Aezanis, Temple of Zeus, 117-138 AD 
 
History/Classics 310
 
Athenian Empire: 480-404 B.C.

Index 

Syllabus: 
 Structure
 Schedule 

Readings: 
 Book List 
 Reserve Readings
 Themistocles Decree
 Megarian Decree
 Athenian Treaties

Chronologies: 
 Early Sparta and Athens
 514-482 B.C. 
 Pentekontaeteia, 479-431 B.C.
  Peloponnesian War 

Handouts: 
 Finances in Athens
 Greek Coinage and Measures
 Military

Links

 ATHENIAN TREATIES WITH RHEGIUM AND LEONTINI,  433/2 B.C..

Commentary

These treaties, dated by archon year to 433/2 B.C., are cut in letter forms used after 440 B.C., but the prescripts are erased and recut.  It has been argued that the treaties are renewal of earlier oaths sworn in the 450s or 440s B.C.  This is unlikely given the letter forms and the text of the treaties.  The best explanation is that delegates of  Leontini and Rhegium arrived in the summer of 433 B.C., at the end of archon year 434/3 B.C., and due to a delay the treaties were ratified weeks later in the same summer.  By the time of ratification, the Athenian calendar showed a new archon year of 433/2 B.C..  The stonecutter, in error, had cut the archon year 434/3 B.C. so that and then he had to erase the prescript and recut the correct archon year.  If this  interpretation is correct, then the Athenians concluded full alliances (symmachia) in the summer of 433 B.C. during the crisis over Corcyra.  Athenian alliances with the strategic Ionian cities of Rhegium in Italy and Leontini in Sicily must have been regarded as a hostile action against Syracuse, the leading colony and friend of Corinth in the West.  Leontini and Rhegium referred to these treaties when they appealed for Athenian aid in 427 B.C. (Thuc. III. 86. 3). 

1.  Treaty of Alliance between Athens and Rhegium.  Translation from C. Fornara, Archaic Times to the End of the Peloponnesian War (Cambridge, 1977), pp.173-74, no. 124.  For text and commentary, see R. Meiggs and D. Lewis, A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions (Oxford, 1969), pp. 171-75, no 63. 

Gods.  The envoys from Rhegium by whom the alliance was concluded, and who took the oath: Cleander, son of Xen[------, and ------son of -----]tinus, Silenus, son of Phocus [-------] in the archonship of Apseudes and in the boule for which Critiades was the first secretary.  Resolved by the boule and people, Alcamantis held the prytany, Charias was secretary, Timoxenus was prytanis, and Callias made the motion. Alliance shall be made between the Athenians and Rhegians.  The oath shall be sworn by the Athenians so that everything will be trustworthy and guileless and straightforward on the Atheniansí part forever in relation to the Rhegians.  They shall swear the following: ďAs allies we shall be trustworthy and just and steadfast and reliable forever to the Rhegians and we shall provide them with aid if [---- text breaks off] 

2.  Treaty of Alliance between Athens and Leontini.  Translation from C. Fornara, Archaic Times to the End of the Peloponnesian War (Cambridge, 1977), pp. 174-75, no. 125.  For text and commentary, see R. Meiggs and D. Lewis, A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions (Oxford, 1969), pp. 175-76, no. 64. 

Gods.  The envoys from Leontini by whom the alliance was concluded and who took the oath: Timenor, son of Agathocles, Sosis, son of Glaucias, Gellon, son of Execestus, with the secretary being Theotimus, son of Tauriscus.  In the archonship of of Apseudes and in the boule for which Critiades was the first secretary.  Resolved the boule and people, Alcamantis held the prytany, Charias was secretary, Timoxenus was prytanis, and Callias made the motion. Alliance shall be made between the Athenians and Leontinians, and the oath shall be given and taken.  The oath shall be sworn by the Athenians as follows: ďAs allies we shall be to the Leontinians forever guileless and reliable.  The Leontinians likewise shall swear: ďAs allies we shall be forever to the Athenians guileless and reliable.  As to [---- text breaks off] 
 

Dr. Kenneth W. Harl 
Office: History 211 (504)862-8621 
Fax: (504) 862-8739 
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 Tulane University
Last updated 03/19/98
by Annette Lindblom