. Lanning's two classic works, The University in the Kingdom of Guatemala(Ithaca, 1955), and The Eighteenth-Century Enlightenment in the University of San Carlos de Guatemala (Ithaca, 1956), on colonial academic life and its role the society; and T. B. Irving, "On the Enlightenment in Central America," in A. O. Owen, ed. The Ibero-American Enlightenment (Urbana, 1971).

D. Independence (1800-1823)

The best introduction to the period of independence is Mario Rodríguez, The Cádiz Experiment(Berkeley, 1978), which goes considerably beyond J. M. García Laguardia's perceptive Orígenes de la democracia constitucional en Centroamérica (San José, 1971) and his documentary collection, La genesis del constutcionalismo guatemalteco (Guatemala, 1971). Also very useful as an overview of the period and for its perceptive interpretations is J. C. Pinto Soria, Centroamérica: De la colonia al Estado nacional, 1800-1840 (Guatemala, 1986), but for a more traditional view see Carlos Meléndez, La independencia de Centroamérica (Madrid, 1993). A detailed and scholarly treatment of the period is also provided by Oscar Benítez Porta, Secessión pacífica de Guatemala de España (Guatemala, 1973). In contrast to Benítez, Arturo Valdés Oliva, Centro América alcanzó la libertad al precio de su sangre (Guatemala, 1965), emphasizes the violence of the period. Still useful, also, is Ramón Salazar's narrative Historia de veintiún años (Guatemala, 1928) and his collection of biographical essays, Los hombres de la independencia (Guatemala, 1899), several of which have been more recently reprinted. H. H. Samayoa Guevara, Ensayos sobre la independencia de Centroamérica (Guatemala, 1972), deals with several themes in the period leading to independence, including studies of Alejandro Ramírez and Fray Matías de Córdova. Bernabé Fernández Hernández, El Reino de Guatemala durante el gobierno de Antonio González Saravia, 1801-1811 (Guatemala, 1993) is a detailed study of one of the last Spanish Governors of the kingdom. See also Francisco Peccorini Letona, La voluntad del pueblo en la emancipación de El Salvador (San Salvador, 1972); Chester Zelaya, Nicaragua en la independencia (San José, 1971); Ricardo Fernández Guardia, La independencia: Historia de Costa Rica (3d ed., San José, 1971); Rafael Obregón, Costa Rica en la independencia y la federación (San José, 1977); and Guillermo Mayes, Honduras en la independencia de Centro América y anexión a México(Tegucigalpa, 1931). More detailed on Honduras is Antonio Vallejo, Compendio de la historia social y política de Honduras (2d ed., Tegucigalpa, 1926), which treats only the period 1811-29. See also Pedro Zamora Castellanos, El grito de la independencia(Guatemala, 1935); and Virgilio Rodríguez B., Ideología de la independencia (Paris, 1926). Covering a much broader period of the transition from colony to independent state, is the superb work on the Guatemalan western highlands of Arturo Taracena Arriola, Invención criolla, sueño ladino, pesadilla indígena. Los Altos de Guatemala: De región a Estado, 1740-1850(Guatemala, 1997).

R. H. Valle compiled documents relative to annexation to Mexico in La anexión de Centro América a México (6 vols., México, 1924-49). H. G. Peralta, Agustín Iturbide y Cosa Rica (2d ed., San José, 1968), focusses on the period with particular reference to Costa Rica. Francisco Barnoya Gálvez, Fray Ignacio Barnoya, prócer ignorado (Guatemala, 1967), details the efforts of a Catalonian friar who played an active, if unsuccessful, role in preventing the separation of Chiapas from Guatemala. César Brañas, Antonio Larrazábal, un guatemalteco en la historia (2 vols., Guatemala, 1969), provides a detailed, but undocumented account of a key figure of the Cádiz period. Other useful biographical works covering the period include Carlos Meléndez' anthology, Próceres de la independencia centroamericana (San José, 1971); and Arturo Aguilar, Hombres de la independencia en Nicaragua y Costa Rica (León, 1939). Enrique del Cid Fernández, Don Gabino de Gaínza y otros estudios (Guatemala, 1959), treats Spain's last Central American governor. Rubén Leyton Rodríguez traces the careers of José Cecilio del Valle and Pedro Molina in Valle, padre del panamericanismo (Guatemala, 1955), and Doctor Pedro Molina, o Centro América y su prócer (Guatemala, 1958). The most enlightening book on del Valle's role is Louis Bumgartner, José del Valle (Durham, N.C., 1963), but Ramón Rosa's late-19th-century Biografía de José Cecilio del Valle (Tegucigalpa, 1971), still has utility, as do the newer Central American interpretations of Pedro Tobar Cruz, Valle, el hombre--el político--el sabio (Guatemala, 1961), and Ramón López Jiménez, José Cecilio del Valle, Fouché de Centro América (Guatemala, 1968). Rosa's study appeared originally as an introduction to the collection he edited with Rómulo E. Durón, Obras de D. José Cecilio del Valle (Tegucigalpa, 1906 [1914]). Molina's and Valle's important periodicals, Editor Constitucionaland El Amigo de la Patria, were reprinted in Guatemala in 1969.

Considerable work has been done, especially by Salvadorans, on José Matías Delgado. Notable among these works are M. A. Durán, Ausencia y presencia de José Matías Delgado en el proceso emancipador (San Salvador, 1961); Rodolfo Barón Castro, José Matías Delgado y el movimiento insurgente de 1811 (San Salvador, 1962); Ramón López Jiménez, José Matías Delgado y de León: Su personalidad, su obra y su destino (San Salvador, 1962); Carlos Meléndez, El presbítero y doctor don José Matías Delgado en la forja de la nacionalidad centroamericana (San Salvador, 1962); and J. S. Guandique, Presbítero y doctor José Matías Delgado (San Salvador, 1962). Roberto Turcios, Los primeros patriotas: San Salvador, 1811(San Salvador, 1995) deals with the first attempt at independence in San Salvador. Carlos Meléndez and José Villalobos have shed considerable light on Costa Rican events during the period in their brief but valuable biography of the neglected Costa Rican military and naval leader, Gregorio José Ramírez (San José, 1973).

E. The Nineteenth Century (1823-1900)

The best-known history of 19th-century Central America was Guatemalan Lorenzo Montúfar's Reseña histórica de Centro América (7 vols., Guatemala, 1878-87). Although Montúfar vehemently proclaimed his objectivity, his Liberal bias is obvious throughout the work, which extends only to 1860. Subsequent histories, including Bancroft, relied heavily on Montúfar, and the influence of his interpretations has thus been very great. Somewhat more balanced, but also devoted almost exclusively to political history is J. A. Villacorta Calderón, Historia de la República de Guatemala (Guatemala, 1960). Useful accounts of individual states in the 19th century are headed by J. L. Vega Carballo, Orden y progreso: La formación del Estado nacional en Costa Rica (San José, 1981); Lowell Gudmundson, Costa Rica Before Coffee: Society and Economy on the Eve of the Export Boom (Baton Rouge, 1986); Yamileth González García, Continuidad y cambio en la historia agraria de Costa Rica (San José, 1989); Iván Molina Jiménez, Costa Rica (1800-1850): El legado colonial y la génesis del capitalismo (San José, 1991); Bradford Burns, Patriarch and Folk (Cambridge, Mass., 1991); R. L. Woodward, Rafael Carrera and the Emergence of the Republic of Guatemala (Athens, Ga., 1993); Héctor Lindo-Fuentes, Weak Foundations: The Economy of El Salvador in the Nineteenth Century(Berkeley, 1990); Ramiro Colindres O. and Oscar A. Valladares., Breve historia de Honduras: 1821-1876 (Tegucigalpa, 1989); Pablo Yankelevich, Honduras(México, 1988), which covers from the late 18th to the mid-20th century; and C. A. Araúz and Patricia Pizzurno Gelós, El Panamá colombiano, 1821-1903(Panamá, 1993). McCreery's Rural Guatemala, 1760-1940(Stanford, 1994) is a major work on Guatemala, as is Julio Castellanos Cambranes, Café y campesinos en Guatemala, 1853-1897 (Guatemala, 1985). Aldo Lauria's forthcoming An Agrarian Republic: Land, Commercial Agriculture, and the Politics of Peasants in El Salvador, 1780-1929 promises to be a similarly important for El Salvador. C. L. Fallas Monge, El movimiento obrero en Costa Rica, 1830-1902 (San José, 1983), is a thorough study of the foundations of labor organization in 19th-century Costa Rica. See also Mario Oliva Medina, Artesanos y obreros costarricenses, 1880-1914 (San José, 1985); and Vladimir de la Cruz, et al., Las Instituciones costarricenses del siglo XIX: Ensayos sobre la historia del desarrollo institucional de Costa Rica (San José, 1985). Michael Riekenberg, Zum Wandel von Herrschaft und Mentalität in Guatemala: ein Beitrag zur Sozialgeschichte Lateinamerikas (Köln, 1990), focusses on the 19th century in applying the theories of German sociologist Norbert Elias to Guatemala, emphasizing the role of mentalité as an agent of social discipline.

Studies of Francisco Morazán and the Central American federation dominate much of the historiography of the early years of independence. Andrés Townsend Ezcurra, Las Provincias Unidas de Centroamérica: Fundación de la República (2d ed., San José, 1973), details the events surrounding the declaration of independence and establishment of the republic. After Karnes, Failure of Union(2d ed., Tempe, Az., 1975), the most useful work on the attempted union is Alberto Herrarte, La unión de Centroamérica (2d ed., Guatemala, 1964). Also useful is Herrarte's brief summary, El federalismo en Centroamérica (San José, 1972); P. J. Chamorro y Zelaya, Historia de la federación de la América Central, 1823-1840 (Madrid, 1951); Rodrigo Facio, Trayectoria y crisis de la federación centroamericana (San José, 1949) and La federación de Centroamérica: Sus antecedentes, su vida y su disolución (San José, 1960); J. T. Calderón, El ejército federal de la República de Centroamérica (San Salvador, 1922); and Enrique Ortiz Colindres, La República Federal de Centroamérica a la luz del derecho internacional (San Salvador, 1963).

Nineteenth-century biographies of Morazán, notably Ramón Rosa, Historia de Francisco Morazán (Tegucigalpa, 1971); Lorenzo Montúfar, Morazán (San José, 1970); José Beteta, Morazán y la federación (Guatemala, 1888); and Eduardo Martínez López, Biografía del General Francisco Morazán(Tegucigalpa, 1931), firmly established the Liberal mythology around Morazán, a mythology which has died only slowly. A large number of 20th-century biographies have added relatively little to what those studies tell us. Exceptions include Miguel R. Ortega, Morazán: Laurel sin ocaso (3 vols., Tegucigalpa, 1988-92); J. A. Zúñiga Huete, Morazán, un representativo de la democracia americana (México, 1947); and Ricardo Dueñas, Biografía del General Francisco Morazán (San Salvador, 1962). The standard work in English is the brief work of R. S. Chamberlain, Francisco Morazán, Champion of Central American Federation(Miami, 1950). Three comparative studies, all with rather low scholarly standards, are Carlos Ferro, San Martín y Morazán (Tegucigalpa, 1971), favorable toward the Central American; and Clemente Marroquín Rojas, Francisco Morazán y Rafael Carrera (Guatemala, 1965), and Antonio Morales Baños, Morazán y Carrera o Liberales y Conservadores, 1821-1842(Guatemala, 1985), the latter two both attacking the Morazán myth. See also W. J. Griffith (ed.), "The Personal Archive of Francisco Morazán," Philological and Documentary Studies, Vol. 2, No. 6 (New Orleans, 1977), pp. 197-286; R. L. Woodward, "The Liberal-Conservative Debate in the Central American Federation, 1823-1840," in Vincent Peloso and Barbara Tenenbaum, Liberals, Politics, and Power: State Formation in Nineteenth-Century Latin America (Athens, Ga., 1996); and Jorge Luján Muñoz, Los partidos políticos en Guatemala desde la Independencia hasta el fin de la Federación (Guatemala, 1989).

Other biographical studies have offered greater enlightenment on the federation period. Treatment of Arce by Rolando Velásquez, Carácter, fisionomía y acciones de don Manuel José Arce (San Salvador, 1949), provides basic data, but Philip Flemion, "States Rights and Partisan Politics: Manuel José Arce and the Struggle for Central American Union," Hispanic American Historical Review 53 (1973), pp. 600-618, is more objective and offers a guide to additional sources. Adam Szazdi provides excellent insights into the period in his account of a foreign military adventurer, Nicolás Raoul y la República Federal de Centro-América(Madrid, 1958). Antonio Batres Jáuregui presents a brief but balanced view of El Dr. Mariano Gálvez y su época(2d ed., Guatemala, 1957), but J. L. Arriola offers greater depth in his Gálvez en la encrucijada(México, 1961). J. A. Domínguez Sosa, Las tribus nonualcas y su caudillo Anastasio Aquino(San José, 1984) is a well-documented study of the leader of the 1830s Indian uprising in El Salvador. John D. Browning, Vida e ideología de Antonio José de Irisarri (Guatemala, 1986) details the life and thought of an important Guatemalan writer and diplomat of the early 19th century. C. M. Obregón, Carrillo: Una época y un hombre, 1835-1842 (San José, 1989) describes the administration of Costa Rican caudillo Braulio Carrillo, while Alberto Sáenz Maroto, Braulio Carrillo, reformador agrícola de Costa Rica (San José, 1987) emphasizes his social and agrarian policies.

In addition to Arce's Memoria (4th ed., San Salvador, 1959), there are several useful memoirs of the period, notably the Liberal Memorias del Benemérito General Francisco Morazán (Paris, 1870), and Carlos Meléndez Ch. (comp.), Escritos del General Francisco Morazán (Tegucigalpa, 1996); Memorias del General Miguel García Granados (2 vols., Guatemala, 1893); and the Conservative Manuel Montúfar y Coronado, Memorias para la revolución de Centro América(Jalapa, México, 1832). The most useful contemporary accounts, however, are those of Alejandro Marure, Bosquejo histórico de las revoluciones de Centro América desde 1811 hasta 1834 (unfinished, Guatemala, 1837), and his sketchy chronology, Efemérides de los hechos notables acaecidos en la república de Centro-América desde 1821 hasta 1842 (Guatemala, 1844). Carlos Meléndez has compiled the Mensajes presidenciales, 1824-1906 (3 vols., San José, 1981) for Costa Rica; and J. F. Sáenz Carbonell has written the Historia diplomática de Costa Rica (1821-1910) (San José, 1995). Other helpful accounts of the early years of independence are J. A. Cevallos, Recuerdos salvadoreños (2d ed., San Salvador, 1964); Francisco Ortega, Nicaragua en los primeros años de su emancipación política (Paris, 1894); Rómulo Durón y Gamero, Historia de Honduras (Tegucigalpa, 1956), which covers only the 1820s, and Rodolfo Cerdas Cruz, Formación del estado en Costa Rica (2d ed., San José, 1978).

The Conservative years were largely neglected by the Liberal historians, but there has recently been renewed interest in the period. In addition to Woodward's Rafael Carrera (Athens, Ga., 1993), Douglass Sullivan-González, Piety, Power, and Politics: Religion and Nation-Formation in Guatemala, 1821-1871 (Pittsburgh, 1998), has concentrated on the Guatemalan Church in those years, and David Chandler, Juan José de Aycinena, idealista conservador de la Guatemala del siglo XIX (Antigua Guatemala, 1988) has elucidated the career of a leading member of the conservative elite. Lowell Gudmundson and Héctor Lindo-Fuentes, Central America, 1821-1871: Liberalism before Liberal Reform(Tuscaloosa, 1995), point to liberal tendencies even before the political dominance of the Liberals in the latter part of the century. On the church, see also Volume 2 of Luis Diez de Arriba, Historia de la Iglesia Católica en Guatemala (Guatemala, 1989). Rolando Sierra Fonseca, has recently made two important contributions to the ecclesiastical history of Honduras: Iglesia y liberalismo en Honduras en el siglo XIX(Tegucigalpa, 1993), and Fuentes y bibliografía para el estudio de la historia de la Iglesia de Honduras (Obispado Choluteca, 1993), an unannotated bibliography of more than 1600 items on Honduran church history. For El Salvador see Marcos R. Salinas, Relaciones entre Iglesia y Estado en la República de El Salvador, 1821-1871 (San Salvador, 1992). Several older, Guatemalan works provide detail and insight on the period, notably Pedro Tobar Cruz, Los montañeses (2 vols., Guatemala, 1959-71); Luis Beltranena Sinibaldi, Fundación de la República de Guatemala (Guatemala, 1971); Enrique del Cid Fernández, Origen, trama y desarrollo del movimiento que proclamó vitalicia la presidencia del General Rafael Carrera (Guatemala, 1966); and Ramón Salazar, Tiempo viejo, recuerdos de mi juventud (2d ed., Guatemala, 1957). Antonio Batres Jáuregui, José Batres Montúfar: Su tiempo y sus obras (Guatemala, 1910) and José Arzú, Pepe Batres íntimo: Su familia, su correspondencia, sus papeles(Guatemala, 1940), describe a key figure in the Carrera administration.

José Reina Valenzuela, José Trinidad Cabañas (Tegucigalpa, 1984), is a eulogistic treatment of the leading Morazanista in mid-19th-century Honduras. Franco Cerutti, Los Jesuitas en Nicaragua en el siglo XIX (San José, 1984), has dealt with an important aspect of Conservative rule in Nicaragua as well as ecclesiastical history. Patricia Vega, De la imprenta al periódico: Los inicios de la comunicación impresa en Costa Rica, 1821-1850 (San José, 1995), documents the history of the press in the early 19th century.

Historians--especially Nicaraguans, Costa Ricans, and North Americans--have paid inordinate attention to the William Walker filibustering episode. W. O. Scroggs, Filibusters and Financiers(N.Y., 1916), remains one of the best works on this topic, but Alejandro Bolaños Geyer, William Walker, the Gray-Eyed Man of Destiny (5 vols., Lake Saint Louis, Mo., 1988-91), provides the greatest detail on Walker. In his El filibustero Clinton Rollins (Managua, 1976), Bolaños exposes Rollins as a purely fictional creation of journalist H. C. Parkhurst. Among the enormous volume of other works on the life and times of Walker, Albert Carr, The World and William Walker (N.Y., 1963); Frederick Rosengarten, Freebooters Must Die (Wayne, Pa., 1976); R. E. May, The Southern Dream of a Caribbean Empire, 1854-1861 (2d ed., Athens, Ga., 1989); and C. H. Brown, Agents of Manifest Destiny, the Life and Times of the Filibusters (Chapel Hill, 1980), are the most useful. Among contemporary accounts, in addition to Walker's own The War in Nicaragua (Mobile & N.Y., 1860), the most revealing are W. V. Wells, Walker's Expedition to Nicaragua (N.Y., 1856); Peter Stout, Nicaragua, Past, Present and Future (Philadelphia, 1859); and Charles Doubleday, Reminiscences of the Filibuster War in Nicaragua (N.Y., 1886).

Works treating other aspects of foreign penetration form an important body of literature on 19th-century Central America. Central American relations with Great Britain, in a variety of contexts, are explained and analyzed in Mary Williams, Anglo-American Isthmian Diplomacy(Washington, 1916); Mario Rodríguez, A Palmerstonian Diplomat (Tucson, 1964); W. J. Griffith, Empires in the Wilderness (Chapel Hill, 1965); in two works by Robert Naylor, La influencia británica en el comercio centroamericano durante las primeras décadas de la independencia, 1821-1851 (Antigua Guatemala, 1988), and Penny-Ante Imperialism (Rutherford N.J., 1989); and Dozier, Nicaragua's Mosquito Shore(Tuscaloosa, 1985). A large collection of documents on the Mosquito Coast is Eleonore von Oertzen, et al. (eds.), The Nicaraguan Mosquitia in Historical Documents, 1844-1927: The Dynamics of Ethnic and Regional History (Berlin, 1990). Virgilio Rodríguez Beteta provides an unsympathetic Central American view of the British role in La política inglesa en Centro América durante el siglo XIX (Guatemala, 1963), while Andrés Vega Bolaños focuses on the British threats from Belize in 1840-42 in Los atentos del superintendente de Belice (Managua, 1971). Wayne Clegern, British Honduras, Colonial Dead End, 1859-1900 (Baton Rouge, 1967), focuses on the decline of Belize and the transfer of economic interests there from British to United States hegemony. Clegern also edited an enlightening 1887 memorandum of Alfred Maudslay to Lord Salisbury, Maudslay's Central America: A Strategic View in 1887 (New Orleans, 1962). Pablo Levy, Notas geográficas y económicas sobre la República de Nicaragua (2d ed., Managua, 1976), in a marvelous description of that country around 1870, reflects the substantial foreign interest there. Lester Langley, Struggle for the American Mediterranean: United States-European Rivalry in the Gulf-Caribbean, 1776-1904 (Athens, Ga., 1976), is an excellent overview. C. M. Obregón, El Río San Juan en la lucha de las potencias, 1821-1860 (San José, 1993), provides a Costa Rican perspective of the early struggle for a canal route through Nicaragua. Thomas Schoonover, The United States in Central America, 1860-1911: Episodes of Social Imperialism and Imperial Rivalry in the World System (Durham, N.C., 1991), offers a series of very interesting case examples. Schoonover also provides an excellent overview of German economic interests in Germany in Central America, Competitive Imperialism, 1821-1929 (Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 1998); and, with Ebba Schoonover, "Statistics for an Understanding of Foreign Intrusions into Central America from the 1820s to 1930," Anuario de Estudios Centroamericanos15:1(1989), pp. 93-118, and 16:1 (1990), pp. 135-56, a useful guide to statistical materials on 19th-century Central American trade. Watt Stewart, Keith and Costa Rica (Albuquerque, 1964), tells the story of the founder of the banana trade and beginnings of the United Fruit Company, and Mario Argueta has written a brief book on one of the giants of the banana industry, Bananos y política: Samuel Zemurray y la Cuyamel Fruit Company en Honduras (Tegucigalpa, 1989).

Interest in an interoceanic route was, of course, closely related to much of the foreign activity, especially in Nicaragua and Panama. Thomas Schoonover, "Imperialism in Middle America: United States, Britain, Germany, and France Compete for Transit Rights and Trade, 1820s-1920s," in Eagle Against Empire(Aix-en-Provence, 1983), 41-57, is an excellent overview. David Folkman, The Nicaragua Route (Salt Lake City, 1972), and J. H. Kemble, The Panama Route, 1848-1869 (Berkeley, 1943, reprinted, Columbia, S.C., 1990), are two excellent surveys of the efforts during the mid-19th century. Cyril Allen, France in Central America (N.Y., 1966), details the interesting career of French canal agent Felix Belly. For the French connection see James Skinner, France and Panama: The Unknown Years, 18941908 (N.Y., 1988). Special aspects of the story are dealt with ably in Ricardo Jinesta, El Canal de Nicaragua y los intereses de Costa Rica en la magna obra (San José, 1964), and J. L. Schott, Rails Across Panama: The Story of the Building of the Panama Railroad, 1849-1855 (N.Y., 1967). For an excellent study of elite attitudes in 19th-century Panama City, see Alfredo Figeroa Navarro, Dominio y sociedad en el Panama colombiano, 1821-1903 (Panama, 1978). A survey of Panama's 19th-century history is Alex Pérez-Venero, Before the Five Frontiers: Panama from 1821-1903 (N.Y., 1978). Another is Catalina Arrocha Graell, Historia de la independencia de Panamá: Sus antecedentes y sus causas, 1821-1903 (Panamá, 1953). Easily the best work on the building of the canal is David McCullough, Path Between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal, 1870-1914(N.Y., 1977). Gerstle Mack, The Land Divided (N.Y., 1944), remains one of the more thorough works covering isthmian canal projects.

A number of historians have occupied themselves with the Liberal Reform. Among the best books on the political development of Central America in this period and its relationship to the export of coffee is Robert Williams, Sates and Social Evolution (Chapel Hill, 1994). Jeffrey Paige, Coffee and Power: Revolution and the Rise of Democracy in Central America(Cambridge, Mass., 1997), offers another interpretation that concentrates more on the 20th century. Central American interpretations related to the rise of the coffee industry are found in Héctor Pérez Brignoli and Mario Samper K. (eds.), Tierra, café y sociedad: Ensayos sobre la historia agraria centroamericana (San José, 1994). Wayne Clegern, Origins of Liberal Dictatorship in Central America: Guatemala, 1865-1873 (Boulder, 1994), offers a unique introduction to the period as he analyzes the transition from Conservative to Liberal rule in Guatemala. Fernando González Davison, El régimen liberal en Guatemala, 1871-1944 (Guatemala, 1987), offers a convenient overview of the period. Deborah Yashar, Demanding Democracy: Reform and Reaction in Costa Rica and Guatemala, 1870s-1950s (Stanford, 1997), is a perceptive comparison of the two most influential states in the Liberal Reform and its effects well into the 20th century. Among several studies of Gerardo Barrios, especially notable is Italo López Vallecillos, Gerardo Barrios y su tiempo (2 vols., San Salvador, 1965). Rodolfo Cardenal, El poder eclesiástico en El Salvador, 1871-1931 (San Salvador, 1980), discusses Liberal policy toward the Church in El Salvador, while Rafael Guidos Véjar, El ascenso del militarismo en El Salvador (San Salvador, 1980), documents the military from 1871 to 1935. The traditional history of the Guatemalan Liberal Revolution is Mariano Zeceña, La revolución de 1871 y sus caudillos (Guatemala, 1898), but more recently J. M. García Laguardia, La reforma liberal(Guatemala, 1972), has provided an excellent description and analysis of the Guatemalan political experience. See also his El pensamiento liberal de Guatemala: Antología (San José, 1977). D. J. McCreery, Development and the State in Reforma Guatemala (Athens, Ohio, 1983), superbly describes the economic development philosophy and process under Justo Rufino Barrios, while H. J. Miller, La iglesia y el estado en Guatemala en el tiempo de Justo Rufino Barrios (Guatemala, 1976), details Barrios' anticlerical policies. In addition to several Guatemalan biographies of Barrios in Spanish, there is Paul Burgess, Justo Rufino Barrios (N.Y., 1926) in English. Roberto Díaz Castillo, comp., Legislación económica de Guatemala durante la reforma liberal(Guatemala, 1973), catalogues the economic legislation of the Barrios regime. Richard N. Adams, Ethnicidad en el ejército de la Guatemala liberal (1870-1915) (Guatemala, 1995), perceptively suggests hypotheses for the history of the Guatemalan army.

Guillermo Molina Chocano, Estado liberal y desarrollo capitalista en Honduras (3d ed., Tegucigalpa, 1985) surveys the development of the liberal state in Honduras. José Reina Valenzuela and Mario Argueta, Marco Aurelio Soto, Reforma liberal de 1876 (Tegucigalpa, 1978), relates the biography of Honduras' major Liberal caudillo. R. H. Valle and Juan Valladares R., gathered together Ramón Rosa's principal writings in Oro de Honduras (2 vols., Tegucigalpa, 1948-54). Kenneth Finney, In Quest of El Dorado: Precious Metal Mining and the Modernization of Honduras, 1880-1900 (N.Y., 1987), offers insight into the Liberal economic policy in Honduras. See also Mario Posas and Rafael del Cid, La construcción del sector público y del estado nacional en Honduras, 1876-1979(San José, 1981). J. L. Velázquez P., La formación del Estado en Nicaragua, 1860-1930 (Managua, 1992), is useful for the period in Nicaragua, but see also Charles Stansifer, "José Santos Zelaya: A New Look at Nicaragua's Liberal Dictatorship," Revista Interamericana 7 (Fall 1977), 468-85; and for a Conservative critique, J. J. Morales, De la historia de Nicaragua de 1889-1913(Granada, 1963), of which only Part I, covering 1889-1909, was published. Manuel Castrillo Gámez, Reseña histórica de Nicaragua . . . desde el año 1887 hasta fines de 1895 (Managua, 1963), provides much data on Zelaya's arrival to power. Orlando Salazar Mora, El apogeo de la República Liberal (1870-1914)(San José, 1990), is a major work on this period in Costa Rica. Edwin Solís and Carlos González, El ejército en Costa Rica: Poder político, poder militar, 1821-1890 (San Pedro de Montes de Oca, C. R., 1992), examines the growth of the Costa Rican army, accompanying the rise of coffee and the liberal state in the latter part of the century. C. A. Vargas Arias, El Liberalismo, la Iglesia y el Estado en Costa Rica (San José, 1991), is a careful study of church-state relations in late 19th-century Costa Rica. Mario Samper K., Generations of Settlers: Rural Households and Markets on the Costa Rican Frontier, 1850-1935 (Boulder, 1990), is a model of research, showing how merchant capital promoted and exploited small agricultural producers in an outlying region of the Central Valley of Costa Rica during this period. Jacqueline West de Cóchez has edited the writings of a noted Panamanian Liberal, Pablo Arosemena, Estudios (Panamá, 1982).

F. The Twentieth Century

The Liberal ascendancy over most of Central America continued in the early 20th century, the dictatorships of Estrada Cabrera and Zelaya being especially noticeable. Neither has received adequate historical treatment to date. See the previous section for works on Zelaya. Among the more useful works on the Estrada period in Guatemala are the firsthand accounts of Adrián Vidaurre, Los últimos treinta años de la vida política de Guatemala (La Habana, 1921); Carlos Wyld Ospina, El autócrata: Ensayo político-social (Guatemala, 1929); Rafael Arévalo Martínez, Ecce Pericles: La tiranía de Manuel Estrada Cabrera en Guatemala (3d ed., Guatemala, 1983); and J. R. Gramajo, Las revoluciones exteriores contra el expresidente Estrada Cabrera (2 vols., Mazatenango, 1937-43). Oscar G. Peláez Almengor, La Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción y los terremotos de 1917-18 (Guatemala, 1994), relates the major earthquakes of 1917-18 to the fall of Estrada. Miguel Angel Asturias' Nobel Prize-winning novel, El señor presidente (México, 1946), with many later editions, including an English translation, The President (Prospect Heights, Ill., 1997), also offers much insight into the Estrada period. Jean Piel has written a superb regional study of the period in El departamento del Quiché bajo la dictadura liberal (1880-1920)(Guatemala, 1995). Carlos Cuadra Pasos, Historia de medio siglo (2d ed., Managua, 1964), surveys Nicaragua in the first third of the century. Jan Suter, Prosperität un Krise in einer Kaffeerepublik: Modernisierung, sozialer Wandel und politischer Umbruch in El Salvador, 1910-1945 (Frankfurt am Main, 1996), is a scholarly, detailed description and analysis of Salvadoran economic, political, and social change in the early 20th century. W. S. Stokes, Honduras: An Area Study in Government (Madison, 1950), still has utility for the early 20th century. A useful reference for the period 1900-1925 in Honduras is Víctor Cáceres Lara, Gobernantes de Honduras en el siglo 20: De Terencio Sierra a Vicente Tosta(Tegucigalpa, 1992). N. E. Alvarado, La revolución de 19 (Tegucigalpa, 1967), provides detail on Honduran politics of 1919 and after. Mario Trujillo Bolio, Historia de los trabajadores en el capitalismo nicaragüense, 1850-1950 (México, 1992), is an attempt to write the history of Nicaraguan workers during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Jeff Gould, To Lead as Equals: Rural Protest and Political Consciousness in Chinandega, Nicaragua, 1912-1979 (Chapel Hill, 1990), is a splendid regional study on the growth of peasant resistance to the establishment in Nicaragua, as is Charles Hale, Resistance and Contradiction: Miskitu Indians and the Nicaraguan State, 1894-1987 (Stanford, 1994), an anthropological study of the Caribbean shore. For Costa Rica, Marc Edelman, The Logic of the Latifundio: The Large Estates of Northwestern Costa Rica since the Late Nineteenth Century (Stanford, 1992), documents the social history of agrarian change in 20th-century Guanacaste. Eugenio Rodríguez Vega, Los días de Don Ricardo (San José, 1971), provides insight into Costa Rican development during the first half of the century in his review of the life and work of Ricardo Jiménez, while Hugo Murillo Jiménez, Tinoco y los Estados Unidos(San José, 1981), details the events surrounding the regime of Federico Tinoco, 1917-19. An excellent work on the decline and abolition of the Costa Rican army in the 20th century is Mercedes Muñoz Guillén, El Estado y la abolición del ejército, 1914-1949 (San José, 1990). Jeffrey Casey has documented the rise of the Costa Rican banana port, Limón, 1880-1940 (San José, 1979), but more recently Aviva Chomsky has provided a vivid picture of the sociopolitical situation on the Costa Rican Atlantic coast with her West Indian Workers and the United Fruit Company in Costa Rica, 1870-1940 (Baton Rouge, 1996). Marina Volio, Jorge Volio y el Partido Reformista (San José, 1974), studies one of Costa Rica's most important political reformers.

There is a considerable volume of polemical unionist literature in the early 20th century, the most important of which are the works of Salvador Mendieta, La enfermedad de Centro América (3 vols., Barcelona, 1910-34) and Alrededor del problema unionista de Centro América (2 vols., Barcelona, 1934). These five volumes offer copious description and analysis of Central America's early 20th-century problems. For a study of Mendieta's career see W. H. Mory, Salvador Mendieta: Escritor y apóstol de la unión centroamericana (Birmingham, Ala., 1971).

The heavy-handed role of the United States early in this century has occupied the attention of several historians. Among early general works, Dana Munro, Intervention and Dollar Diplomacy, 1900-1921 (Princeton, 1964), and The United States and the Caribbean Republics, 1921-33 (Princeton, 1974), provide excellent coverage of Central America, as does Lester Langley, The United States and the Caribbean in the Twentieth Century (Athens, Ga., 1980), and more specifically, his Banana Wars: An Inner History of American Empire(Lexington, Ky., 1983). More recently Ivan Musicant, Banana Wars: A History of United States Military Intervention in Latin America from the Spanish-American War to the Invasion of Panama (N.Y., 1990), has pursued the same theme. Richard Salisbury, Anti-Imperialism and International Competition in Central America, 1920-1929 (Wilmington, Del., 1989), is an excellent study of the U. S. and Central American anti -imperialists in 1920s. H. B. Deutsch, The Incredible Yanqui(London, 1931), describes the career of soldier-of-fortune Lee Christmas, and Lester Langley and Tom Schoonover have extended that story in The Banana Men: American Mercenaries and Entrepreneurs in Central America, 1880-1930 (Lexington, Ky., 1995). Don Etchison, The United States and Militarism in Central America (N.Y., 1975), is a fine introduction to that topic. Vicente Saenz, Rompiendo cadenas (3d ed., Buenos Aires, 1961), first published in 1931, represents the anti-U.S. sentiment that interventionism engendered in Latin America. Paul Dosal tells the important story of the United Fruit Company and its relation to the government of Guatemala in Doing Business with the Dictators: A Political History of United Fruit in Guatemala, 1899-1944(Wilmington, Del., 1993). Michael Krenn, The Chains of Interdependence: U. S. Policy Toward Central America, 1945-1954 (Armonk, N.Y., 1996), deals with the post-war years, as does Tom Leonard, The United States and Central America, 1944-1949 (Tuscaloosa, 1984). Susan Bodenheimer, et al., attacked more recent U.S. economic influence in La inversión extranjera en Centroamérica (2d ed., 1975). Diane Stanley, a former State Department employee and the daughter of a United Fruit employee, provides a more sympathetic view of UFCO in For the record: The United Fruit Company's Sixty-Six Years in Guatemala (Guatemala, 1994).

The United States presence was most overt in Panama and Nicaragua. Among the extensive literature on the Panama Canal episode and subsequent U.S.-Panamanian relations, the most useful works are Walter LaFeber, The Panama Canal: The Crisis in Historical Perspective (3d ed., N.Y., 1989); John Major, Prize Possession: The United States and the Panama Canal, 1903-1979(Cambridge, 1993); and David Farnsworth and James McKenny, U.S.-Panama Relations, 1903-1978: A Study in Linkage Politics (Boulder, 1983). Philippe Bunau-Varilla, Panama, the Creation, Destruction and Reconstruction (London, 1913), reveals and defends his role in the affair, as does J. P. Cogley Quintero, El dinámico e ingenioso Felipe Juan Bunau-Varilla y el canal por Panamá: La verdadera y dramática historia de nuestra separación de Colombia (Panamá, 1990). Patricia Pizzurno Gelós, Antecedentes, hechos y consecuencias de la Guerra de los Mil Días en el Istmo de Panamá (Panamá, 1990), details Panama's involvement in Colombia's Thousand Days' War (1899-1902). For Roosevelt's role in the affair, see Richard Collin, Theodore Roosevelt's Caribbean: The Panama Canal, the Monroe Doctrine, and the Latin American Context (Baton Rouge, 1990). M. L. Conniff, Black Labor on a White Canal: Panama, 1904-1981 (Pittsburgh, 1985), deals with the heavy employment of West Indian labor. D. A. Arosemena (comp.), Documentary Diplomatic History of the Panama Canal (Panamá, 1961), provides a collection of the principal documents for the period 1826-1955. Also useful is the collection by Thomas J. Dodd, La crisis de Panamá: Cartas de Tomás Herrán, 1900-1904(Panamá, 1985). A fine overview of Panamanian politics in the 20th century is Steve Ropp, Panamanian Politics: From the Guarded Nation to National Guard (N.Y., 1982), but Andrew Zimbalist and John M. Weeks, Panama at the Crossroads: Economic Development and Political Change in the Twentieth Century (Berkeley, 1991), is also excellent and more up-to-date. On Torrijos and subsequent events in Panama see R. M. Koster and Guillermo Sánchez, In the Time of the Tyrants: Panama, 1968-1990 (N.Y., 1990); George Priestly, Military Government and Popular Participation in Panama: The Torrijos Regime, 1968-1975 (Boulder, 1986); Osvaldo Velásquez, Historia de una dictadura: De Torrijos a Noriega (Panamá, 1993); and Simeón González, Panamá, 1968-1990: Ensayos de sociología política (Panamá, 1994), as well as the popular, first-hand account of José de Jesús

Martinez, Mi general Torrijos (Habana, 1987). Rómulo Escobar Bethancourt, Torrijos: Espada y pensamiento (Panamá, 1982), and Michele Labrut, Este es Omar Torrijos (Panamá, 1982) both offer sympathetic views of Torrijos. Other studies focusing on the canal and its politics, including more recent relations with the U.S., are Ernesto Castillero Pimentel, Panamá y los Estados Unidos, 1903-1953 (5th ed., Panamá, 1988); Lawrence Ealy, Yanqui Politics and the Isthmian Canal (Pennsylvania State University, 1971); Ernesto Castillero Reyes, Historia de la comunicación interoceánica y de su influencia en la formación y en el desarrollo de la entidad nacional panameña (Panamá, 1941); Jules Dubois, Danger over Panama (N.Y., 1964); Larry Pippin, The Remón Era: An Analysis of a Decade of Events in Panamá, 1947-1957 (Stanford, 1964); and a handy biographical reference, J. A. Ortega C., Gobernantes de la República de Panamá, 1903-1968 (Panamá, 1965). On Noriega and the U.S. invasion of Panama in 1989, see Margaret Scranton, The Noriega Years: U.S. Panamanian Relations, 1981-1990 (Boulder, 1991); John Dinges, Our Man in Panama: How General Noriega Used the United States and Made Millions in Drugs and Arms (N.Y., 1990); Lionel Méndez Dávila, Invasión USA a Panamá: Modelo para no olvidar (y cinco presagios estructurales) (Panamá, 1991); H. E. Ricord, Noriega y Panamá: Orgía y aplastamiento de la narcodictadura (México, 1991); Frederick Kempe, Divorcing the Dictator: America's Bungled Affair with Noriega (N.Y., 1990); Bruce Watson and Peter Tsouras (eds.), Operation Just Cause: The U.S. Intervention in Panama(Boulder, 1991); C. J. Johns, and P. W. Johnson, State Crime, the Media, and the Invasion of Panama (Westport, Conn., 1994); Ela Navarrete Talavera, Panamá, invasión o revolución?(México, 1990); Ricaurte Soler, La invasión de Estados Unidos a Panamá: Neocolonialismo en la posguerra fría (2d ed., México, 1992); L. E. Murillo, The Noriega Mess: The Drugs, The Canal, and Why America Invaded (Berkeley, 1995); and M. L. Conniff, Panama and the United States: The Forced Alliance (Athens, Ga., 1991).

The period of U.S. intervention in Nicaragua has been the subject of a variety of studies of uneven quality. Nicaraguan accounts have been either passionately against or apologetic for the U.S. role, but seldom objective. Among the works written at the time, Isaac Cox, Nicaragua and the United States, 1900-1927 (Boston, 1927); and H. L. Stimson, American Policy in Nicaragua(N.Y., 1927), are carefully-written defenses of U.S. policy. A less objective, but still informative pro-U.S. account is H. H. Denny, Dollars for Bullets: The Story of American Rule in Nicaragua(N.Y., 1929). Highly critical is J. A. H. Hopkins and Melinda Alexander, Machine-Gun Diplomacy (N.Y., 1928). Zelaya's own account of his overthrow, La revolución de Nicaragua y los Estados Unidos (Madrid, 1910), is interesting if not thoroughly illuminating. Roscoe Hill, Fiscal Intervention in Nicaragua (N.Y., 1933), details the financial questions from the bankers' point of view. More scholarly is William Kamman, A Search for Stability, 1925-1933 (Notre Dame, Ind., 1968). Marvin Goldwert, The Constabulary in the Dominican Republic and Nicaragua: Progeny and Legacy of United States Intervention (Gainesville, Fl., 1962), traces longer term effects of the intervention. Thomas J. Dodd, Thomas, Managing Democracy in Central America: A Case Study; United States Election Supervision in Nicaragua, 1927-1933(Coral Gables, FL, 1992), describes the U.S. supervision of Nicaraguan elections. In addition to Macaulay's sympathetic work, The Sandino Affair (Chicago, 1967), Sergio Ramírez, El pensamiento vivo de Sandino (San José, 1974), presents a modern view of his writings and relation to the Sandinista Revolution. See Robert Conrad (ed.), Sandino, The Testimony of a Nicaraguan Patriot: 1921-1934(Princeton, 1990), for an English version. Other useful accounts on Sandino include Lejeune Cummins, Quijote on a Burro: Sandino and the Marines (México, 1958); Gregorio Selser, Sandino, General de hombres libres (2d ed., San José, 1974); Rodolfo Cerdas Cruz, Sandino, el APRA y la Internacional Comunista(San José, 1979), as well as his more general, The Communist International in Central America, 1920-36 (Oxford, 1993); and Alejandro Bendaa, La mística de Sandino (Managua, 1994). John Britton, Carleton Beals: A Radical Journalist in Latin America (Albuquerque, 1987), tells the story of an influential U.S. journalist in Central America during that time.

On Guatemala, Paul Dosal, Power in Transition: The Rise of Guatemala's Industrial Oligarchy, 1871-1994 (Westport, Conn., 1995), is essential to understanding the sociopolitical structure of that country. A number of recent studies have improved our understanding of the dictatorships growing out of the Great Depression. Kenneth Grieb, Guatemalan Caudillo (Athens, Oh., 1979), dispassionately describes the Ubico regime. Complimenting Grieb's work is Michaela Schmölz-Häberlein, Die Grenzen des Caudillismo: die Modernisierung des guatemaltekischen Staates unter Jorge Ubico, 1931-1944: Eine regionalgeschichtliche Studie am Beispiel der Alta Verapaz (Frankfurt am Main, 1993), a fine social history of the Alta Verapaz during the Ubico years, focussing on the effects of modernization and change on the culture of the indigenous population. Among a number of scathing attacks on Ubico, Efraín de los Rios, Ombres contra ombres (3d ed., 2 vols., Guatemala, 1969), is the most useful to the historian. Col. F. E. Ardón F., El Señor General Ubico (Guatemala, 1968), offers a defense of the regime, while Carlos Samayoa Chinchilla, El dictador y yo(Guatemala, 1950), is a more critical view.

David Luna dealt with the regime of Hernández Martínez in his Análisis de una dictadura fascista latinoamericana (San Salvador, n.d.). Also useful in explaining the rise of militarism is Rafael Guidos Véjar, El ascenso del militarismo en El Salvador (San José, 1982). On the bloody suppression of the communist revolt of 1932 see, in addition to Anderson's Matanza (2d ed., Willimantic, Conn., 1992), Roque Dalton, Miguel Marmol (San José, 1972); Jorge Arias Gómez, Farabundo Martí (San José, 1996); and Rodolfo Cerdas, Farabundo Martí, la Internacional Comunista y la insurreción salvadoreña de 1932 (San José, 1982). Patricia Parkman, Nonviolent Insurrection in El Salvador: The Fall of Maximiliano Hernández Martínez (Tucson, 1988), is a fine study of the end of the regime.

J. A. Morris, Honduras: Caudillo Politics and Military Rulers (Boulder, 1984), provides an overview of 20th-century Honduras. Darío Euraque, Reinterpreting the Banana Republic: Region and State in Honduras, 1870-1972(Chapel Hill, 1996) is both more detailed and analytical for the period it covers. Mario Argueta, Tiburcio Carías: Anatomía de una época, 1923-1948(Tegucigalpa, 1989) is a thoroughly-researched and objective biography of Honduras' long-term dictator. Roberto Bardini, Conexión en Tegucigalpa: El Somocismo en Honduras(México, 1982), is critical of Honduran support of the Nicaraguan contras. Leticia Salomón, Militarismo y reformismo en Honduras(Tegucigalpa, 1982), and Política y militares en Honduras (Tegucigalpa, 1992) are excellent case studies of the military and politics in Honduras in the 1970s and 1980s. The indefatigable Mario Argueta has studied the rise Honduran labor organization in the 20th century in Historia de los sin historia, 1900-1948(Tegucigalpa, 1992), and in La gran huelga bananera: 69 días que conmovieron a Honduras (Tegucigalpa, 1995). On Honduras, see also Edgardo Paz Barnica, El liberalismo en la encrucijada (Buenos Aires, 1992).

The literature on the Somozas is more extensive, led by Richard Millett, Guardians of the Dynasty: A History of the Guardia Nacional and the Somoza Family (Maryknoll, N.Y., 1977); Knut Walter, The Regime of Anastasio Somoza(Chapel Hill, 1993); Paul Coe Clark, The United States and Somoza, 1933-1956: A Revisionist Look (N. Y., 1992); Eduardo Crawley, Dictators Never Die: A Portrait of Nicaragua and the Somoza Dynasty (N.Y., 1979); and Bernard Diederich, Somoza and the Legacy of U.S. Involvement in Central America (N.Y., 1981). P. J. Chamorro Cardenal, Estirpe sangriente: Los Somoza (Buenos Aires, 1959), and L. G. Cardenal, Mi rebelión (México, 1961), are vehement contemporary denunciations of the Somozas, while Anastasio Somoza Debayle, as told to Jack Cox, gives his own account in Nicaragua Betrayed(Boston, 1980). See also S. P. Huntington, Political Order in Changing Societies (New Haven, 1965). T. W. Walker, The Christian Democratic Movement in Nicaragua(Tucson, 1970), analyzes the development of a new opposition party in Somoza's dictatorship, while Jaime Wheelock Román, Imperialismo y dictadura: Crisis de una formación social (México, 1975), is a biting condemnation in a Marxist framework by one of the Sandinista comandantes. The autobiographical memoir of Tomás Borge, The Patient impatience: From Boyhood to Guerilla: A Personal Narrative of Nicaragua's Struggle for Liberation (Willimantic, Conn., 1992), provides a portrait of life in Somoza's Nicaragua by one of the founders of the FSLN.

Costa Rica's 20th-century history has focussed on the Revolution of 1948, and J. P. Bell, Crisis in Costa Rica (Austin, 1971), leads the field on that event. Charles Ameringer has produced a useful overview of 20th-century Costa Rican history in his Democracy in Costa Rica (N.Y., 1982). J. M. Salazar Mora, Crisis liberal y estado reformista: Análisis político-electoral, 1914-1949 (San José, 1995); V. H. Acuña Ortega, Conflicto y reforma en Costa Rica, 1940-1949(San José, 1991); and T. S. Creedman, El gran cambio: De León Cortés a Calderón Guardia(San José, 1996) are excellent on the political background to the 1948 struggle. Ameringer, The Caribbean Legion: Patriots, Politicians, Soldiers of Fortune, 1946-1950 (University Park, Penn., 1996) illuminates the history of the illusive military force developed around 1948 to fight rightist dictatorships. Excellent analyses of Costa Rican political development in this century include Bruce Wilson, Costa Rica: Politics, Economics, and Democracy (Boulder, 1998); Fabrice Lehoucq, Lucha electoral y sistema político en Costa Rica, 1948-1998(San José, 1998); Anthony Winson, Coffee and Democracy in Modern Costa Rica(Basingstroke, England, 1989); Jorge Rovira Mas, Estado y política económica en Costa Rica, 1948-1970 (San José, 1982); Manuel Rojas Bolaños, et al., Costa Rica: La democracia inconclusa (San José, 1989); Carlos Araya Pochet, Historia de los partidos políticos: Liberación Nacional (San José, 1982); M. A. Solís, Costa Rica: Reformismo socialdemócrata o liberal? (San José, 1992); and J. L. Vega Carballo, La crisis de la democracia liberal en Costa Rica (San José, 1972) and Poder político y democracia en Costa Rica (San José, 1982). John A. Peeler's comparative study, Latin American Democracies: Colombia, Costa Rica, Venezuela (Chapel Hill, 1985), is also very useful. Among other important works on the 1948 revolution and its aftermath are Oscar Aguilar Bulgarelli, Costa Rica y sus hechos políticos de 1948: Problemática de una década (2d ed., San José, 1993); B. H. English, Liberación Nacional in Costa Rica (Gainesville, 1971); Charles Denton, Patterns of Costa Rican Politics (Boston, 1971); J. M. Salazar Mora, Calderón Guardia (San José, 1981); Orlando and Jorge Mario Salazar Mora, Los partidos políticos en Costa Rica (San José, 1991); and biographies of José Figueres by Charles Ameringer, Don Pepe (Albuquerque, 1978); Tomás Guerra, José Figueres, una vida por la justicia social (Heredia, 1987); and Alberto Baeza Flores, La lucha sin fin (México, 1969). Also useful is José Merino del Río's biography of the Communist leader, Manuel Mora y la democracia costarricense: Viaje al interior del Partido Comunista (Heredia, 1996). Several works focus on Costa Rican institutional history: C. L. Gómez U., et al., Las instituciones costarricenses del siglo XX (San José, 1986); Jaime Murillo (ed.,) Las Instituciones costarricenses: de las sociedades indígenas a la crisis de la república liberal (San José, 1989), and Historia de Costa Rica en el siglo XX: análisis de su desarrollo institucional (San José, 1989); and Jorge Corrales Quesada (ed.), Raíces institucionales de la política económica costarricense (San José, 1993).

On Costa Rican relations with the U.S., see Rudy Guerrero Portales, Costa Rica y Estados Unidos en la Segunda Guerra Mundial (San José, 1994); Kyle Longley, The Sparrow and the Hawk: Costa Rica and the United States during the Rise of José Figueres (Tuscaloosa, 1997); and Martha Honey, Hostile Acts: U.S. Policy in Costa Rica in the 1980's (Gainesville, 1994).

The literature on the Guatemalan Revolution is extensive, although the definitive work remains to be written. Mario Monteforte Toledo, La revolución de Guatemala, 1944-1954 (Guatemala, 1975), is a useful study of the period, as is Jaime Díaz Rozzotto, El carácter de la revolución guatemalteco (México, 1958). E. A. Velásquez Carrera, (ed.), La Revolución de Octubre: Diez años de lucha por la democracia en Guatemala, 1944-1954 (2 vols., Guatemala, 1994), has assembled a large number of articles on the revolution. Piero Gleijeses, Shattered Hope: The Guatemalan Revolution and the United States (Princeton, 1991), is an especially readable survey of the revolutionary period with emphasis on the U.S. reaction, as is Thomas Leonard, The United States and Central America, 1944-1949 (Tuscaloosa, 1984). Also valuable is Richard Adams, Crucifixion by Power: Essays on Guatemalan Social Structure, 1944-1966 (Austin, 1970); Kalman Silvert, A Study in Government: Guatemala (New Orleans, 1954); and R. M. Schneider, Communism in Guatemala (N.Y., 1958). Studies of Juan José Arévalo include Pedro Alvarez Elzondo, El Presidente Arévalo y el retorno a Bolívar(México, 1947); and M. B. Dion, Las ideas sociales y políticas de Arévalo(México, 1958). Arévalo, Escritos autobiográficos (7 vols., published separately under various titles in Guatemala, Mexico, and San Salvador, 1963-88), is an extensive, ongoing series of memoirs that reveals much about the man and his ideas. See also Arévalo's bitter condemnations of U.S. imperialism in The Shark and the Sardines(N.Y., 1961) and Anti-Kommunism in Latin America (N.Y., 1963). Among many personal accounts of the Revolution, several are notable. Manuel Galich describes the Ubico regime and its overthrow in Del pánico al ataque (Guatemala, 1949), and continues in exile with a defense of the Revolution in Por qué lucha Guatemala? Arévalo y Arbenz: Dos hombres contra un imperio (2d ed., Guatemala, 1994). José García Bauer, Nuestra revolución legislativa(Guatemala, 1948), outlines the program of the Revolution. Arcadio Ruiz Franco, Fermentos de lucha: Hambre y miseria (2d ed., Guatemala, 1993), tells the story of a worker and student in the printing industry. Guillermo Toriello, Arbenz's foreign minister, defends his regime in La batalla de Guatemala (México, 1955), as does literary figure Luis Cardoza y Aragón in Guatemala, las líneas de su mano (México, 1955) and La revolución guatemalteco (México, 1955). Carlos Samayoa Chinchilla, El quetzal no es rojo (Guatemala, 1956), defended Arbenz, while attacking both American imperialism and international communism. A collection of Arbenz's writings are compiled in Juan de Dios Aguilar de León, Vida cívica, política y militar del coronel Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán (Guatemala, 1996). Mario Efraín Nájera Farfán, Los estafadores de la democracia: Hombres y hechos en Guatemala (Buenos Aires, 1956), is critical of Arbenz. One of the important labor leaders of the Revolution, Carlos Pellecer, in Renuncia al comunismo(México, 1963), later renounced the communist activity in which he had participated. Jesús María García, La reforma agraria de Arbenz en Guatemala(Madrid, 1987), is a well-documented study of the Revolution that concludes that revolution failed because of the opposition to agrarian reform. Jim Handy, Revolution in the Countryside: Rural Conflict & Agrarian Reform in Guatemala, 1944-1954 (Chapel Hill, 1994), focusses on rural aspects of the revolutionary period. The U.S. role in Arbenz's overthrow was thoroughly exposed by José Aybar, Dependency and Intervention (Boulder, 1979); R. H. Immerman, The C.I.A. in Guatemala (Austin, 1982); and S. C. Schlesinger and Steven Kinzer, Bitter Fruit (Garden City, N.Y., 1982).

A growing number of works have treated Guatemala during the three decades of military rule, 1954-85, including R. N. Adams, Crucifixion by Power(Austin, 1970); Robert Carmack (ed.), Harvest of Violence (Norman, 1988); Deborah Levenson-Estrada, Trade Unionists Against Terror: Guatemala City, 1954-1885 (Chapel Hill, 1994); Yvon Le Bot, La guerra en tierras mayas: Comunidad, violencia y modernidad en Guatemala (1970-1992) (México, 1995); G. E. Aguilar Peralta, La violencia en Guatemala como fenómeno política(Cuernavaca, 1971); and Thomas and Marjorie Melville, Guatemala, the Politics of Land Ownership (N.Y., 1971). Mario Payeras, Days of the Jungle: The Testimony of a Guatemalan Guerrillero, 1972-76 (N.Y., 1983) is a first-hand account of a second generation of Guatemalan guerrillas. Michael McClintock, The American Connection: State Terror and Popular Resistance in Guatemala(London, 1988), details Guatemalan military repression. Miguel Ydígoras Fuentes, My War with Communism(Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1963), defends his regime of the early 1960s, and Roland Ebel has written a sympathetic study of Ydígoras, Misunderstood Caudillo: Miguel Ydígoras Fuentes and the Failure of Democracy in Guatemalan (Lanham, Md., 1998). Especially useful for understanding the dynamics of the relationship between the Guatemalan elites and the military during this period is Francisco Villagrán Kramer, Biografía política de Guatemala: Los pactos políticos de 1944 a 1970 (Guatemala, 1993). Eduardo Galeano, Guatemala, Occupied Country(N.Y., 1969), provides insight into the violence and guerrilla warfare plagued Guatemala throughout the period, as does Ricardo Falla, Quiché rebelde (Guatemala, 1978); Massacres in the Jungle: Ixcán, Guatemala (1975-1982) (Boulder, 1993); David Stoll, Between Two Armies in the Ixil Towns of Guatemala (N. Y., 1993); R. S. Carlsen, The War for the Heart and Soul of a Highland Maya Town (Austin, 1997); Angela Delli Sante, Nightmare or Reality: Guatemala in the 1980s (Amsterdam, 1996); and George Black, Milton Jamail, and Norma Stoltz, Garrison Guatemala (N.Y., 1984). Susanne Jonas, The Battle for Guatemala: Rebels, Death Squads, and U.S. Power (Boulder, 1991), one of the best books available on this period, relates ethnic and gender issues to the period and its relation to U.S. policy. Also illustrative of the period is Rigoberta Menchú, I, . . . Rigoberta Menchú: An Indian Woman in Guatemala(London, 1984); Ignacio Bizarro Ujpán, Campesino: The Diary of a Guatemalan Indian (Tucson, 1985); Víctor Montejo, Testimony: Death of a Guatemalan Village (Willimantic, Conn., 1987); and Jennifer Harbury, Bridge of Courage: Life Stories of the Guatemalan Compañeros and Compañeras (rev. ed., Monroe, Me., 1995). An interesting series of biographical interviews with Guatemalan President (1993-96) León Carpio were published in Alvaro Vargas Llosa and Santiago Aroca, Riding the Tiger: Ramiro de León Carpio's Battle for Human Rights in Guatemala (Miami, 1995). On the politics of the period see also Robert Trudeau, Guatemalan Politics: The Popular Struggle for Democracy (Boulder, 1993).

The 1969 war between Honduras and El Salvador elicited a flurry of polemical defenses from both countries, but the best study on the conflict is Durham's Scarcity and Survival (Stanford, 1979). Also useful are Anderson, War of the Dispossessed (Lincoln, 1981); M. J. R. Martz, Central American Soccer War: Historical Patterns and Internal Dynamics of OAS Settlement Procedures(Athens, Oh., 1978); James Rowles, El conflicto Honduras-El Salvador y el orden jurídico internacional (San José, 1980); and M. V. Carías and Daniel Slutsky, La guerra inútil(San José, 1971).

Relatively few works have dealt with the politics of the entire region, but Charles Brockett, Land, Power, & Poverty: Agrarian Transformation and Political Conflict in Central America, 2d ed. (Boulder, 1998), is an especially perceptive analysis of the agrarian question and politics in the region. Hilda Caldera T. and Benjamín Santos M., La democracia cristiana en Centroamérica(Tegucigalpa, 1987), gives brief histories of Christian Democratic parties in each state, but without comparative analysis. The crises of the 1980s brought forth a stream of publications and some have lasting value. See especially Thomas Anderson, Politics in Central America (N.Y., 1982); and Saul Landau, The guerrilla wars of Central America: Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala(N.Y., 1993). The crises prompted a series of anthologies of commentary and documents: Robert Wesson (ed.), Communism in Central America and the Caribbean (Stanford, 1982); R. S. Leiken (ed.), Central America, Anatomy of Conflict (N.Y., 1984); Steve Ropp and James Morris (eds.), Central America, Crisis and Adaptation(Albuquerque, 1984); Wolf Grabendorff, Heinrich W. Krumwiede, and Jörg Todt (eds.), Political Change in Central America: Internal and External Dimensions (Boulder, 1984); Marlene Dixon and Susanne Jonas (eds.), Revolution and Intervention in Central America (San Francisco, 1984); Martin Diskin (ed.), Trouble in our Backyard: Central America and the United States in the Eighties (N.Y., 1984); and Donald E. Schulz and Douglas H. Graham (eds.), Revolution and Counterrevolution in Central America and the Caribbean(Boulder, 1984). Also, Richard Tardanico (ed.), Crises in the Caribbean Basin(Newberry Park, Calif., 1987); and R. L. Woodward (ed.), Central America: Historical Perspectives on the Contemporary Crises(Westport, Conn., 1988), contained a variety of essays on both historical and contemporary topics. More recent anthologies include John Booth and Mitchell Seligson, Elections and Democracy in Central America (Chapel Hill, 1989); L. W. Goodman, W. M. LeoGrande, and Johanna Mendelson Forman (eds.), Political Parties and Democracy in Central America(Boulder, 1992); Sinclair Minor (ed.), The New Politics of Survival: Grassroots Movements in Central America (N.Y., 1995); Rachel Sieder (ed.), Central America: Fragile Transition (N.Y., 1996); Jorge Dominguez and Abraham Lowenthal (eds.), Constructing Democratic Governance: Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean in the 1990s(Baltimore, 1996). An excellent analysis of the Central American situation at the beginning of this decade is John Booth and Thomas Walker, Understanding Central America (2d ed., Boulder, 1993). Also useful for Central America in the 1980s is Tom Barry, Central America Inside Out: The Essential Guide to its Societies, Politics, and Economies (N.Y., 1991). Barry, et al., also published a series of informative Inside. . . handbooks on each of the individual Central American states (Albuquerque, 1992-95).

Philip Berryman, Religious Roots of Rebellion (Maryknoll, N.Y., 1984), and Stubborn Hope: Religion, Politics, and Revolution in Central America(Maryknoll, N.Y., 1994), describes how the Church has influenced social change in each country in Central America and complements Penny Lernoux's Cry of the People (N.Y., 1980), a moving description of the growth of liberation theology and the "peoples' church." Javier Solís, La herencia de Sanabria: Análisis político de la Iglesia costarricense (San José, 1983) treats liberation theology in Costa Rica. Donna and Edward Brett, Murdered in Central America (Maryknoll, N.Y., 1988) detail the cases of eleven U.S. church workers killed in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras. James Guadalupe Carney's autobiography, To be a Revolutionary: An Autobiography (San Francisco, 1985), is highly informative on Catholic missionaries in Honduras. Earlier views of the Church in 20th-century Central America are Isidoro Alonso, La iglesia en América Central y el Caribe(Madrid, 1962); Rodolfo Cardenal, Acontecimientos sobresalientes de la Iglesia en Honduras, 1900-1962(Tegucigalpa, 1979); Gustavo Blanco and Jaime Valverde, Honduras: Iglesia y cambio social(San José, 1987); and B. J. Calder, Crecimiento y cambio de la iglesia católica guatemalteca(Guatemala, 1970). J. L. Chea, Guatemala: La cruz fragmentada (San José, 1988), narrates the reactionary roles of Guatemalan Catholic Archbishops Rosell and Casariego between 1939 and 1983.

The history of U.S. policy response to Central American events is dealt with especially well by Cole Blasier, The Hovering Giant (Rev. ed., Pittsburgh, 1985) and The Giant's Rival: The USSR and Latin America (Rev. ed., Pittsburgh, 1987); and Walter LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions, the United States in Central America (2d ed., N.Y., 1993; John Coatsworth, Central America and the United States: The Clients and the Colossus (N.Y., 1994); J E. Findling, Close Neighbors, Distant Friends: United States-Central American Relations (N.Y., 1987); Tom Leonard, Central America and the United States: The Search for Stability (Athens, Ga., 1991); Morris Blachman, William LeoGrande and Kenneth Sharpe (eds.), Confronting Revolution: Security Through Diplomacy in Central America (N.Y., 1986); and Kenneth Coleman and George Herring (eds.), Understanding the Central American Crisis: Sources of Conflict, U.S. Policy, and Options for Peace (Wilmington, 1991). See also Richard Allen White, The Morass: United States Intervention in Central America (N.Y., 1984); E. Bradford Burns, At War in Nicaragua: the Reagan Doctrine and the Politics of Nostalgia(N.Y., 1987); Roy Gutman, Banana Diplomacy: The Making of American Policy in Nicaragua, 1981-1987 (N.Y., 1988; and Peter Calvert, The Central American Security System: North--South or East--West? (Cambridge, 1988). Robert Pastor, Condemned to Repetition: The United States and Nicaragua (Princeton, 1987); Lawrence and Ralph Pezzullo, At the fall of Somoza (Pittsburgh, 1993); and M. H. Morley, Washington, Somoza, and the Sandinistas: State and Regime in U.S. Policy toward Nicaragua, 1969-1981 (Cambridge, 1994), are all useful for their accounts of the last days of the Somoza dynasty and U.S. policy there. H. J. Wiarda, et al., The Communist Challenge in the Caribbean and Central America (Washington, 1987), emphasizes a Soviet threat to the region, as do Mark Falcoff and Robert Royal (eds.), The Continuing Crisis: U.S. policy in Central America and the Caribbean (Washington, 1987). For a well-informed Central American viewpoint, see Francisco Rojas Aravena and Luis G. Solís Rivera, Súbditos o aliados? La política exterior de los Estados Unidos y Centroamérica (San José, 1988). Donald and Deborah Schulz, The United States, Honduras, and the Crisis in Central America (Boulder, 1994), explain Honduras' role as a center for U.S. involvement in the contra war. An important document of U.S. policy toward Central America in the 1980s is the Kissinger Commission's Report of the National Bipartisan Commission on Central America (Washington, 1984), with its voluminous annex. Frank McNeil, War and Peace in Central America (N.Y., 1988), is the story of a U.S. diplomat critical of the Reagan administration's policy in Central America. Linda Robinson, Intervention or Neglect: The United States and Central America Beyond the 1980s (N.Y., 1991), argues forcefully against U.S. intervention. Dunkerley's Pacification of Central America: Political Change in the Isthmus, 1987-1993 (London, 1994), overviews the peace process, but see also Darío Moreno, The Struggle for Peace in Central America (Gainesville, Fla., 1994).

The Salvadoran civil war of the 1980s attracted a great deal of scholarly and journalistic attention. Among the most recent works, W. D. Stanley, The Protection Racket State: Elite Politics, Military Extortion, and Civil War in El Salvador (Philadelphia, 1996); Tommie Sue Montgomery, Revolution in El Salvador: From Civil Strife to Civil Peace (2d ed., Boulder, 1995); and Hugh Byrne, El Salvador's Civil War: A Study of Revolution (Boulder, 1996), are especially recommended. Other useful works on the period include Steve Webre, José Napoleón Duarte and the Christian Democratic Party in Salvadoran Politics, 1960-1972 (Baton Rouge, 1979); Enrique Baloyra, El Salvador in Transition (Chapel Hill, 1982); J. A. Dunkerley, The Long War: Dictatorship and Revolution in El Salvador (London, 1982); Michael McClintock, The American Connection: State Terror and Popular Resistance in El Salvador (London, 1985); Marvin Gettleman, et al. (eds.), El Salvador: Central America in the New Cold War (Rev. ed., N.Y., 1987); Max Manwaring and Court Prisk, El Salvador at War: An Oral History of Conflict from the 1979 Insurrection to the Present(Washington, 1988); Mario Lungo Uclés, El Salvador in the Eighties: Counterinsurgency and Revolution (Philadelphia, 1996); Raymond Bonner, Weakness and Deceit: US Policy and El Salvador (N.Y., 1984); and Duarte's autobiography, Duarte: My Story (N.Y., 1986). J. R. Brockman, tells the story of the martyred Archbishop of El Salvador in The World Remains: A Life of Oscar Romero (Maryknoll, N.Y., 1982). Leigh Binford, The El Mozote Massacre: Anthropology and Human Rights (Tucson, 1996), examines one of the worst atrocities of the war, providing greater depth and a different perspective than Mark Danner, The Massacre at El Mozote: A Parable of the Cold War (N.Y., 1994). Teresa Whitfield looks at another atrocity of the conflict and its impact, in Ignacio Ellacuría and the Murdered Jesuits of El Salvador (Philadelphia, 1994). Ellacuría's writings are published in Veinte años de historia en El Salvador, 1969-1989: Escritos políticos (3 vols., San Salvador, 1991). See also C. J. Beirne, Jesuit Education and Social Change in El Salvador (N.Y., 1996); Liisa North, Bitter Grounds: Roots of Revolt in El Salvador (Toronto, 1982); and Robert Armstrong and Janet Shenk, El Salvador: The Face of Revolution (Boston, 1982). Cynthia Arson, El Salvador: A Revolution Confronts the United States(Washington, 1982), relates the struggle well to U.S. policy. An important exposé of the brutalities of the civil war is found in Belisario Betancur, et al., From Madness to Hope: The 12-Year War in El Salvador: Report of the Commission on the Truth for El Salvador (United Nations, 1993). Further documentation on human rights violations are recorded in El Salvador's Decade of Terror: Human Rights Since the Assassination of Archbishop Romero (New Haven, 1991). On the attempted transition to democracy and historical obstacles to that transition in El Salvador see Philip Williams and Knut Walter, Militarization and Demilitarization in El Salvador's Transition to Democracy(Pittsburgh, 1997); and Joseph Tulchin and Gary Bland, Is There a Transition to Democracy in El Salvador? (Boulder, 1992). Yvon Grenier, Guerre et pouvoir au Salvador: Idéologies du changement et idéologique (Sainte-Foy, Québec, 1994), is an important study of shifting ideologies in the civil war.

On the Sandinista Revolution, the best overall treatments are found in Harry Vanden and Gary Prevost, Democracy and Socialism in Sandinista Nicaragua (Boulder, 1992); John Booth, The End and the Beginning (2d ed., Boulder, 1985); and David Nolan, FSLN: The Ideology of the Sandinistas and the Nicaraguan Revolution (Miami, 1984), but there are many other works dealing with it, including a sympathetic and well researched work by Orlando Núñez (ed.), La guerra en Nicaragua (Managua, 1991); a briefer and also sympathetic survey by Víctor Pozas, La revolución sandinista, 1979-88 (Madrid, 1988); and the more critical Shirley Christian, Nicaragua: Revolution in the Family (N.Y., 1985). Also critical is a work principally by Nicaraguan expatriates, Xavier Zavala, et al., 1984 Nicaragua (San José, 1985). On the history of the Sandinista movement, Dennis Gilbert's Sandinistas: the Party and the Revolution (Oxford, 1988); and D.C. Hodges, Intellectual Foundations of the Nicaraguan Revolution (Austin, 1986), are excellent. Gilbert also edited a useful collection of FSLN documents and speeches, Sandinistas: Key Documents (Ithaca, 1990). Hodges continues his work in Sandino's Communism: Spiritual Politics for the Twenty-First Century (Austin, 1992). Mark Everinghham has explained the alliance of interest groups and elites that collaborated in the Sandinista Revolution in Revolution and the Multiclass Coalition in Nicaragua (Pittsburgh, 1996). Valerie Lee Miller, Between Struggle and Hope: the Nicaraguan Literacy Crusade (Boulder, 1985), evaluates one of the more successful Sandinista programs. Gary Ruchwarger, People in Power: Forging a Grassroots Democracy in Nicaragua (South Hadley, Mass., 1987), is an excellent study of Sandinismo organization at the neighborhood level. Jaime Wheelock's La reforma agraria en Nicaragua (9 vols., Managua, 1989), is a massive collection of information on rural Nicaragua and the Sandinista agrarian policies. See also his brief summary, La reforma agraria sandinista: 10 años de revolución en el campo (Managua, 1990); Jaime Wheelock, et al., La verdad sobre La Piñata: Los cambios en la propiedad agraria, julio 1979-abril 1990(Managua, 1991); and F. D. Colburn, Post-Revolutionary Nicaragua: State, Class, and the Dilemmas of Agrarian Policy (Berkeley, 1986), and Managing the Commanding Heights: Nicaragua's State Enterprises (Berkeley, 1990); and Laura Enríquez, Harvesting Change: Labor and Agrarian Reform in Nicaragua, 1979-1990 (Chapel Hill, 1991). Thomas Walker has edited a series of fine anthologies: Nicaragua in Revolution (N.Y., 1982); Nicaragua: The First Five Years (N.Y., 1985); Reagan Versus the Sandinistas: the Undeclared war on Nicaragua (Boulder, 1987); Revolution & Counterrevolution in Nicaragua(Boulder, 1991); and on Nicaragua since 1990, Nicaragua without Illusions: Regime Transition and Structural Adjustment in the 1990s(Wilmington, Del., 1997). Belden Bell (ed.), Nicaragua, An Ally under Siege (Washington, 1978), defends the Somoza dynasty, while George Black, Triumph of the People, the Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua (London, 1981), and Henri Weber, Nicaragua, the Sandinista Revolution (London, 1981), offer early sympathetic views of the Sandinistas. Carlos Vilas, an Argentine Marxist employed by the Sandinistas, in State, Class, and Ethnicity in Nicaragua: Capitalist Modernization and Revolutionary Change on the Atlantic coast (Boulder, 1989), describes Sandinista efforts to develop the Caribbean coastal region and conflicts with the indigenous peoples there. Vilas also wrote a more general and sympathetic account of the revolution, The Sandinista Revolution (N.Y., 1986), and, with Richard Harris, edited an anthology, Nicaragua: A Revolution under Siege (London, 1985). Health care under the Sandinistas is dealt with by Richard Garfield and Glen Williams, Health Care in Nicaragua: Primary Care under Changing Regimes (N.Y., 1992). A huge collection articles, newspaper clippings, and documents of the revolution have been assembled by Porfirio Solórzano in The NIREX Collection: Nicaraguan Revolution Extracts, Twelve Years, 1978-1990(Austin, 1993). A contra view of the Sandinista decade is Jaime Morales Carazo, La Contra (México, 1989). Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, et al., Dreams of the Heart: The Autobiography of President Violeta Barrios de Chamorro of Nicaragua (N.Y., 1996), tells the story of the first post-Sandinista president of Nicaragua, while William Robinson, A Faustian Bargain: U.S. Intervention in the Nicaraguan Elections and American Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War Era(Boulder, 1992), argues that her election was the result of U.S. intervention in the 1990 Nicaraguan elections.

A critical account of the Sandinista treatment of the Church is Humberto Belli, Nicaragua: Christians Under Fire (San José, 1983). The role of religion in the Sandinista revolution has received considerable attention, notably in Michael Dodson and Laura Nuzzi O'Shaughnessy Nicaragua's Other Revolution: Religious Faith and Political Struggle (Chapel Hill, 1990); O'Shaughnessy and Luis Serra, The Church and revolution in Nicaragua (Athens, Ohio, 1976); Manzar Foroohar, The Catholic Church and Social Change in Nicaragua, (Albany, 1989); Roger Lancaster, Thanks to God and the Revolution: Popular Religion and Class Consciousness in the New Nicaragua (N.Y., 1988); J. M. Kirk, Politics and the Catholic Church in Nicaragua(Gainesville, Fla., 1992); Debra Sabia, Contradiction and Conflict: The Popular Church in Nicaragua (Tuscaloosa, 1997); Joseph Mulligan, The Nicaraguan Church and the Revolution(Kansas City, 1991); and Philip Williams, Catholic Church and Politics in Nicaragua and Costa Rica (Pittsburgh, 1989). A number of works have dealt with the phenomenal rise of Protestantism in Central America, notably Wilton Nelson, El Protestantismo en Centro América(San José, 1982); Luis Samandú (ed.), Protestantismos y procesos sociales en Centroamérica(San José, 1990); and Virginia Garrard-Burnett, Protestantism in Guatemala: Living in the New Jerusalem (Austin, 1998).

The most useful work on modern Belize is C. H. Grant, The Making of Modern Belize: Politics, Society and British Colonialism in Central America(Cambridge, 1976), but for more-up-to-date summaries see Julio Fernández, Belize: Case Study for Democracy in Central America(Aldershot, England, 1989); and Assad Shoman, Party Politics in Belize (Belize City, 1987).

IV. The Economy

Victor Bulmer-Thomas, The Political Economy of Central America since 1920 (Cambridge, 1987), details the economic history of the region in the 20th century. John Weeks, The Economies of Central America (N. Y., 1985), is a brief, but excellent introduction to the economies of the isthmian countries. For a longer view, see C. F. S. Cardoso and Héctor Pérez Brignoli, Central América y la economía occidental (San José, 1977). Another useful Central American approach, within a dependency framework, is Mario Monteforte Toledo, Central América, subdesarrollo y dependencia (2 vols., México, 1972). Gary Wynia, Politics and Planners: Economic Development in Central America (Madison, 1972), still has value for understanding the process of economic planning and development on the isthmus, but more up-to-date and more critical of U.S. aid policy, are Richard Feinberg and Bruce M. Bagley, Development Postponed: The Political Economy of Central America in the 1980s (Boulder, 1986); Tom Barry, The Soft War: The Uses and Abuses of U. S. Economic Aid (N. Y., 1988); Rachel Garst, Feeding the Crisis: U. S. Food Aid and Farm Policy in Central America(Lincoln, 1990); and Michael Conroy, A Cautionary Tale: Failed U.S. Development Policy in Central America (Boulder, 1996). The best work on the Sandinista economic program and the dynamics between the business community and the government is Rose Spalding, Capitalists and Revolution in Nicaragua: Opposition and Accommodation, 1979-1993 (Chapel Hill, 1994). See also her edited volume, The Political Economy of Revolutionary Nicaragua (Boston, 1987). Joseph Collins, et al., Nicaragua: What Difference Could a Revolution Make? Food and Farming in the New Nicaragua (N.Y., 1986), is also informative, as is Ilja Luciak, The Sandinista Legacy: Lessons from a Political Economy in Transition (Gainesville, 1995). A collection of essays by economists supporting neo-liberal solutions is Irma T. de Alonso (ed.), Trade, Industrialization, and Integration in Twentieth-Century Central America(Westport, Conn., 1994). The Statistical Abstract of Latin America (Los Angeles, 1955-present), provides statistical data on each country. The national banks and statistical departments of all the Central American states regularly publish statistical reports on all aspects of their economies, as has the Secretariat of the Central American Integration Movement (SIECA) in Guatemala, e.g., Centroamérica: características de su economías: Centroamérica en gráficas, 1994 (Guatemala, 1995). There are also official and other websites dealing with each state on the Internet. An excellent source for recent economic data are the annual Country Profiles and quarterly Country Reports for each country published by the Economist Intelligence Unit (London, 1993- ). The U.N. Economic Commission for Latin America, Antecedentes estadísticos de la distribución del ingreso en los años ochenta (8 vols., Santiago de Chile, 1993), deals with Guatemalan, Honduran, Costa Rican, and Panamanian distribution of income in the 1980s.

With the exception of Bulmer-Thomas' work and studies on economic integration, treated below, most of the work on Central America has been at the state level. Valentín Solórzano Fernández, Historia de la evolución económica de Guatemala (2d ed., Guatemala, 1978), provides an outline of Guatemalan economic history. Several informative articles on Guatemalan economic development appeared in the Seminario de Integración Social Guatemalteco, Economía de Guatemala (Guatemala, 1958). Other articles and documents have been compiled by Jorge Luján Muoz, Economía de Guatemala, 1750-1940(Guatemala, 1980). Enna Vides de Orive and Pablo R. Schneider, Análisis de la situación económica de Guatemala, 1965-1984 (2d ed., Guatemala, 1985), provides a detailed analysis of the Guatemalan economy during the period covered. A major source of data on recent Guatemalan economic development is the Centro de Investigaciones Económicas Nacionales, Lineamientos de política económica y social para Guatemala, 1991-1995 (2d ed., 13 vols., Guatemala, 1990-1991). On taxation see Roy W. Bahl, et al., The Guatemalan Tax Reform (Boulder, 1996). Kurt Peterson, The Maquiladora Revolution in Guatemala (New Haven, 1992), describes the growth of maquiladora manufacturing.

David Luna, Manual de historia económica de El Salvador (2d ed., San Salvador, 1986), is a brief survey, particularly for the post-independence period, but Lindo-Fuentes' Weak Foundations(Berkeley, 1990), is better for the 19th century. Eduardo Colindres, Fundamentos económicos de la burguesía salvadoreña (San José, 1977), provides an excellent introduction to the dominant landholding classes in El Salvador. D. R. Reynolds, Rapid Development in Small Economies: The Example of El Salvador (N.Y., 1967), provides an overview of the postwar period and comparison with other small nations. Héctor Salazar, Sector informal y desarrollo en El Salvador (San Salvador, 1992), describes the important informal economy. On the 1990s see J. K. Boyce (ed.), Economic Policy for Building Peace: The Lessons of El Salvador (Boulder, 1996).

There is little historical economic data on Honduras, but Finney's In Quest of El Dorado (NY., 1987), is a valuable contribution to 19th-century Honduran economic history. Vincent Checchi, et al., Honduras, A Problem in Economic Development (N.Y., 1959) provides data on the 1950s. Rodolfo Pastor Fasquelle, Memoria de una empresa hondureña (San Pedro Sula, 1988), provides a sympathetic history the Compañía Azucarera Hondureña. See also Alcides Hernández, El neoliberalismo en Honduras (Tegucigalpa, 1983).

Nicaragua also suffered from lack of scientific study before the Sandinista Revolution, but there has been a notable surge in research and publication on the Nicaraguan economy since 1980. Notable are Jaime Wheelock Román (ed.), La Mosquitia en la revolución (Managua, 1981); Geske Dijkstra, Industrialization in Sandinista Nicaragua: Policy and Practice in a Mixed Economy (Boulder, 1992); and B. N. Biondi-Morra, Hungry Dreams: The Failure of Food Policy in Revolutionary Nicaragua, 1979-1900 (Ithaca, 1993).

Costa Rican development was researched by Stacy May, et al., Costa Rica: A Study in Economic Development (N.Y., 1952), but a more useful economic history is Tomás Soley Güell, Histórica económica y hacendaria de Costa Rica (2 vols., San José, 1947-49) and Acuña and Molina, Historia económica y social de Costa Rica (1750-1950) (San José, 1991). A very useful commentary on contemporary economic development in Costa Rica is Bruce Wilson's Ph.D. dissertation, When Social Democrats Choose Neo-Liberal Economic Policies: The Cases of Costa Rica and Jamaica (Ann Arbor, 1994). Jorge Nowalski, et al., Impacto de la maquila en la economía costarricense (San José, 1994); and Leonardo Garnier and Fernado Herrero, El desarrollo de la industria en Costa Rica (Heredia, 1982), deal with aspects of industrial development. See also J. M. Villasuso, El sector productivo: Crisis y perspectivas (San José, 1984); and Ricardo Monge González and Claudio González Vega, Reforma financiera en Costa Rica: Perspectivas y propuestas (San José, 1993), and Economía política, proteccionismo, y apertura en Costa Rica (San José, 1995); Wilburg Jiménez Castro, El síndrome de la deuda pública externa de Costa Rica: (Causas, efectos y soluciones) 1970-1992 (San José, 1996); and the excellent study sponsored by the World Bank, Reforma del Estado en Costa Rica (San José, 1990).

Norman Ashcraft applies dependency theory to Belize in his Colonialism and Underdevelopment: Processes of Political Economic Change in British Honduras (N.Y., 1973).

Important studies dealing with aspects of agricultural development throughout Central America are Craig Dozier, Indigenous Tropical Agriculture in Central America: Land Use, Systems and Problems (Washington, 1958); and George Ordish, Man, Crops and Pests in Central America(London, 1964). R. G. Williams shows the close relationship between economics and politics in Export Agriculture and the Crisis in Central America (Chapel Hill, 1986). The agricultural history of Costa Rica is the subject of a massive chronology by Alberto Saenz Maroto, Historia agrícola de Cost Rica (Universidad de Costa Rica, 1970). Mitchell Seligson, Peasants of Costa Rica and the Development of Agrarian Capitalism (Madison, 1980), is very informative, as is Carlos Araya Pochet, Historia económica de Costa Rica, 1950-1970 (San José, 1975). Lowell Gudmundson, Hacendados, políticos y precaristas: la ganadería y el latifundismo guanacasteco, 1800-1950 (San José, 1983 [1984]), provides a detailed examination of an important agricultural region of Costa Rica.

Useful works on Guatemalan agricultural history include Julio Castellanos Cambranes, Introducción a la historia agrícola de Guatemala (Guatemala, 1978), and Café y campesinos en Guatemala, 1853-1897 (Guatemala, 1985); A. C. Martínez-Holgado, Le secteur agricole du Guatemala (Austin, 1969); and L. B. Fletcher, et al., Guatemala's Economic Development: The Role of Agriculture(Ames, Ia., 1971). Susan Berger, Political and Agrarian Development in Guatemala (Boulder, 1992) analyzes Guatemalan agrarian policies since 1931, concluding that these policies have often diminished the standards of living of the majority and failed to even accomplish their stated goals.

Coffee and bananas have, understandably, received considerable attention. A. Alvarado, Tratado de cafecultura práctica (2 vols., Guatemala, 1935-36), details the growth of coffee culture in Guatemala, and McCreery, Rural Guatemala, 1760-1940 (Stanford, 1994), offers both information and insight into coffee's role there. See also Peter Fleer, Arbeitsmarkt und Herrschaftsapparat in Guatemala, 1920-1940 (Frankfurt am Main, 1997). For Costa Rica, Gudmundson, Costa Rica Before Coffee (Baton Rouge, 1986), is essential background. See also Gudmundson, William Roseberry, and Mario Samper Kutschbach (eds.), Coffee, Society, and Power in Latin America (Baltimore, 1995). Jaime Daremblum, El auge del café y la apertura de la economía costarricense (San José, 1979); and Carolyn Hall, El Café y el desarrollo histórico-geográfico de Costa Rica (San José, 1976) and Formación de una hacienda cafetelera, 1889-1911 (San José, 1978), are excellent, as are Browning, El Salvador: Landscape and Society(Oxford, 1971), and Lindo Fuentes' Weak Foundations (Berkeley, 1990) for Salvadoran coffee. For Panama, in addition to Zimbalist and Weeks, Panama at the Crossroads (Berkeley, 1991), see Robert Looney, The Economic Development of Panama (N.Y., 1976); Alfredo Castillero Calvo, El café en Panamá: una historia social y económica: Siglos XVIII-XX(Panamá, 1985); and Philippe Bourgeois, Ethnicity at Work: Divided Labor on a Central American Banana Plantation (Baltimore, 1989). H. B. Arthur and G. L. Beckford, Tropical Agribusiness Structures and Adjustments -- Bananas (Boston, 1968), explains modern methods of production and marketing bananas, and J. R. López, La economía del banano en Centroamérica (San José, 1986), provides excellent analysis of banana industry operations in Central America. Robert MacCameron, Bananas, Labor and Politics in Honduras, 1954-1963 (Syracuse, 1983), deals with the rise of labor in Honduras and its relation to economic and political development. The numerous works dealing with the United Fruit Company may be found listed in Dosal, Doing Business with the Dictators(Wilmington, Del., 1993). T. L. Karnes details the story of another major banana company in Tropical Enterprise: The Standard Fruit and Steamship Company in Latin America (Baton Rouge, 1978).

Manuel Rubio Sánchez has dealt with the histories of a number of important Central American export commodities in a series of articles, as well as his books, Historia del añil o xiquilite en Centro América (2 vols., San Salvador, 1976), Historia del cultivo de la morera de China y de la industria del gusano de seda en Guatemala (Guatemala, 1984), and Historia del cultivo de la grana o cochinilla en Guatemala (Guatemala, 1994), as well as several articles on other commodities.

Fiscal and monetary policies have not attracted much historical study in Central America, but there are a few notable exceptions. The standard older work is J. P. Young, Central American Currency and Finance (Princeton, 1925), but Dana Munro, The Five Republics of Central America (N.Y., 1918), is also useful. On coinage, H. F. Burzio, Diccionario de la moneda hispanoamericana (3 vols., Santiago de Chile, 1956-58), is an indispensable reference for the colonial period, as is the profusely illustratred work of Kurt Prober, Historia numismática de Guatemala (2d ed., Guatemala, 1973). Arturo Castillo Flores, Historia de la moneda de Honduras (Tegucigalpa, 1974), concentrates on the period since independence. See also C. F. Hidalgo, De estructura económica y banca central: La experiencia de Honduras (Madrid, 1963). For Nicaragua, see Luis Cuadra Cea, Aspectos históricos de la moneda de Nicaragua (Managua, 1963). For 19th-century Costa Rica, Cleto González Viquez, Historia financiera de Costa Rica(2d ed., San José, 1977); Tomás Soley Güell, Historia monetaria de Costa Rica(2d ed., 1926; and Rodrigo Facio, La moneda y la banca central en Costa Rica(2d ed., México, 1973), are other early accounts, but a more complete history is Rufino Gil Pacheco, Ciento cinco años de vida bancaria en Costa Rica (3d ed., San José, 1975). More recently, under the encouragement of government and international agencies, more attention has been given to this area.

Transportation and communication developments have been touched upon by many writers, but few have focused their study on this important area. E. R. Long, Railways of Central America and the West Indies (Washington, 1925), is an early survey, and there are a few descriptions of railways in individual countries, but no comprehensive analysis exists. Cristina Chamorro B., Las primeras bases de infrastructura en Nicaragua, 1975-1936 (Managua, 1976), offers a survey of the foundations of infrastructure in Nicaragua. The standard history of the postal service in Guatemala, and a guide to its postage stamps, is Roland A. Goodman Guatemala: A Handbook on the Postal History and Philately of Guatemala (2 vols., London, 1969-74), covering the history to 1971, and David Jickling, Guatemala Philately--1971-1990 Issues and Special Studies(Washington, 1991).

The Common Market attracted considerably more attention, although much of it was narrow in scope and significance. W. R. Cline and Enrique Delgado (eds.), Economic Integration in Central America (Washington, 1978; R. Q. Shaw, Central America: Regional Integration and National Political Development (Boulder, 1978); and Gabriel Siri, El Salvador and Economic Integration (London, 1982) tell the story of its development through the 1970s, as does Bulmer-Thomas' work, mentioned above. The massive study carried out by SIECA, El desarrollo integrado de Centroamérica en la presente década: Bases y propuestas para el perfeccionamiento y la reestructuración del Mercado Común(13 vols., Buenos Aires, 1973) still has utility. Nicolás Mariscal, offers a pessimistic view of revival efforts in Integración económica y poder político en Centroamérica: intentos de restructuración de 1969 a 1981 (San Salvador, 1983). Sheldon Annis (ed.), Poverty, Natural Resources, and Public Policy in Central America, (New Brunswick, N. J., 1992), with articles by Oscar Arias and other Central American leaders, is a well-balanced collection of useful articles on the economic and social development of the region.

V. Inter-State Relations.

Gordon Ireland, Boundaries, Possessions and Conflicts in Central and North America and the Caribbean (Cambridge, Mass., 1941), is the standard work for earlier boundary disputes in Central American history, although Laudelino Moreno, Historia de las relaciones interstatuales de Centro América (Madrid, 1928) is more detailed. R. V. Salisbury, Costa Rica y el Istmo, 1900-1934 (San José, 1984), is a fine study of Costa Rican diplomacy with the other Central American states and the United States in the intervention period. Francisco Rojas Aravena, Costa Rica: Política exterior y crisis centroamericana (Heredia, 1990), examines Costa Rica's foreign policy through the 1980s, as does Carlos Sojo, Costa Rica: política exterior y sandinismo (San José, 1991). Other useful studies include Antonio Vallejo, Historia documentada de los limites entre la República de Honduras y las de Nicaragua, El Salvador y Guatemala (desde 1524 hasta 1890) (Tegucigalpa, 1938); and Felipe Rodríguez S., El Golfo de Fonseca en el derecho público centroamericano: La doctrina Meléndez (San Salvador, 1917). The extensive literature on the Guatemala-Belize dispute is reviewed in R. L. Woodward, Jr., Belize (Oxford, 1980) and in Peggy Wright and Brian Coutts, Belize (2d ed., Oxford, 1993). An excellent account of Sandinista foreign policy is Mary Vanderlaan, Revolution and Foreign Policy in Nicaragua(Boulder, 1986).

The history of the Organization of Central American States (ODECA) is explored in Marco Tulio Zeledón, La ODECA: Sus antecedentes históricos y su aporte al derecho internacional americano (San José, 1966). Works on the 1969 "Soccer War" have been dealt with in Section III-F. Francisco Villagrán Kramer, Encauzamiento y posible solución del conflicto centroamericano: El papel de Europa y de las superpotencias (Madrid, 1990), considers the European role in the search for peace in Central America in the 1980s. On the trend of Panama to become more closely integrated with Central America, see Alvaro de la Ossa, Panama: la integración con los otros países del istmo centroamericano (San José, 1995).

VI. The Society

There is a vast literature on the society of Central America, much of it the work of sociologists and anthropologists. R. N. Adams, Cultural Surveys (Washington, 1957), is an excellent introductory survey, and his Crucifixion by Power (Austin, 1970), provides perceptive analyses of Guatemala's social structure and national institutions. Edelberto Torres-Rivas describes Central America in the framework of its historical development in economic dependency in his History and Society in Central America (Austin, 1993), a translation of his Interpretación del desarrollo social centroamericano San José, 1971). His Repression and Resistance: The Struggle for Democracy in Central America (Boulder, 1989), contains translations of several of the most important essays of this major Central American scholar. Also very suggestive in explaining the class structure of much of rural Central America is Rodolfo Stavenhagen, Clases, colonialismo y aculturación(Guatemala, 1968). Samuel Stone, Heritage of the Conquistadors (Lincoln, 1990), uses extensive genealogical research to draw perceptive conclusions about the nature of Central American elites. Rafael Menjívar and J. D. Trejos, La pobreza en Centroamérica (San José, 1990) describes the social consequences of uneven economic development. Marc Lindenberg,The Human Development Race: Improving the Quality of Life in Developing Countries (San Francisco, 1993), contains much data on Central America, including Panama. Carlos Araya Pochet, Origen y desarrollo de la burgesía agroexportadora en Centroamérica: Los casos de Costa Rica y Guatemala (1840-1900) (San José, 1977), compares Guatemala and Costa Rica in the 19th century. J. L. Vega Carballo takes an historical approach in his brilliant Hacía una interpretación del desarrollo costarricense (4th ed., San José, 1983). Iván Molina Jiménez and Steven Palmer (eds.), Héroes al gusto y libros de modo: Sociedad y cambio cultural en Costa Rica (1750/1900) (San José, 1992), contains six excellent studies on Costa Rican society and culture. Palmer's forthcoming Moral Panic, Popular Medicine, and Social Policy: Costa Rica, 1900-1940, also promises to be a valuable contribution to Costa Rican social history. Luis Barahona J., El gran incognita (San José, 1953), offers a sociological description of the Costa Rican peasant, while Mario Samper, Generations of Settlers: Rural Households on the Costa Rican Frontier(Boulder, 1990), examines the role of peasants in an outlying frontier region and compares the Costa Rican experience with other coffee-producing areas of Latin America. Segundo Montes, El compadrazgo: Una estructura de poder en El Salvador (San Salvador, 1979); and Santiago Montes Mozo, Etnoshistria de El Salvador: El Guachival Centroamericano(2 vols., San Salvador, 1977), are both fine contributions to Salvadoran social structure and ethnohistory. Carlos Cabarrús, Génesis de una revolución (México, 1983), looks at peasant society in northern El Salvador in terms of their adhesion to the rebel cause. On Honduras, see Antonio Murga Frassinetti, Enclave y sociedad en Honduras (Tegucigalpa, 1978); and Susan Stonich, "I am destroying the land!": The Political Ecology of Poverty and Environmental Destruction in Honduras (Boulder, 1993). Nancie Solien González, Dollar, Dove, and Eagle: One Hundred Years of Palestinian Migration to Honduras (Ann Arbor, 1992), is a splendid account of Palestinian immigration and adaptation to Honduran society. For Guatemala, the series of sociological, anthropological, and economic studies published by the Seminario de Integración Social Guatemalteca have greatly increased the literature on that state. Flavio Rojas Lima, Los indios de Guatemala: El lado oculto de la historia(Madrid, 1992) is an important new work by the long-time director of that series, as was his La cultura del maíz en Guatemala(Guatemala, 1988). For Panama, see Alfredo Castillero Calvo, La sociedad panameña: Historia de su formación y integración (Panamá, 1970); and Marco A. Gandásegui, h. (comp.), Las Clases sociales en Panamá: Grupos humanos, clases medias, elites y oligarquiá(Panamá, 1993), as well as Velma Newton, The Silver Men: West Indian Labour Migration to Panama (Kingston, 1984).

There have been far more important community case studies in Central America than can possibly be listed here, again with a preponderance in Guatemala. Among the most useful of these are the pioneering work of Webster McBryde, Sololá (New Orleans, 1933); John Gillin, The Culture of Security in San Carlos (New Orleans, 1951); Ruth Bunzel, Chichicastenango (N.Y., 1952); Melvin Tumin, Caste in a Peasant Society (Princeton, 1952); Sol Tax, Penny Capitalism: A Guatemalan Indian Economy (Washington, 1953); Charles Wagley, Santiago Chimaltenango (2d ed., Guatemala, 1957); and R. E. Hinshaw, Panajachel: A Guatemalan Town in Thirty-Year Perspective (Pittsburgh, 1975). Also notable are Sakari Sariola, Social Class and Social Mobility in a Costa Rican Town (Turrialba, 1954); Manning Nash, Machine Age Maya (Glencoe, Ill., 1958), which describes the impact of a textile factory on a Guatemalan Indian village; Rubén Reina's exhaustive description of Chinautla in Law of the Saints (N.Y., 1966); and Pedro Carrasco, Sobre los indios de Guatemala (Guatemala, 1982), containing articles and documents on the Indians of the Guatemalan highlands. A thorough study of the Verapaz region of Guatemala is Arden King, Cobán and the Verapaz, History and Cultural Process in Northern Guatemala (New Orleans, 1974), and on the Petén see Norman Schwartz, Forest Society: A Social History of the Petén (Philadelphia, 1990). Recent and superb community studies include John Watanabe, Maya Saints and Souls in a Changing World (Austin, 1992); Jean Piel, Sajcabajá: Muerte y resurrección de un pueblo de Guatemala, 1500-1970 (México, 1989); and Sheldon Annis, God and Production in A Guatemalan Town(Austin, 1987). Robert Carmack has made major contributions with his Rebels of Highland Guatemala: The Quiché-Mayas of Momostenango (Norman, 1995); Quichean Civilization (Berkeley, 1973); Historia social de los Quichés(Guatemala, 1979); and, with John Early and Christopher Lutz (eds.), Historical Demography of Highland Guatemala (Albany, 1982). Barbara Tedlock, Time and the Highland Maya (Rev. ed., Albuquerque, 1992), is a superb study of Quiché society and the relationship of its concept of time to resistance to change. See also the related, if more general, study by Miguel León Portilla, Time and the Reality in the Thought of the Maya (2d ed., Norman, 1988). The Handbook of Middle American Indians continues to provide extensive coverage of the Indians and their bibliography.

Demetrio Cojtí Cuxil, El movimiento maya en Guatemala (Guatemala, 1997), explains the growth of indigenous identity in Guatemala and the rise of the pan-Mayan movement. See also his La configuración del pensamiento político del pueblo maya (Quetzaltenango, 1991), and E. F. Fischer and R. Mckenna Brown (eds.), Maya Cultural Activism in Guatemala (Austin, 1996), and Richard Wilson, Maya Resurgence in Guatemala: Q'eqchi' Experiences (Norman, 1995). Allan F. Burns, Maya in Exile: Guatemalans in Florida (Philadelphia, 1993), tells the story of Kanjobal Maya refugees and immigrants in southern Florida.

On non-Maya Indians of the isthmus see Jorge Jenkins Molieri, El desafío indígena en Nicaragua: El caso de los miskitos (2d ed., Managua, 1986), and Bernard Nietschmann, The Unknown War: The Miskito Nation, Nicaragua, and the United States (N.Y., 1989). On the Garífuna, or Black Carib, population along the eastern coast of Central America there are several recent works, including Nancie González, Sojourners of the Caribbean: Ethnogenesis and Ethnohistory of the Garifuna (Urbana, 1988); Virginia Kerns, Women and the Ancestors: Black Carib Kinship and Ritual (Urbana, 1983); Sebastian Cayetano, Garifuna History, Language & Culture of Belize, Central America & the Caribbean (Belize, 1993); Ramón Rivas, Pueblos indígenas y garífuna de Honduras: Una caracterización(Tegucigalpa, 1993); and Michael Crawford (ed.), Black Caribs: A Case Study in Biocultural Adaptation (N.Y., 1984). Gérard Lafleur, Les Caraìbes des Petites Antilles (Paris, 1992), is a well researched study of the early history of these people in the eastern Caribbean, before they were dumped in Central America. And on the Cuna Indians of Panama, see James Howe, The Kuna Gathering: Contemporary Village Politics in Panama (Austin, 1986).

Relatively little work has been done on the African in Central America. Luz María Martínez Montiel (ed.), Presencia africana en Centroamérica (México, 1993), is a collection of articles on the subject. Carlos Meléndez and Quince Duncan offer an uneven, but informative group of studies in El negro en Costa Rica (San José, 1972), and Aviva Chomsky, West Indian Workers and the United Fruit Company in Costa Rica, 1870-1940 (Baton Rouge, 1996), deals with black workers in the Costa Rican banana plantations, as does Trevor Purcell, Banana Fallout: Class, Color, and Culture among West Indians in Costa Rica (Los Angeles, 1993). See also M. D. Olien, The Negro in Costa Rica: The Role of an Ethnic Minority in a Developing Society(Winston-Salem, 1970).

Chomsky and Aldo Lauria, Identity and Struggle at the Margins of the Nation-State: The Laboring Peoples of Central America and the Hispanic Caribbean (Durham, N.C., 1998), does an exceptional job of bringing together in a single volume substantial new research on working people and their history throughout the circum-Caribbean region. Volume 2 of Pablo González Casanova (ed.), Historia política de los campesinos latinoamericanos (4 vols., México, 1984-85), is devoted to Central American rural conflicts in the 20th century, while his Historia del movimiento obrero en América Latina (4 vols., México, 1984-85) contains articles on labor organization in each of the Central American states. Mark Mobert, Myths of Ethnicity and Nation: Immigration, Work, and Identity in the Belize Banana Industry (Knoxville, Tenn., 1997), is a valuable study of Belizean workers.

Literature on women in Central America has increased significantly. Manuel Rubio Sánchez, Status de la mujer en Centroamérica (Guatemala, 1976), and María Luisa Soto de Bertrand Anduray, Historia de la mujer hondureña: Epoca independiente (Tegucigalpa, 1992), are introductory studies. Macarena Barahona Riera, Las sufragistas de Costa Rica (San José,

1994), has described Costa Rican struggles for women's suffrage from the 1890s forward; and Ilse Abshagen Leitinger (ed.), The Costa Rican Women's Movement: A Reader (Pittsburgh, 1997), contains a group of articles on Costa Rican women's efforts to gain rights and participate in the society on a larger scale. Also on Costa Rica is Lorena Aguilar, et al. , Feminismo en Costa Rica?: Testimonios, reflexiones, ensayos (San José, 1995); and Linda Berrón (comp.), Relatos de mujeres: Antología de narradoras de Costa Rica (San José, 1993). A number of works have dealt with women's role in the civil wars of the 'eighties, notably Ana Isabel García and Enrique Gomáriz (eds.), Mujeres centroamericanas: Efectos del conflicto (2 vols., San José, 1989). Ileana Rodríguez, Women, Guerrillas, and Love: Understanding War in Central America(Minneapolis, 1996), as well as her House/Garden/Nation: Space, Gender, and Ethnicity in Post-Colonial Latin American Literatures by Women (Durham, N.C., 1994); Margaret Randall,Sandino's Daughters (Vancouver, 1981) and Sandino's Daughters Revisited: Feminism in Nicaragua (New Brunswick, N.J., 1994); Jane Deighton, et al., Sweet Ramparts: Women in Revolutionary Nicaragua (London; 1983); Ada Brenes Peña, et al., La mujer nicaragüense en los años 80 (Managua, 1991); Mercedes Olivera, et al., Nicaragua: El poder de las mujeres(Managua, 1992); and Daisy Zamora (ed.), La mujer nicaragüense en la poesía: Antología(Managua, 1992), all focus on aspects of Nicaraguan feminism in the 'eighties. Marilyn Thomson, Women of El Salvador: The Price of Freedom (Philadelphia, 1986); Norma de Herrera, La mujer en la revolución salvadoreña (México, 1983); Claribel Alegría and Darwin J. Flakoll, No me agarran viva: La mujer salvadoreña en lucha (México, 1983), look at Salvadoran women; while Judith Zur, Violent Memories: Quiché War Widows of Guatemala (Boulder, 1997); and Margaret Hooks,Guatemalan Women Speak (Washington, 1993), considers Guatemalan women. On Panama see A. L. Moreno de Rivera, Perfil de la situación de la mujer en Panamá y lineamientos de acciones prioritarias (Panamá, 1992). An interesting, if brief, study of the role of women in Honduran agriculture is Miriam Fordham, et al., El rol económico de la mujer campesina en Honduras (Tegucigalpa, 1987), and for Belizean women, see Silvana Woods, Mothers of Modern Belize: Profiles of Four Belizean Patriots (Belize City, 1991). Cheryl Claassen (ed.), Women in Archaeology (Philadelphia, 1994), focusses especially on female archaeologists in Central America, such as Dorothy Hughes Popenoe in Honduras. This work also considers the status of women in Mesoamerican archaeology and problems of gender bias. A major source of statistics on women in Central America is Teresa Valdés and Enrique Gómariz (eds.), Mujeres latinoamericanas en cifras (19 vols., Madrid and Santiago de Chile, 1992-1995).

Regarding the population history of the isthmus as well as recent trends, the collection edited by Anne Pebley and Luis Rosero-Bixby, Demographic Diversity and Change in the Central American Isthmus (Santa Monica, 1997), is excellent. Also highly useful is the Instituto de Nutrición de Centro América y Panamá, Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, La mortalidad en la niñez: Centroamérica, Panamá, y Belice (7 vols., San José, 1990), with a volume on each country. There is also a general history of Panama's population by Omar Jaén Suárez, La población del istmo de Panamá del siglo XVI al XX (Panamá, 1978). Bryan Roberts, Organizing Strangers (Austin, 1973), points to specific problems of urbanization in Guatemala City. Bruce Herrick and Barclay Hudson describe Costa Rican problems in Urban Poverty and Economic Development: A Case Study of Costa Rica (N.Y., 1981). Jacobo Schifter, Lowell Gudmundson, and Mario Solera, El Judio en Costa Rica (San José, 1984), describe the Jewish community in Costa Rica, highlighting the Polish immigration of the 1930s, the migrant experience, and the establishment of community institutional life since then. Paul Kutsche, Voices of Migrants: Rural-Urban Migration in Costa Rica(Gainesville, 1994), is an interesting study of internal migration within Costa Rica with many individual case histories. Daniel Goldrich, Sons of the Establishment(Chicago, 1966), looks at elite youth in Panama and Costa Rica. Oscar Arias Sánchez, Grupos de presión en Costa Rica (San José, 1971), offers a brief but perceptive study of the political role of Costa Rican interest groups. Other excellent Costa Rican studies include Mark Rosenberg, Las luchas por el seguro social en Costa Rica (San José, 1980); Daniel Camacho Monge, Organización económica y social de Costa Rica (San José, 1967); and J. A. Booth, Características sociográficas de las regiones periféricas de Costa Rica (San José, 1974). E. G. Ferris, The Central American Refugees (N.Y., 1987), compares immigration policies of Mexico, Costa Rica, Honduras, and the U.S. toward Central American refugees, while Beatriz Manz, Refugees of a Hidden War: The Aftermath of Counterinsurgency in Guatemala (Albany, 1988), treats the problem in Guatemala. Segundo Montes, El Salvador 1987: Salvadoreños refugiados en los Estados Unidos (San Salvador, 1987), is a major study on Salvadoran migration to the U.S. See also Mandy Macdonald and Michael Gatehouse, In the Mountains of Morazán: Portrait of a Returned Refugee Community in El Salvador (London, 1995).

VII. Culture and the arts

Luis Gallegos Valdés, Letras de Centro América: Desde el Popol Vuh hasta Miguel Angel Asturias (San Salvador, 1990), provides an introduction to Central American literature, and recently there has been some promising research on individual countries, especially Nicaragua. David Whisnant has studied cultural policy in Nicaragua in his Rascally Signs in Sacred Places: The Politics of Culture in Nicaragua (Chapel Hill, 1995). Margaret Randall, Risking a Somersault in the Air: Conversations with Nicaraguan Writers (San Francisco, 1984), contains interviews with Nicaraguan writers of the 'eighties. John Beverly and Marc Zimmerman, Literature and Politics in the Central American Revolutions (Austin, 1990), review the relationship between literature and politics in Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala. Ramón Salazar, Historia del desenvolvimiento intelectual de Guatemala (1897), is a traditional review of intellectual history through the 19th century, and R. H. Valle, Historia de las ideas contemporáneas en Centro-América (México, 1960), is a useful catalogue of the leading thinkers of the isthmus. Jorge E. Arellano, Diccionario de escritores centroamericanos(Managua, 1997) is another useful reference work. Specific areas of intellectual development have been treated with varying degrees of scholarly care. Constantino Lascaris followed up his Desarrollo de las ideas en Costa Rica (2d ed., San José, 1975), with an Historia de las ideas en Centroamérica(San José, 1970), but Gerardo Morales, Cultura oligárquica y nueva intelectualidad en Costa Rica, 1880-1914 (Heredia, 1993), is more analytical for the period it covers and is an important contribution toward understanding the changing elite culture in Costa Rica. See also, on Costa Rica's political philosophy, Enrique Benavides, Nuestro pensamiento político en sus fuentes (San José, 1975); Luis Barahona, Las ideas políticas en Costa Rica (San José, 1977); and Arnoldo Mora Rodríguez, Historia del pensamiento costarricense (San José, 1992). One of the most thorough works on philosophical development in Central America is Jesús Amurrio G., El postivismo en Guatemala (Guatemala, 1966). Sheldon Liss surveyed left-wing thought in Radical Thought in Central America (Boulder, 1991).

Major research on the history of Central American literature have provided a number of useful surveys. L. A. Díaz Vasconcelos, Apuntes para la historia de literature guatemalteca (2d ed., Guatemala, 1950), is a standard reference for colonial Central America. Joquim de Montezuma de Carvalho (ed.), Panorama das literaturas das Américas de 1900 a actualidad (4 vols., Nova Lisboa, Angola, 1958-63), despite its unlikely place of publication, provides a handy reference to literary developments in each of the Central American states during the first half of the 20th century. R. L. Acevedo, La novela centroamericana (Río Piedras, P.R., 1982), is the most comprehensive work on Central American novels. Magda Zavala, Seidy Araya, & Albino Chacón Gutiérrez, La historiografía literaria en América Central (1957-1987) (Heredia, 1995), is useful for recent literature. There has been considerable commentary on and translation of some of the literature of the revolutionary decade of the 'eighties, such as Linda J. Craft, Novels of testimony and resistance from Central America (Gainesville, 1997); and And We Sold the Rain: Contemporary Fiction from Central America (2d ed., N.Y., 1996). Useful works dealing with individual states include David Vela, Literatura guatemalteca (2 vols., Guatemala, 1943); Seymour Menton, Historia crítica de la novela guatemalteca (Guatemala, 1960); M. A. Carrera, Panorama de la poesía femenina guatemalteca del siglo XX (Guatemala, 1983); Otto Olivera, La literatura en publicaciones periódicas de Guatemala, siglo XIX (New Orleans, 1974); Luis Gallegos Valdés, Panorama de la literatura salvadorea del período precolombino a 1980 (San Salvador, 1987); J. F. Martínez, La literatura hondureña (Tegucigalpa, 1987); Néstor Bermúdez, Escritores de Honduras (perfiles fugaces) (2 vols., La Habana, 1939-41); Jorge Eduardo Arellano, Panorama de la literatura nicargüense (Managua, 1977); S. F. White (ed.), Poets of Nicaragua: A Bilingual Anthology, 1918-1979 (Greensboro, N.C., 1982), and Culture and Politics in Nicaragua: Testimonies of Poets and Writers (N.Y., 1986); Abelardo Bonilla, Historia de la literatura costarricense (2d ed., San José, 1967); Jorge Valdeperas, Para una nueva interpretación de la literatura costarricense (San José, 1991); and R. Miró, La literatura panameña (Panamá, 1971). It is not possible here to list the anthologies or works of even Central America's literary giants, but some mention may be made of biographical studies of a few. Antonio Batres Jáuregui compared two important earlier Guatemalan literary giants in his Landívar e Irisarri (Guatemala, 1896), while Richard Callan has written Miguel Angel Asturias(N.Y., 1970), but see also Callan, Gerard Flynn, and Kenneth Grieb, Essays on Miguel Angel Asturias (Milwaukee, 1973). Walter Payne relates the life and work of a Guatemalan literary light in A Central American Historian, José Milla (1822-1882) (Gainesville, 1957). The life and work of a more modern Central American historian has been sympathetically treated by Oscar Acosta, Rafael Heliodoro Valle, vida y obra (Tegucigalpa, 1964). Among the many studies on Rubén Darío, Edelberto Torres, La dramática vida de Rubén Darío (4th ed., Barcelona, 1966), is the most complete and popular, but C. D. Watland, Poet-errant: A Biography of Rubén Darío(N.Y., 1965), will provide English readers with some insight into the life and work of the Nicaraguan poet. Other Nicaraguan literary lights are featured in J. E. Arellano, Diccionario de las letras nicaragüenses (Managua, 1982); Xavier Zavala Cuadra (ed.), Homenaje a Pablo Antonio Cuadra, a special issue of the Revista del Pensamiento Centroamericano 37 (no. 172) (1982); J. M. Oviedo, Musas en guerra: Poesía, arte, y cultura en la nueva Nicaragua (1974-1988) (México, 1987); Paul Borgeson, Hacia el hombre nuevo: Poesía y pensamiento de Ernesto Cardenal (London, 1984); and J. L. Smith (ed.), An Annotated Bibliography of and about Ernesto Cardenal (Tempe, Az., 1979).

J. F. Figeac, La libertad de imprenta en El Salvador (San Salvador, 1947); Antonio Zelaya C., Cien años de libertad de prensa en Costa Rica, 1843-1943(San José, 1943); and J. H. Montalván, Breves apuntes para la historia del periodismo nicaragüense (León, 1958), have little analytical or critical content as histories of journalism, but they offer a chronology of events in the publishing history of those states. Italo López Vallecillos, El periodismo en El Salvador(San Salvador, 1964), is a more substantial work.

The standard survey, now quite dated, on Central American education is George and Barbara Waggoner, Education in Central America (Lawrence, Kans., 1971), but it is supplemented by a number of works on individual countries. Carlos González Orellana, Historia de la educación en Guatemala (2d ed., Guatemala, 1970), is informative and thorough. L. F. González Flores, Historia de la influencia extranjera en el desenvolvimiento educacional y científica de Costa Rica (2d ed., San José, 1976), is a substantial work. Elizabeth Fonseca, et al., Historia de la educación superior en Costa Rica (San José, 1991), contains several erudite essays; Miguel de Castillo Urbina, Educación para la modernización en Nicaragua (Buenos Aires, 1972), and La educación primaria nicaragüense (Managua, 1968), provide considerable detail on the system under the Somozas. Carlos Tunnermann Bernheim, Hacía una nueva educación en Nicaragua(Managua, 1980), describes the Sandinista effort to develop education. A more detailed description is J. B. Arrién, Nicaragua: Revolución y proyecto educativo (Managua, 1980). Charles Stansifer, The Nicaraguan National Literary Crusade (Hanover, N.H., 1981), describes the Sandinista literary campaign, as do Sheryl Hirshon and Judy Butler, And also Teach Them to Read (Westport, Conn., 1983). Several careful studies have been done on the teaching of history in Central America: Martín Alvarado R., La enseñanza de la historia en Honduras (México, 1951), is rather limited in scope and utility, but Carlos Molina Rag, La enseñanza de la historia en Nicaragua (México, 1953); Pedro Tobar Cruz, La enseñanza de la historia en los tres movimientos educacionales de Guatemala en el siglo XIX: Gálvez, Pavón, Barrios (Guatemala, 1953); and Héctor Samayoa G., La enseñanza de la historia en Guatemala (desde 1832 hasta 1852) (Guatemala, 1959), are all major works. Several works treat various aspects of university history, led by John Tate Lanning's two classic volumes on colonial Guatemala, The University in the Kingdom of Guatemala (Ithaca, 1955), and The Eighteenth Century Enlightenment in the University of San Carlos de Guatemala (Ithaca, 1956). Estebán Gardiola Cubas, Historia de la Universidad de Honduras en la primera centuria de su fundación (Tegucigalpa, 1952), traces the institution's history to 1930, and M. A. Durán does the same for El Salvador in Historia de la Universidad de El Salvador (San Salvador, 1941). Rafael Obregón L., focused on 19th-century university administration in Los rectores de la Universidad de Santo Tomás de Costa Rica (San José, 1955). Jorge Eduardo Arellano, Historia de la Universidad de León (2 vols., León, 1973-74), is a careful and detailed history of Nicaragua's first university. An abridged version of this work appeared in 1988. A broader look at Central American universities, reflecting their strengths and weaknesses, is found in an anthology of essays by Carlos Tunnermann, Pensamiento universitario centroamericano (San José, 1980). Carlos Martínez Durán, Las ciencias médicas en Guatemala (3d ed., Guatemala, 1964), is a major contribution to the history of medicine in Guatemala. Rafael Alvarado Sarria, Breve historia hospitalaria de Nicaragua (León, 1909), provides only a sketchy synopsis for Nicaragua.

Indigenous culture is for the most part dealt with elsewhere, but mention here may be made of Lila O'Neale, Textiles of Highland Guatemala (Washington, 1945), Carmen L. Petterson, Maya of Guatemala, Life and Dress (Guatemala, 1976); Anne Pollard Rowe, A Century of Change in Guatemalan Textiles (N.Y., 1981); Lilly de Jongh Osborne, Indian Crafts of Guatemala and El Salvador (Rev. ed., Norman, 1975); Karin Tice, Kuna Crafts, Gender, and the Global Economy(Austin, 1995); and Ann Parker and Avon Neal, Molas: Folk Art of the Cuna Indians(N.Y., 1977). There is substantial periodical literature on the folklore of Guatemala. Marcial Almas Lara, El Folklore guatemalteco en la tradición y leyenda a través de los siglos(Guatemala, 1970), is unscholarly, but it will provide a convenient introduction. For the other states the following will provide general surveys: Enrique Peña Hernández, Folklore de Nicaragua (Masaya, 1968); Francisco Pérez Estrada, Ensayos nicaragüenses (Managua, 1976); Evangelina Quesada de Núñez, Costa Rica y su folklore (San José, 1957); Gonzalo Chacón, Tradiciones costarricenses (3d ed., San José, 1964); and Ministerio de Cultura de El Salvador, Recopilación de materiales folklóricos salvadoreñas (San Salvador, 1944). Most interest in the fine arts has been focused on the pre-Columbian period and on colonial architecture, as for example, Luis Luján Muñoz, Síntesis de la arquitectura en Guatemala (Guatemala, 1968); J. H. Rodas E. (ed.), Pintura y escultura hispánica en Guatemala (Guatemala, 1992); Mario Monteforte Toledo, et al., Las formas y los días: El barroco en Guatemala (Madrid, 1989); O. A. Velarde B., El arte religioso colonial en Panamá (Panamá, 1990); or Alfredo Castillero Calvo, Arquitectura, urbanismo y sociedad: La vivienda colonial en Panamá: historia de un sueño (Panamá, 1994). One modern study of Central American architecture is Carlos Altezor Fuentes, Arquitectura urbana en Costa Rica: Exploración histórica 1900-1950 (Cartago, 1986). Other works that deal with more recent fine arts in Central America include V. M. Díaz, Las bellas artes en Guatemala (Guatemala, 1934); Ernesto Chinchilla Aguilar, Historia del arte en Guatemala, 1524-1962 (Guatemala, 1963); José A. Móbil, Historia del arte guatemalteco (2d ed., Guatemala, 1977); J. E. Arellano, Aportes a la historia del arte en Nicaragua (Managua, 1982) and Historia de la pintura nicaragüense(Managua, 1990); Ferrero, Sociedad y arte en la Costa Rica del siglo 19 (San José, 1986); and C. F. Echeverría, Historia crítica del arte costarricense (San José, 1986). Also notable is Cristina Esteras Martín, La platería en el reino de Guatemala, siglos XVI-XIX (Guatemala, 1994). Juan Carlos Flores, Magic and realism: Central American Contemporary Art (Tegucigalpa, 1992), exhibits the work of 37 lesser-known artists from six Central American countries. David Kunzle, The Murals of Revolutionary Nicaragua, 1979-199 (Berkeley, 1995), describes an important, if unsophisticated, artistic expression of the Sandinista revolution. Marcial Armas Lara, Origines de la marimba, su desenvolvimiento y otros instrumentos músicos (Guatemala, 1970), presents not altogether convincing evidence that the marimba originated among the Maya, but in the process he contributes to the available literature on indigenous musical instruments. On the history of Guatemalan music, see J. E. Tánchez, La música en Guatemala: Algunos músicos y compositores(Guatemala, 1987); Enrique Anleu Díaz, Historia crítica de la música en Guatemala (3d. ed., Guatemala, 1991); José Saenz Poggio, Historia de la música guatemalteca desde la monarquía española hasta fines del año 1877 (Guatemala, 1878), and Rafael Vásquez, Historia de la música en Guatemala (Guatemala, 1950), the latter being especially useful for showing 19th-century musical activity. Alfred Lemmon, La música de Guatemala en el siglo XVIII (Antigua Guatemala, 1986), and Dieter Lehnhoff, Espada y pentagrama: La música polifónica en la Guatemala del siglo XVI (Guatemala, 1986), have begun to explore Guatemala's colonial music. More recently, Lehnhoff has directed editions of Guatemalan music from the colonial period and 19th century on a series of compact discs. On the history of Costa Rican music see Virginia Zúñiga, La Orquesta Sinfónica Nacional: Antecedentes, desarrollo, culminación (San José, 1992), which is more than its title implies. J. E. Arellano, Inventario teatral de Nicaragua (Managua, 1988), is one of the few works on Central American theater. Others include J. R. Cea, Teatro en y de una comarca centroamericana:

ensayo-histórico-crítico (San Salvador, 1993), a history of theater in El Salvador; and on Costa Rica Anita Herzfeld and Teresa Cajiao Salas, El teatro hoy en Costa Rica (San José, 1973); and Alvaro Quesda, et al., Antología del teatro costarricense, 1890-1950 (San José, 1993).

VIII. Bibliographies and Current Periodicals

The arrival of electronic bibliographical tools has greatly simplified bibliographic searches in recent years, making many printed bibliographies unnecessary for those with access to a computer and modem or to libraries with electronic search facilities. Especially useful for Latin Americanists is the Handbook of Latin American Studies (Cambridge, Mass., 1936-51; Gainesville, 1951-1978; Austin, 1979- ), which may be searched quickly on CD-ROM (vols. 1-53) or from the Library of Congress website ( Also useful, for its broad coverage of periodical articles, is the Hispanic American Periodicals Index (H.A.P.I.) (Los Angeles, 1975- ), available on line by subscription or in many major research libraries. The catalogs of major research libraries with Central American strength are also useful and can be consulted on line, notably the Library of Congress, Tulane University, the University of Texas, and the University of California at Los Angles. Many serials, including Historical Abstracts and Dissertation Abstracts International, may also be searched quickly by computer.

Kenneth Grieb (ed.), Research Guide to Central America and the Caribbean (Madison, 1985), contains descriptions of major repositories of Central American research materials, as well as a series of essays on research needs, although those essays are now dated. A more recent guide to U.S. collections is Thomas Leonard, A Guide to Central American Collections in the United States(Westport, Conn., 1994).

The standard bibliography of works published in the Kingdom of Guatemala is José Toribio Medina, La imprenta en Guatemala (1660-1821)(Santiago de Chile, 1910). Medina failed to discover all the colonial imprints, however, so there have been a number of supplementary works, most notably that of Gilberto Valenzuela, La imprenta en Guatemala, algunas adiciones . . .(Guatemala, 1933); and J. L. Reyes M., Bibliografía de la imprenta en Guatemala (adiciones 1769-1900) (Guatemala, 1969). Also useful for the colonial period is Sidney Markman, Colonial Central America (Tempe, Az., 1977); and Lutz and Lovell, Demography and Empire: A Guide to the Population History of Spanish Central America, 1500-1821 (Boulder, 1995). Colin Danby and Richard Swedberg, Honduras Bibliography and Research guide (Cambridge, Mass., 1984).

The bibliographical essays in Vol. 11 of the Cambridge History of Latin America (Cambridge, 1995) are exceptionally good for specific periods and topics for works published through about 1990. Two historiographical articles in the Hispanic American Historical Review are also helpful: W. J. Griffith, "The Historiography of Central America since 1830," 40 (1960):548-69; and R. L. Woodward, "The Historiography of Modern Central America since 1960," 67 (1987):461-96. In addition, Carol Smith, Jefferson C. Boyer, and Martin Diskin, "Central America Since 1979," Annual Review of Anthropology 16(1987), pp. 197-221, and 17(1988), pp. 331-364, is an excellent, extended review of recent Central American literature. J. C. Pinto Soria, "Guatemala: de la historiografía tradicional a la historiografía moderna," in Política y Sociedad 25/28 (Guatemala, 1989-91), pp. 159-186, is useful for its criticism of traditional Guatemalan historiography and its indications of new directions for research. Kenneth Grieb (comp.), Central America in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: An Annotated Bibliography (Boston, 1988) is also very useful. A list of 19th-century travel accounts is T. L. Welch and Myriam Figueras, Travel Accounts and Descriptions of Latin America and the Caribbean, 1800-1920: A Selected Bibliography (Washington, 1982).

Bibliographies for the separate states cover the period since independence (and sometimes the colonial period as well). Clio Press's World Bibliographical Series (Oxford, 1980- ) includes a volume on each Central American state, updated fairly often. These volumes emphasize works in English, with annotated entries in all fields, and are excellent for beginning research projects. The impressive Nicaraguan National Bibliography, 1800-1978 (3 vols., Redlands, Calif., 1986) is the most important bibliographical tool now available for Nicaragua and has greatly diminished the need for some of the earlier bibliographies. With its supplementary volume on the Sandinista decade compiled by Jorge Eduardo Arellano, Bibliografía nacional de Nicaragua (1979-1989) (Managua, 1991), one can now find in a single source the vast majority of books ever published in or about the country. Also of great use for researchers on the Sandinista period is the Coordinadora Regional de Investigaciones Económicas y Sociales, CRIES CD-ROM (Managua, 1993), containing 12 databases of political, economic, and social information, including indices of Nicaraguan newspapers (1979-92) and regional publications on Central American politics, economics, and international relations. For Honduras the most comprehensive bibliography is M. A. García, Bibliografía Hondurea, 1620-1960 (2 vols., Tegucigalpa, 1971-72). For Costa Rica the standard older work is Luis Dobles Segreda, Indice bibliográfico de Costa Rica (9 vols., San José, 1927-36). Manuel Lucena Salmoral, Historiografía de Panamá (Panamá, 1967),is a basic guide to earlier publications in Panamanian history.

Specific topical bibliographies are too numerous to list here except for a few of the most important. Sara de Mundo Lo, Index to Spanish American Collective Biography: Volume 3--Central American and Caribbean Countries(Boston, 1984), presents approximately 1,000 annotated listings, mostly on Central America. K. S. Kapp presents an annotated list of 277 Central America Early Maps up to 1860 (North Bend, Ohio, 1974). Joyce Waddell Bailey (ed.), Handbook of Latin American Art (3 vols., Santa Barbara, 1984-85), is a bibliographic compilation by more than seventy scholars of both published and unpublished items from the late 19th century through 1983 relating to Latin American art since pre-Columbian times. The Instituto Nicaragüense de la Mujer, Bibliografía nacional anotada sobre la mujer en Nicaragua(Managua, 1988), covers works on the activities of women in many fields.

Among the North American and European journals that most frequently publish articles on Central America are the Hispanic American Historical Review(Baltimore, 1918-22, Durham, N.C., 1926- , quarterly); Journal of Inter-American Studies and World Affairs (Gainesville, 1959-64, Coral Gables, Fla., 1965- , quarterly); Latin American Perspectives (Riverside, Cal., 1974- , tri-annual); and The Americas (Washington, 1947- , quarterly). The Latin American Research Review (Austin, 1965- , tri-annual), publishes frequent bibliographical and methodological essays. The Inter-American Review of Bibliography (Washington, 1951- , quarterly) publishes bibliographical articles, book reviews, and a guide to current research. Excellent coverage of current economic developments can be found in the Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Profiles and Country Reports(formerly Quarterly Economic Review) (London, 1993- , quarterly). For business trends see Business Latin America (N.Y., 1966- , weekly). Current events are covered in Latin American Weekly Report (London, 1979- ); Latinamerica Press(Lima, 1969- , weekly); and NACLA Report on the Americas (N.Y., 1991- , bimonthly). Some which deal more exclusively with Central America are Inforpress Centroamericana(Guatemala, 1972- , weekly); Central America Report (Guatemala, 1974- , weekly); Central America NewsPak (Austin, 1995- , bi-weekly); Latin American Monitor: Central America(London, 1991- , monthly); Latin American Regional Reports: Central America (London, 1979- , monthly); Envío (Managua, 1980- , monthly); and This Week in Central America(Guatemala, 1979- , weekly). There are also many electronic sources, including many of the Central American newspapers and special interest websites, which may be found easily using a search engine such as Infoseek <>. Websites with many links to Central American newspapers are Kidon Media Link <>; Periódicos de América Latina y España <

news.html>; and World Newspapers <


The number of scholarly journals in Central America has declined slightly over the past decade. Notable are the Estudios Sociales Centroamericanos (San José, 1972- , tri-annual); and Anuario de Estudios Centroamericanos (San José, 1972- , annual). The Revista del Pensamiento Centroamericano (Managua, 1960-85, San José, 1986-94), useful for Nicaraguan history, ceased publication in 1994. The Nicaraguan Ministry of Culture published a number of short-lived journals in the 1980s, featuring principally literary articles that emphasized the Sandinista Revolution. Mesoamérica (Antigua Guatemala, 1980- , semi-annual), has become a major Guatemalan journal for both the humanities and the social sciences. ECA, Estudios Centroamericanos (San Salvador, 1945- , monthly) continues to be one of the best social science reviews in Central America and is especially useful for its documentation of the civil war and political crises in El Salvador. Other important Central American journals include the Anales de la Sociedad [Academia after 1979] de Geografía e Historia (Guatemala, 1924- , irregular); Revista de Historia(Heredia, C. R., 1975- , irregular); Antropología e Historia de Guatemala(Guatemala, 1949- , irregular); Revista de la Universidad de Costa Rica (San José, 1945- , irregular); Universidad de San Carlos (Guatemala, 1945- , annual); Guatemala Indígena(Guatemala, 1961-62, 1968- , quarterly); Economía Política(Tegucigalpa, 1962- , irregular); Boletín de la Academia Panameña de la Historia(Panamá, 1933- ); Revista Lotería (Panamá, 1941- ); Tareas (Panamá, 1960- ); and two journals published by the Belize Institute of Social Research and Action at St. John's College in Belize City, Belizean Studies (formerly National Studies) (1973- , irregular) and the Journal of Belizean Affairs (1973-79).

Central America has many newspapers, although television has begun to make inroads on their circulation. The leading daily papers in each state are Siglo Veintiuno, El Gráfico, Prensa Libre, and La Hora in Guatemala; Diario de Hoy, La Prensa Gráfica, and El Mundo in San Salvador; El Tiempo, La Prensa, and La Tribuna in Tegucigalpa (El Tiempo and La Prensa also publish a San Pedro Sula edition); La Prensa, Barricada, and Nuevo Diario in Managua, La Nación, La República, and La Prensa Libre in San José; The Belize Times in Belize; and La Estrella, El Matutino, La Prensa, and La Crítica in Panama.

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