Aezanis, Temple of Zeus, 117-138 AD 
History/Medieval Studies 303
Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization: Constantine to Crusades



 Book List  
 Discussion Topics 

 Imperial Crisis    
 Later Roman Emperors, 306-395   
 Fall of Western Empire   
 Age of Justinian   
 Islamic Caliphs   
 Byzantine Dark Ages     
 Triumph of Christianity    
 Macedonian Resurgence 
 Restoration and Ottoman Advance   

 Finances under Justinian  
 Byzantium c.850A.D.  

Currency charts:  
   Diocletian and Constantine  
   Justinian and Heraclius  
   Isaurian, Amorian, and Macedonian Ages  
   Comnenian and Palaeogian Ages  


HONORIUS (395-423)   ARCADIUS (395-408)
Constantine III (407-411) & Constans (408-411), usurpers in Britain   THEODOSIUS II (408-450)
Maximus (409-411), usurper in Spain   MARCIAN (450-457)
Priscus Attalus (409-410 & 414-15), puppet of Alaric the Goth in Rome   LEO I (457-473)
Jovinus (411-415) & Sebastianus (412-413), usurpers in Gaul supported by Burgundians   Leo II (473-474)
Johannes (423-455)   ZENO (474-491)
VALENTINIAN III (425-455)   Basiliscus (475-76), usurper
Petronius Maximus (455) Leontius (484-488), usurper
Avitus (455-456)   ANASTASIUS I (491-518)
Majorian (457-461)    
Severus III (461-465)*    
Anthemius (467-472)    
Olybrius (472)    
Glycerius (473-474)    
Julius Nepos (474-475)**    
ROMULUS AUGUSTUS (475-476)***    
*The Western throne was unoccupied for 18 months after the death of Severus III until Leo I sent the senator Anthemius. 

**Orestes, magister militum, expelled Julius Nepos from Rome, but Julius Nepos "reigned" in exile at Salona in Dalmatia until 480. Thereafter his territory passed to the Eastern Roman Empire. 

***Odovacer, King of the German mercenaries in Italy, deposed Romulus Augustus and informed Zeno that the West no longer needed a separate emperor. Odovacer ruled Italy as Patrician and magister militum until defeated and slain by King Theodoric of the Ostrogoths in 491. 
395   Death of THEODOSIUS I (379-395): Accession of ARCADIUS (395-408) in East and HONORIUS (395-421) in West.
    ALARIC & VISIGOTHS invade Thrace: Military Crisis in the East
396   STILICHIO, magister militum of West, intervenes against Alaric in Greece
397   STILICHIO settles Alaric & Visigoths in Epirus (397-400)
    STILICHIO appoints GANIAS magister militum in East
400   Popular Uprising in Constantinople against Goths; Flight and Death of Ganias
    ALARIC and Visigoths migrate to Italy.(400-401)
402   Alaric and Visigoths invade Italy; STILICHIO checks Visigoths (402-406) 
    Honorius removes the Western court from Milan to RAVENNA
406   GREAT BARBARIAN INVASION across Rhine; Saxons, Franks & Burgundians overrun northern and eastern Gaul (405-407)
407   Sueves and Alans invade and overrun Spain (407-417)
    Rebel army in Britain declares commander Constantine III (407-411) emperor
408   Death of ARCADIUS; Accession of THEODOSIUS II (408-450) in East
    HONORIUS executes STILICHIO; Collapse of Imperial Defense in Italy
    ALARIC blockades Rome (408-410)
410   Constantine III & field army of Britain invade Gaul
    Collapse of Roman Defenses in Britain (410-435) 
    ALARIC & VISIGOTHS SACK ROME; Death of Alaric in southern Italy
411   Athaulf (410-415) leads Visigoths, in alliance with Honorius, into Gaul
    Visigoths settled as federates in Aquitaine (412-417)
413   Burgundians settled as federates at Worms in Rhineland
    Construction of WALLS OF CONSTANTINOPLE (413-418)
418   Accession of King Theoderic I (418-451), King of the Visigoths
421-22   Roman-Persian War
423   Death of HONORIUS: Dynastic Crisis in Western Roman Empire
    Usurper John (423-425) seizes throne at Ravenna
425   VALENTINIAN III (425-455) & mother GALLA PLACIDIA occupy Ravenna
    AETIUS with Hun federates imposes himself as magister militum of the West
427   Revolt of Count Boniface in Africa against authority of Aetius (427-429)
429   VANDALS, Alans, and Sueves under GAISERIC (427-477) invade Africa
433   Accession of ATTILA (433-452) as king of the HUNS
435   Hun mercenaries, on orders of Aetius, destroy Burgundian Kingdom
439   Vandals capture CARTHAGE; Outbreak of Roman-Vandal War (439-441)
441   British Provincials appeal for aid from AETIUS
    ATTILA ravates Illyricum, Moesia, and Thrace (441-443): Crisis in Balkan
442   Valentinian III acknowledges by treaty Vandal rule in Africa
443   ATTILA imposes annual tribute (2,000 pounds of gold) on Theodosius II
    Roman Frontier on Upper and Middle Danube Collapses (443-447)
444   ATTILA murders his brother Bela and seizes sole power of Hun Empire
447   ATTILA imposes new tribute (6,000 pounds of gold) on Theodosius II
    Arrival of Hengest and Horsa, with Jutish mercenaries, in Kent
    Anglo-Saxon Migration to southern and eastern Britain (450-500)
450   Accession of MARCIAN (450-457) in East
    Marcian ends annual tribute to Attila; Empress Honoria appeals to Attila.
451   ATTILA invades Western Roman Empire
    BATTLE OF CHALONS: Aetius and Visigoths check Attila in eastern Gaul
452   ATTILA invades northern Italy and is halted at Po by POPE LEO I
    Retreat and Death of Attila
454   Battle of Nedao: Gepidae and Ostrogoths overthrow Hun Empire
    Valentinian III orders execution of AETIUS
455   Death of VALENTINIAN III: Dynastic Crisis at Ravenna
    Petronius Maximus seizes power in Rome
    Visigoths at Tolosa declare Avitus (455-456) Western Roman Empire
456   RICHMER, magister militum, deposes Avitus & emerges as kingmaker in Italy (457-472). Interregnum in West (456-457) 
457   Accession of Majorian (457-461) in West rejected by Marcian in East
    Accession of LEO I (457-473) in the East
    Majorian imposes imperial authority over Visigoths, Burgundians, and Sueves
461   Vandals destroy Western fleet in Spanish ports
    RICHMER deposes Majorian & elevates Severus III (461-465) as Western Emperor. Collapse of Western Imperial Authority in Mediterranean
466   King EURIC II (446-484), initiates VISIGOTHIC CONQUEST OF SPAIN
467-472   Anthemius (467-472), supported by eastern army, seizes Western throne
    Civil War in Italy between Anthemius and RICHMER
468   Failure of Joint Expedition of Leo I and Anthemius against the Vandals
473   Death of LEO I and Accession of Leo II (473-474) in East
474   Julius Nepos (474-480), with eastern forces, secures Western throne at Ravenna 
    Accession of ZENO (474-491) in East
475   Orestes, magister militum expels Julius Nepos, and elevates his son ROMULUS AUGUSTUS (475-476) as Western Emperor
    Revolt of Basilicus (474-476): Zeno flees Constantinople.
476   ODOACER deposes Romulus Augustus
    ZENO confirms ODOACER as magister militum and patrician
477   Emperor ZENO refuses Burgundian request for new Western emperor

Dr. Kenneth W. Harl 
Office: History 211 (504)862-8621 
Fax: (504) 862-8739 
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 Tulane University
Last updated 03/19/98
by Annette Lindblom