Aezanis, Temple of Zeus, 117-138 AD 
  
History/Medieval Studies 303
Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization: Constantine to Crusades

Index 

Syllabus 

Readings: 
 Book List  
 Iconoclasm 
 Discussion Topics 

Chronologies: 
 Imperial Crisis    
 Later Roman Emperors, 306-395   
 Fall of Western Empire   
 Age of Justinian   
 Islamic Caliphs   
 Byzantine Dark Ages     
 Triumph of Christianity    
 Macedonian Resurgence 
 Crusades 
 Restoration and Ottoman Advance  

Handouts: 
 Population 
 Finances under Justinian 
 Byzantium c.850A.D. 

Currency charts: 
   Diocletian and Constantine 
   Justinian and Heraclius 
   Isaurian, Amorian, and Macedonian Ages 
   Comnenian and Palaeogian Ages 

Links 

IMPERIAL CRISIS AND RECOVERY, 161-337 A.D.:
 
161   Accession of MARCUS AURELIUS (161-180)
161-166   Parthian War
    Great Plague sweeps empire
167-175   First Germanic War: Marcus Aurelius batttles coalition of Quadi, Marcomanni and Samartians on the Danube)
    Marcus Aurelius composes Meditations
177-180   Second Germanic War
180   Death of Marcus Aurelius; Accession of COMMODUS (180-192)
192   Murder of Commodus; Outbreak of Civil War (193-195) among legionary armies
193   Accession of SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS (193-211)
    Establishment of Severan Dynasty (193-235)
    Apex of Imperial Civilization and Development of the Provinces
197-199   Parthian War; Sack of Ctesiphon
211   Accession of CARACALLA (211-217)
212   Constitutio Antoniniana: Roman Citizenship granted to all free residents of empire
214-217   Parthian War
215   Introduction of ANTONINIANUS; Debasement of Silver Coinage
218-222   ELAGABALUS Emperor
222-235   SEVERUS ALEXANDER Emperor
226/7   Ardashir overthrows Parthians; Establishment of the NEO-PERSIAN or SASSANID EMPIRE
230-233   Inconclusive Persian-Roman War
235   Murder of Severus Alexander; MAXIMINUS I THRAX (235-238) proclaimed emperor by army
    BEGINNING OF POLITICAL AND MILITARY CRISIS
238   Revolt against Tyrannical Rule of Maximinus
    Renewed Civil War and Debasement of Currency
238-244   GORDIAN III Emperor
238-260   Rapid Debasement of Currency; Mounting Inflation
242-244   Inconclusive War vs. SHAPUR I (241-272) of Persia
    Murder of Gordian III; Philip I purchases peace from Shapur
244-249   PHILIP I Emperor; Civil War and Rebellion erupts
    GOTHS EMERGE AS THREAT ON DANUBE
    FRANKS and ALAMANNI press on Rhine frontier
    SAXONS attack the shores of Britain and Gaul on the North Sea
249-251   TRAJAN DECIUS Emperor
250-251   First Empire-wide Perescution of Christians
251   Battle of Abrittus: GOTHS DEFEAT AND SLAY TRAJAN DECIUS
251-253   Trebonianus Gallus and Volusian Emperors
    Renewed Gothic and Persian Invasions
253   PERSIANS SACK ANTIOCH
    Accession of VALERIAN (253-260) & GALLIENUS (253-268) as joint Emperors and Informal Division of Empire
257-260   Persian Expedition; VALERIAN CAPTURED BY PERSIANS
    Persians overrun Asia Minor, Mesopotamia & Syria
    GALLO-ROMAN EMPIRE in WEST (260-273)
    Emergence of PALMYRA in EAST (260-272)
262-267   Renewed Barbarian Invasions
    Nadir of Imperial Currency and Run-away Inflation
269   Battle of Naissus: CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS (268-270) decisively defeats GOTHS
    Beginning of Military Recovery
270   Outbreak of Plague
270-275   AURELIAN Emperor: Restoration of Imperial Unity
    Recovery of East (271-272) and Gaul (273)
271   Romans withdraw from Dacia
    First Effective Reform of Currency by Aurelian
    Fortification of Rome
276-282   PROBUS Emperor; End of Gothic Threat
282-283   Persian Expedition of Carus; Sack of Ctesiphon
284-305   DIOCLETIAN EMPEROR: BIRTH OF DOMINATE
    MAJOR REFORMS OF ARMY AND ADMINISTATION
285   DIOCLETIAN nominates MAXIMIANUS as Augustus of the West; FORMAL DIVISION OF EMPIRE
293   Promotion of Galerius and Constantius I as Caears of the East and West
    BIRTH OF TETRARCHY
    Major Currency Reform: Introduction of NUMMUS
301   EDICT OF MAXIMUM PRICES
303-311   GREAT PERSECUTION
305   Abdications of Diocletian and Maximianus
306-324   Outbreak of new Civil Wars
306-337   CONSTANTINE Emperor
312   BATTLE OF MILVIAN BRIDIGE
    CONVERSION OF CONSTANTINE TO CHRISTIANITY
313   "Edict of Milan": Proclamation of Religious Toleration
324   Battle of Chrysopolis: Constantine reunites the Roman Empire
325   First Ecumenical Council at Nicaea
337   Death of Emperor CONSTANTINE
    Accession of Constantine II (337-340), Constans (337-350), and Constantius II (337-361)
 
THE RISE OF CONSTANTINE, 285-337 A.D. 
CAST OF LEADING EMPERORS 
 
THE FIRST TETRARCHY (285-305 A.D.) 
DIOCLETIAN, Augustus in East (284-305)   Maximianus, Augustus in West (285-305)
Galerius, Caesar in East (293-305)   Constantius I Chlorus, Caesar in West (293-305)
 
THE SECOND TETRARCHY (305-324 A.D.) 
Galerius, Augustus in East   Constantius I, Augustus in (305-311)West (305-306)
Maximinus II Daia, Caesar in East (305-309)   Severus II, Caesar in West (305-306)
 
CIVIL WARS (306-324) 
EMPERORS IN EAST   EMPERORS IN WEST
Galerius (305-311)   CONSTANTINE I "the Great" (306-337)
Maximinus II Daia (309-313)   Maxentius (306-312) & Maximianus (second reign, 306-308), joint rulers in Rome and Italy
Licinius (308-324)    
 
IMPERIAL REUNIFICATION (324-337) 
CONSTANTINE I "the Great" (306-337) 
 
Dr. Kenneth W. Harl 
Office: History 211 (504)862-8621 
Fax: (504) 862-8739 
Home: (504)866-5392 
 
 Tulane University
Last updated 03/19/98
by Annette Lindblom