Aezanis, Temple of Zeus, 117-138 AD 
  
History/Medieval Studies 303
Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization: Constantine to Crusades

Index 

Syllabus 

Readings: 
 Book List  
 Iconoclasm 
 Discussion Topics 

Chronologies: 
 Imperial Crisis    
 Later Roman Emperors, 306-395   
 Fall of Western Empire   
 Age of Justinian   
 Islamic Caliphs   
 Byzantine Dark Age     
 Triumph of Christianity    
 Macedonian Resurgence 
 Crusades 
 Restoration and Ottoman Advance  

Handouts: 
 Population 
 Finances under Justinian 
 Byzantium c.850A.D. 

Currency charts: 
   Diocletian and Constantine 
   Justinian and Heraclius 
   Isaurian, Amorian, and Macedonian Ages 
   Comnenian and Palaeogian Ages 

Links 

THE BYZANTINE DARK AGE:
 
TABLE OF EMPERORS, 610-867 

Heraclian Dynasty 
HERACLIUS (610-641) 
Heraclius II Constantine III (Jan.-April 641) 
Heraclonas (Jan.-Sept. 641) 
CONSTANS II (641-668) 
CONSTANTINE IV (668-685) Pogonatus ("the Bearded") 
JUSTINIAN II (685-695) Rhinometus ("Slit-Nose") 
       Leontius (695-698) 
       Tiberius II (698-705) 
JUSTINIAN II (705-711), restored. 
       Philippicus(711-713) 
       Anastasius II (713-715) 
       Theodosius III (715-717) 
 
Isaurian or Syrian Dynasty 
LEO III (717-741) 
CONSTANTINE V (741-775), Copronymus ("Pisser") 
Leo IV (775-740) 
CONSTANTINE IV (780-797) 
IRENE (797-802) 

Arabian Dynasty 
NICEPHORUS I (802-811) 
Stauracius (811) 
Michael I Rangable (811-813) 
       Leo V (813-820) "the Armenian" 

Amorian Dynasty 
Michael II (820-829), "the Stammerer" 
THEOPHILUS (829-842) 
MICHAEL III (842-867), "the Drunkard" 
 
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE: 602-867 
602   Murder of MAURICE TIBERIUS (582-602) & Accession of Phocas (602-610)
    Outbreak of Persian-Byzantine Wars: CHOSROES (Khusru) II invades Roman Mesopotamia
610   Revolt in Carthage & Accession of HERACLIUS (610-641)
613   Persians capture Damascus and Antioch
614   Persian Sack of Jerusalem
615   Persian Occupation of Chalcedon: Sassanid armies overrun Anatolia
618-19   Persian Conquest of Egypt
622   Heraclius launches counteroffensive vs. Persia
    MUHAMMAD and ABU BAKR flee Mecca for Medina ("Hegira")
622-26   Campaigns of Heraclius
    Avar-Persian Siege of Constantinople
627   Battle of Nineveh: Destruction of Persian army
628   Fall of Ctesiphon; Overthrow of Chosroes II
    Heraclius imposes peace on Persia
630   Heraclius and True Cross received in Jerusalem
    Muhammad received in Mecca: Unification of Arabia
632   Publication of Monenergian Doctrine
    Death of Muhammad. Abu Bakr elected Caliph (632-34)
634   UMAR I elected Caliph (634-644)
636   Battle of Yarmuk: Arab Conquest of Syria
637   Battle of Qadisiya: Collapse of Sassanid Persian Empire
637-42   Arab Conquest of Iraq, Armenia, and Iran
638   Fall of Jerusalem to the Arabs
    Publication of ECTHESIS: Proclamation of Monothelete Doctrine
641   Death of Heraclius and Succession Difficulties
    Surrender of Alexandria and Egypt to Arabs
    Accession of CONSTANS II (641-668)
642   Arab Conquest of Cyrenaica and Tripolitania
644   Assassination of Umar I. UTHMAN elected Caliph (644-656). MUAWIYA commences construction of Arab fleet
645-46   Byzantine reoccupation of Alexandria
648   Publication of TYPUS
649   Pope Martin I condemns Monothelete doctrine
    Muawiya conquers Cyprus: Arabic naval offensive against Byzantium
653   Arrest and Deposition of Pope Martin I
654   Arabic Sack of Rhodes
655   Battle of Attaleia ("Battle of the Masts"): Defeat of Imperial Navy and Flight of Constans II
656   Mutiny at Fustat (Cairo) and Murder of Caliph Uthman
    Election of ALI as Caliph (656-661)
    Outbreak of Islamic Civil War: Muawiya and Constans II sign a truce
    Battle of the Camel: Ali crushes Bedouin army of Kufa and arrests Aisha
657   Kharijites ("those who go out") secede from Shi'ite Cause
661   Murder of Ali by Kharijites
    Proclamation of MUAWIYA as Caliph (661-680)
    Establishment of Umayyad Caliphate
    Capital removed from Medina to Damascus
663-68   Constans II at Syracuse reorganizes Byzantine West
668   Accession of CONSTANTINE IV (668-685)
670   Muawiya poisons Alid pretender Hasan: Rift between Shi'ite and Sunnite Islam
674-77   FIRST ARAB SIEGE OF CONSTANTINOPLE
680   Bulgars cross Danube an establish Bulgar Khanate
681   SIXTH ECUMENICAL COUNCIL at Constantinople: Condemnation of Monenergian and Monothelete Doctrines
685   Accession of JUSTINIAN II (685-695)
    Revolt of Shi'ites at Kufa and in eastern Iran
    Disappearance of Mukhar & Proclamation of the "Hidden Imam"
691   Quinisextum Council: Reform of Church Discipline
695   Depositon of Justinian II: Civil Wars (695-705)
696   Reform of Arabic Currency by Abd al-Malik
    Arabization of Umayyad Administration
698   Fall of Carthage to the Arabs
    Escape of Justinian II from Cherson
705-11   Restoration of Justinian II and "Reign of Terror"
711   Fall of Justinian II: Civil Wars (711-717)
    Battle of Wadi Bakkah: Arabic Conquest of Spain
711-12   Arab Conquest of the Sind
717   Accession of LEO III (717-741); Establishment of Isaurian Dynasty
    Accesion of UMAR II as Caliph
717-718   SECOND ARABIC SIEGE OF CONSTANTINOPLE
726   Publication of Ecloga
    Publication of First Iconoclastic Edict
    FIRST ICONOCLASTIC PERIOD (726-787)
731   Pope Gregory III condemns Iconoclasm
    Criticism of ST. John Damascene vs. Iconoclasm
739/40   Battle of Acroinium: Decisive Imperial Victory over Umayyad armies in Asia Minor
741   Accession of CONSTANTINE V (741-775)
742-43   Revolt of Iconodule emperor Artavasdus
743-48   Umayyad Civil War
746   Campaign of Constantine V in North Syria
747   Campaign of Constantine V on Upper Euphrates & Armenia
    Outbreak of Shi'ite and Kharijite Revolts in Iraq
    Arab-Persian army of the East proclaims Abu l'Abbas Caliph at Merv
748   Abbasid forces occupy Kufa
750   Battle of Great Zab and Slaughter of Umayyad Princes
    Abu l'Abbas proclaimed Caliph as-Saffrah
    Foundation of Abbasid Caliphate
751   Fall of Ravenna to Lombards: End of Exarchate in Italy
    Battle of Talas: Arab Victory over armies of T'ang China
754   Iconoclastic Council of Hiera
    Pope Stephen II crowns Pepin the Short King of the Franks
756   Donation of Pepin: Creation of Papal States
    Umayyad Prince Abd al-Rahman proclaims indpendence from Abbasids: Creation of Umayyad Emirate in Spain
762   Caliph al-Mansur dedicates new capital Baghdad
763   Battle of Anchilaus: Victory of Constantine V over Bulgars
765   Split of Sevener and Twelver Shi'ites
774-75   Charlemagne's Conquest of the Lombards
775   Accession of LEO IV (775-780)
780   Accession of CONSTANTINE VI (780-797) & Regency of Irene
787   SEVENTH ECUMENICAL COUNCIL at Nicaea: Restoration of Icons
788   Revolt of Idrisids: Shi'ite state established in Morocco
789-92   Bulgar War of Constantine V
792   Invasion of Anatolia by Caliph Harun ar-Raschid
c. 795   St. Theodore refounds monastery of the Studion
797   Overthrow of Constantine VI and Accession of IRENE (797-802)
800   Coronation of Charlemagne as Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III; Reestablishment of Western Empire
    Surrender of Tunisia by Harun to Aghlabids
802   Accession of NICEPHORUS I (802-811)
806   Second Invasion of Harun ar-Raschid
809-14   Bulgar War against Khan Krum
811   Battle of Pliska: Slaughter of Nicephorus I and the Byzantine army
    Accession of MICHAEL I (811-813)
813   Battle of Versinica: Destruction of Byzantine army
    Overthrow of Michael I and Accession of LEO V (813-820)
814   Death of Khan Krum
    Byzantine-Bulgar Treaty marks off the "Great Fence of Bulgaria"
815   Publication of Second Edict of Iconoclasm
    SECOND ICONOCLASTIC PERIOD (815-843)
820   Accession of MICHAEL II (820-829)
    Establishment of Amorian Dynasty
821-24   Revolt of Thomas the Slav
826   Arab Conquest of Crete
827-78   Arab Conquest of Sicily
829   Accession of THEOPHILUS (829-842)
834   al-Mutasim creates Turkish bodyguard
837   Theophilus sacks Zapetra
838   Invasion of Caliph Al-Mutasim: Battles of Dazimon and Amorium
    Mission from Theophilus to Louis the Pious
842   Accession of MICHAEL III (842-867)
843   SYNOD OF CONSTANTINOPLE: Restoration of Icons
863   Battle of Poson: Beginning of Byzantine Counteroffensive against Islam
867   Murder of Michael III and Accession of BASIL I (867-886)
 

Dr. Kenneth W. Harl 
Office: History 211 (504)862-8621 
Fax: (504) 862-8739 
Home: (504)866-5392 
 
 Tulane University
Last updated 03/19/98
by Annette Lindblom