Sponsored by the American Ornithologists' Union, the British Ornithologists' Union, and Birds Australia

August 25, 2001


(NOTE: Primary subject codes not found in this issue are followed with an asterisk: *)

Subject Heading Code




General or Worldwide B102*
Africa, sub-Saharan and Madagascar B104
Antarctica and sub-Antarctica B106*
Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand B108
Europe and Iceland B110
Mexico, Central America, and Caribbean B112
New World B114*
North Africa and Middle East B116*
North America and Greenland B118
Northern Asia and Far East, incl. Tibet, Japan, Taiwan B120
Northern Hemisphere B122*
Oceanic islands, not incl. elsewhere (e.g., Hawaii, Azores, Galapagos) B124
Old World B126*
Oriental (India, Pakistan, SE Asia, Indonesia, Phillippines) B128
South America B130
Southern Hemisphere B132*

Agonistic, aggressive, & defensive behavior-non-colonial B302
Learning and intelligence B304
Locomotion: Flight, swimming and diving, walking, climbing B306
Self-maintenance: Daily time budget, preening, bathing, anting, roosting, sleeping B308
Sensory perception: auditory, magnetic, olfactory, tactile and visual sensing B310*
Sexual behavior: Courtship and pair bonding, copulation, B312
Social behavior: Colonial behavior, social organization B314
Territoriality and home range B316
Visual signals B318
Vocalizations and other sounds B320

Collisions and other man-induced fatalities B502
Damage to crops or fisheries B504
Gamebird management, hunting B508
Introduced species (non-game) B509
Uses of birds by humans B510

Breeding schedule and dates B702
Brood parasitism, egg dumping, and foster parenting B704
Cooperative or communal breeding B706
Effects of human studies or presence B708
Eggs and incubation, incl. egg physiology and morphology B710
Extra-pair mating, paternity B712
Mating systems, sex ratio B714
Nesting habitat, nest site and structure, & nest building B716
Parental care and feeding, of eggs and young B718
Young, from hatching to fledging; growth and development B720

Captives: maintenance, rehabilitation, and release B902
Declining and endangered species B904
Education programs, politics, and planning B906
Effects of man-made environmental changes: Fragmentation, Urbanization B908
Habitat and environmental protection and management; importance of non-breeding habitats B910
Species protection and recovery measures, incl. transplants, re-introductions B912
Wild bird trade B914*

Diseases and disease transmission C102
Parasites: External, Internal C104
Pathology and injury C106

General, worldwide, or zoogeography C302
Africa, sub-Saharan and Madagascar C304
Antarctica and sub-Antarctica C306*
Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand C308
Europe and Iceland C310
Mexico, Central America, and Caribbean C312
New World C314*
North Africa and Middle East C316*
North America and Greenland C318
Northern Asia and Far East, incl. Tibet, Japan, Taiwan C320
Northern Hemisphere C322*
Oceanic islands, not incl. elsewhere (e.g., Hawaii, Azores, Galapagos) C324
Old World C326*
Oriental (India, Pakistan, SE Asia, Indonesia, Phillippines) C328
South America C330
Southern Hemisphere C332*

Bibliographies and databases C702
Biographies, obituaries, and history C704
Collecting and collections, taxonomic specimens C706
Terminology C708*

Biocides and pollution C902
Birds as environmental monitors C904
Climate and weather effects C906
Habitat change, selection, and use; community structure; habitat suitability models or indexes C908
Impacts (recent) by birds on their environment; indirect impacts on other species C909
Life span and survivorship (rates, etc.) C910
Mortality causes C912
Population numbers, censuses, trends, and dynamics C914
Predation and predators as a mortality cause to avian species C916
Reproductive effort and productivity C918
Site fidelity and dispersal C920
Species composition and competition; biodiversity C922
Trophic levels and energy cycles and related relationships C924
Winter and migration habitat and habits C926

Classification and phylogeny D103
Evolutionary patterns, rates, and processes: species or higher categories D105
Co-evolution or interaction between avian and non-avian species D106
Intraspecific variation D108
New taxa D110
Species concepts D112
Taxonomy and nomenclature D114

Diet, food selection, birds as predators, and nutrition D302
Drinking, pellet-casting, and defecation D304*
Foraging habits and food transport and storage D306
Kleptoparasitism D308

Behavioral and population genetics D502
Genetic polymorphism, cytogenetics and molecular genetics D504
Hybrids and progeny D508

Species and subspecies identification D702
Sex or age class identification D704

Migratory behavior D902
Migratory dates, timing, counts, and routes D904
Migratory physiology D906
Navigation and homing D908

Abnormal external appearance: plumage, soft body parts E101
Circulatory and lymphatic systems: vessels, blood, blood chemistry E102
Digestive system E104
Embryology and development of embryo (see B710 and B720) E106
Endocrine system and hormones E108
Excretory system and water metabolism: Urinary structures, Nasal glands E110
Immune system E112
Integument: Feathers, molts, plumages, other integumentary structures, skin E114
General morphology: Body size and mass, regional morphology, sexual dimorphism E116
Physiology and biochemistry: Body composition, day length effects, energy metabolism and body temperature, lipid physiology, protein physiology E118
Reproductive system and physiology (see B710) E120
Respiratory system E122*
Sensory and nervous system E124*
Skeletomuscular system E126

Jurassic and Cretaceous fossils E302
Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene fossils E304
Miocene and Pliocene fossils E306
Pleistocene and Holocene fossils and subfossils E308
Site surveys E310*

Binoculars, telescopes, and other non-photographic optical equipment E501*
Biochemical or biophysical assay E502*
Captive breeding, care, and rehabilitation E504
Censuses, maps, and surveys E506
Environmental monitoring, incl. remote sensing, GIS and related methods E508
Feeding habits and diet analysis E509
Field methods NOT incl. elsewhere under E500 E510
Genetic methods E512
Mathematical models, population and other statistics E514
Nesting studies E515*
Photographic and video documentation E516
Physiological methods E518
Predator and nuisance control E520
Sound recording and playback E522
Tracking and remote monitoring, radio-telemetry E524
Trapping, netting, banding, and marking E526

Acknowledgments: Denis Abbott, Alex Baynes, Peter H. Becker, Bharat Bhushan, I. Lehr Brisbin, Jr., Michael G. Brooker, Peter W.P. Brown, Michelle T. Christy, Roger B. Clapp, Adrian J.F.K. Craig, Will Cresswell, Geoffrey W.H. Davison, James J. Dinsmore, Jerald J. Dosch, Robert J. Dowsett, Victoria M. Dziadosz, Kevin J Eddings, Ian D. Endersby, David E. Fatina, Alix D. Fink, Jon S. Greenlaw, Paul A. Grindrod, Paul D. Hess, William P. Johnson, Richard F. Johnston, Guy M. Kirwan, Thomas Knight, Peter C. Lack, Anthony L. Lang, Peter S. Lansley, Michael A. Larson, Steven C. Latta, Gina Crowder Levesque, Andy Mack, Shigeru Matsuoka, Martin K. McNicholl, Ed O. Minot, Hisashi Nagata, J. Brent Ortego, Harvey D. Perkins, John M. Peter, James R. Philips, Jan K. Pinowski, Eloise F. Potter, James D. Rising, Ian C. Rowley, Jay M. Sheppard, Robert E. Simmons, Neville J. Skinner, Will K. Steele, John L. Trapp, Keisuke Ueda , Mutsuyuki J. Ueta, Susan K. Willson, and April A. Woodward.

{B010} International Hawkwatcher is a new journal devoted to original raptor research. One to two volumes per year are planned featuring articles on the biology and ecology of diurnal and nocturnal raptors. Price is US$12.50 per issue, plus US$7.50 for shipping outside the USA. To order, contact Donald S. Heintzelman, Editor & Publisher, 629 Green St., Allentown, PA 18102, USA; EM: {ROL #82}

{B010} Texas Birds. Is a new semi-annual publication that provides articles on avian identification, status and distribution of Texas species, published by the Texas Ornithological Society. The editor is Shannon Davies. The first volume was published in 1999 and contained 11 articles. Price is US$20 per year. To submit manuscripts contact, and to subscribe contact Texas Ornithological Society, PMB 189, 6338 N. New Braunfels Ave., San Antonio, TX 78209, USA.---J.B.O. {ROL #82}

{B030} Australasian Seabird Bulletin replaces Australasian Seabird Group Newsletter, from issue 36, June 2000.---P.S.L. {ROL #82}

{B030} Physiological & Biochemical Zoology . Renamed bimonthly journal, formerly Physiological Zoology. Gregory Snyder (Ed.), Dept. Environ., Popul. & Organismic Biol., RM N122, Univ. Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA; EM: Became effective with volume 72 (1999).---J.S.G. {ROL #82}

{B104} Brouwer, J., W. C. Mullié, & P. Souvairan. 2000. Colour of the downy young and notes on breeding and food of the Grasshopper Buzzard Butastur rufipennis in Niger. Malimbus 22: 34--37. (Brouwer Environ. Agric. Consultancy, Wildekamp 32, 6721 JD Bennekom, The Netherlands; email data from 7 nests over a 30-year period.---P.W.P.B. {D704, D302, B700} {ROL #82}

{B104} De Villiers, D., & R. Simmons. 1997. The high incidence and origin of two-egg clutches in a Damara Tern colony in south western Namibia. Madoqua 19: 111--113. (Min. of Environment & Tourism, Pvt. Bag 13306, Windhoek, Namibia)---In the normally 1 egg/clutch Sterna balaenarum, 33% of nests in a small colony contained two eggs, possibly due to high food resources near major ocean upwellings.---R.E.S. {B710, C918} {ROL #82}

{B104} Herholdt, J. J., & A. C. Kemp. 1997. Breeding status and ecology of the Martial Eagle in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, South Africa. Ostrich 68: 80--85. (Mpumalanga Parks Board, PO Box 1990, Nelspruit, 1200, S. Africa.)---Estimated 20--30 pairs of Polemaetus bellicosus in the park, with no decline over 7 year study. Most pairs nested in consecutive years, fledged on average 0.43 young/pair/year.---A.J.F.K.C. {B700, B904} {ROL #82}

{B104} Kopij, G. 1997. Breeding ecology of the African Spoonbill Platalea alba in the Free State, South Africa. Ostrich 68: 77--79. (Dept. Zoo. & Entomol., Univ. Orange Free State PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, S. Africa.)---Colony of 15 nests monitored in 1976--77. Mean clutch size 2.6 eggs; chicks fledged from 53% of nests. Main food of chicks was frogs and aquatic invertebrates.---A.J.F.K.C. {D302} {ROL #82}

{B104} Nemeth, E., & L. Bennun. 2000. Distribution, habitat selection and behaviour of the East Coast Akalat Sheppardia gunningi sokokensis in Kenya and Tanzania. Bird Conservation International 10: 115--130. (Konrad Lorenz Inst. Comp. Ethol., Savoyenstrasse 1a. 1160 Vienna, Austria; EM: distributed, regionally endangered, and little known subspecies dependent on fragmented habitat that is under considerable pressure from humans and, in one area, being degraded by a large elephant population.---K.J.E. {Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, Shimba Hills, East Usambara Mountains; C914, B900} {ROL #82}

{B104} Tarboton, W. R., S. Blane, & P. Lloyd. 1999. The biology of the Yellowthroated Sandgrouse Pterocles gutturalis in a South African agricultural landscape. Ostrich 70: 214--219. (PO Box 327, Nylstroom 0510, S. Africa; EM: nomadic species now a breeding resident, dependent on seeds of weedy plants on fallow lands. Egg-laying Apr--Oct, mean clutch size 2.85, incubation about 26 days. Average annual productivity estimated at 0.42--0.85 young/pair/year.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{B104} Thorstrom, R., & G. LaMarca. 2000. Nesting biology and behavior of the Madagascar Harrier-hawk (Polyboroides radiatus) in northeastern Madagascar. J. Raptor Res. 34: 120--125. (The Peregrine Fund, 566 West Flying Hawk Lane, Boise, ID 83709, USA.)---Includes breeding phenology, nest and nest site characteristics, behavior, siblicide, and food habits of a single nesting pair.---P.A.G. {ROL #82}

{B104} Thorstrom, R. 1999. A description of the nests, diet and behaviour of the Banded Kestrel. Ostrich 70: 149--151. (The Peregrine Fund, 566 W. Flying Hawk Ln., Boise, ID 83709, USA.)---2 nests of Falco zoniventris in epiphytic plants in tree forks. Both clutches 3 eggs; 33 prey items at successful nest included reptiles and other vertebrates.---A.J.F.K.C. {D302} {ROL #82}

{B104} Watson, R. T., S. Razafindramanana, R. Thorstrom, & S. Rafanomezantsoa. 1999. Breeding biology, extra-pair birds, productivity, siblicide and conservation of the Madagascar Fish Eagle. Ostrich 70: 105--111. (The Peregrine Fund, 566 W. Flying Hawk Ln., Boise, ID 83709, USA; EM: vociferoides laid eggs May--July, incubation 37--43 days, nestling period 78---89 days. Clutch size 1 (7), 2 (28); apparently obligate siblicide occurs. Extra-pair birds, perhaps progeny of previous years, at 41 nests.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{B108} Leavesley, A., & M. Leavesley. 2000. Observations of the New Hanover [Papua New Guinea] sub-species of Hunstein's Mannikin Lonchura hunsteini nigerrima. Muruk 8: 73--74. (Dept . Arch. & Anthropol., Aust. Natl. Univ., Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia; EM: behaviour and foraging.---I.R. {B308, B302, D306} {ROL #82}

{B108} Russell, E., & I. Rowley. 1998. The effects of fire on a population of Red-winged Fairy-wrens Malurus elegans in Karri forest in southwestern Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 197--208. (52 Swan St., Guildford, WA 6055, Australia.)---Long-term study from 1980 to 1995 of banded birds enabled effects of intense fire during April 1994 to be assessed. Mean annual population size between 1980 and 1993 was 119 birds in 29 groups; during November 1993, there were 126 birds in 32 groups. In November 1994, following fire, there were still 114 birds in 31 groups. However, nesting material was scarce, breeding was delayed and breeding success declined, which meant that population dropped to 73 birds in 23 groups by November 1995. Long-term demographic data suggest population will take at least ten years to recover. This is longer than the current cycle of 7--9 years between prescribed burns of this habitat.---W.K.S. {C914, C918, C908} {ROL #82}

{B108} Van bael, S., & S. Pruett-Jones. 2000. Breeding biology and social behaviour of the eastern race of the Splendid Fairy-wren Malurus splendens melanotus. Emu 100: 95--108. (Dept. Ecol. Evol., 1101 East 57th St., Univ. Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.)---Results of detailed study of breeding ecology of the little known Black-backed Fairy-wren subspecies, over three breeding seasons.---W.K.S. {B312, B314, B702, B716, C918} {ROL #82}

{B110} Carrascal, L. M., et al. 1998. Interactions among environmental stress, body condition, nutritional status, and dominance in Great Tits. Auk 115: 727--738. (Depto. Ecol. Evolutiva, Mus. Nac. Cienc. Nat., CSIC, José Gutiérrez Abacal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain; EM: major. {ROL #82}

{B110} Rêbis, M. 1998. Changes in the number, location, and the elements of the biology of reproduction of the Roller (Coracias garrulus) in the Kozienicka Forest. Kulon 3: 67--73. (Warszawska 32a/18, PL 26 900 Kozienice, Poland.)---Central Poland.---J.K.P. (Polish, English summ.) {C914, C908, C310} {ROL #82}

{B110} Zawadzka, D., & J. Zawadzki. 1998. The Goshawk Accipiter gentilis in Wigry National Park (NE Poland)---numbers, breeding results, diet composition and prey selection. Acta Ornith. 33: 181--190. (25 czerwca 68 b / 15, PL 26 600 Radom, Poland.)---Selective preferences towards Garrulus glandarius, Corvus monedula, Corvus frugilegus, Turdus sp., Dendrocopos major.---J.K.P. {D302, C918, C914, C912} {ROL #82}

{B112} Miller, B. W., & C. M. Miller. 1998. Ornithology in Belize since 1960. Wilson Bull. 110: 544--558. (Box 37, Belize City, Belize; DM: work since 1964 and suggests areas for future study.---J.J.Dos. {B300, B900, C312, C702, C900} {ROL #82}

{B112} Vidal, R. M., C. Macias-Caballero, & C. D. Duncan. 1994. The occurrence and ecology of the Golden-cheeked Warbler in the highlands of Northern Chiapas, Mexico. Condor 96: 684--691. (CDD: The Nat. Conserv., 4245 Fairfax Dr., Arlington, VA 22203.)--- Dendroica chrysoparia 2nd least abundant warbler found almost exclusively in mixed species flocks in a variety of habitats, primarily pine and pine-oak associations.---R.B.C. {C926} {ROL #82}

{B118} Alisauskas, R. T. 1998. Winter range expansion and relationships between landscape and morphometrics of midcontinent Lesser Snow Geese. Auk 115: 851--862. (Prairie North. Wildl. Res. Ctr., Can. Wildl. Serv., 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4, Can.; EM: caerulescens caerulescens wintering in marsh habitats were larger, had thicker bills, and longer skulls and culmens than those wintering in agricultural landscapes.---A.A.W. {D300, E116, C318, C926} {ROL #82}

{B118} Brush, T. 1999. A reclusive, snail-eating raptor of the Lower Rio Grande Valley---the Hook-billed Kite. Texas Birds 1(2): 26--32. (Dept. Bio., Univ. Texas-Pan American, 1201 W. Univ. Dr., Edinburg, TX 78539, USA.)---Chondrohierax uncinatus. {ROL #82}

{B118} Carrière, S., R. G. Bromley, & G. Gauthier. 1999. Comparative spring habitat and food use by two Arctic nesting geese. Wilson Bull. 111: 166--180. (Wildl. Fish. Div., Dept. Resour., Wildl, Econ. Dev., Government NW Territories, 600 5102-50 Ave., Yellowknife, NT X1A 3S8, Can.; EM: albifrons frontalis , Branta canadensis hutchinsii. {B716, C908, D302} {ROL #82}

{B118} Chai, P., et al. 1999. Maximal horizontal flight performance of hummingbirds: effects of body mass and molt. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 145--155. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Texas, Austin TX 78712, USA; EM: flight speed in Archilochus colubris is unaffected by short-term changes in body mass, but molt reduces capacity for chase and escape.---J.S.G. {ROL #82}

{B118} Cuthbert, F. J. 1999. Double-crested Cormorants in the Midwest: symposium summary. USDA Anim. Plant Health Inspection Serv. Tech. Bull. 1879: 159--162. (Dept. Fish. Wildl., Univ. Minnesota, 1980 Folwell Ave., St. Paul, MN 55108 USA.)---Phalacrocorax auritus. {ROL #82}

{B118} Hardy, P., C., M. L. Morrison, & R. X. Barry. 1999. Abundance and habitat associations of Elf Owls and Western Screech-Owls in the Sonoran Desert. Southwest. Nat. 44: 311--323. (U.S. For. Serv., P.O. Box 7, Blairsden, CA 96103, USA; EM: of Micrathene whitneyi did not change from 1994 to 1996 and was greater than Otus kennicottii abundance each year. Mature mesquite (Prosopis) appeared to be important for both species.---J.J.D. {ROL #82}

{B118} James, R. D. 1999. Yellow-throated and Blue-headed vireos in Ontario: 6. interspecific interactions, maintenance activities, and molt. Ontario Birds 17: 84--93. (R.R. 3, Sunderland, ON L0C 1H0, Can.)---Vireo flavifrons and Vireo solitarius , including review of previous literature from outside Ontario.---M.K.M. {ROL #82}

{B118} Lewis, S. J., & D. V. Weseloh. 1999. Introduction to the symposium on Double-crested Cormorants: population status and management issues in the Midwest. USDA Anim. Plant Health Inspection Serv. Tech. Bull. 1879: 1--2. (USFWS, Federal Bldg., 1 Federal Way, Ft. Snelling, MN 55111-4056 USA.)---Phalacrocorax auritus. {ROL #82}

{B118} Marín, M. 1999. Food, foraging, and timing of breeding of the Black Swift in California. Wilson Bull. 111: 30--37. (West. Found. Vert. Zool., 439 Calle San Pablo, Carmarillo, CA 93012, USA; EM: Cypseloides niger diet was dominated by winged ants (Formicidae). Adults made short and long duration feeding trips with short bouts likely dedicated to feeding young while longer trips perhaps provided food for both adults and nestlings.---J.J.Dos. {B702, D302, D306} {ROL #82}

{B118} Miller, K. E. 2000. Nest-site limitation, nest predation, and nest-site selection in a cavity-nesting bird community. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. (Dept. Wildlife Ecol. and Conserv., Univ. Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.)---Controlled field experiments demonstrated that breeding populations of some cavity-nesting species were limited by nest-site availability. Nesting success rates for excavator species and non-excavator species were compared in relation to life-history theory about these two groups. Nest predation rates were positively correlated with cavity age, both within and across species.---K.E.M. {B716, C918, C916} {ROL #82}

{B118} Mitra, S. S. 1999. Ecology and behavior of Yellow Warblers breeding in Rhode Island's Great Swamp. Northeast. Nat. 6: 249--262. (Fire Island Lyme Disease Project, 28 Rescue Rd., Babylon, NY 11702, USA; EM: phenology, territoriality, social interactions, reproductive success, and survivorship examined in Dendroica petechia.---J.S.G. {ROL #82}

{B118} Rodway, M. S. 1998. Activity patterns, diet, and feeding efficiency of Harlequin Ducks breeding in northern Labrador. Can. J. Zool. 76: 902--909. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Can.)---Results suggest that Histrionicus histrionicus are food-limited on the breeding grounds.---D.E.F. {D300, B308} {ROL #82}

{B118} Rohner, C., & C. J. Krebs. 1998. Response of Great Horned Owls to experimental "hot spots" of snowshoe hare density. Auk 115: 694--705. (Ctr. Biodiversity Res., Dept. Zool., Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Can.; EM: individual territories Bubo virginianus concentrated foraging efforts on "hot spots"; at an intermediate scale, owls did not congregate at these spots.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{B118} Salt, J. R. 1999. Some aspects of the biology of White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) in the Alberta Rockies III. Ecology and productivity on preferred breeding range. Alberta Nat. 29: 47--50. (464 Nelson St., Victoria, B.C. V9A 6P4, Can.)---Notes on breeding success, areas occupied by nesting and chick-rearing females, lack of nest-site tenacity between years and mortality factors.---M.K.M. {ROL #82}

{B118} Sedinger, J. S., et al. 1998. Density-dependent effects on growth, body size, and clutch size in Black Brant. Auk 115: 613--620. (Inst. Arctic Biol. Dept. Biol. Wildl., Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA; EM: size of Branta bernicla nigricans negatively correlated with colony size, however adult body size not affected; clutch size decreased for younger (< 4 years old) females but not older females.---A.A.W. {B720, C914, C918, E118} {ROL #82}

{B118} Sexton, C. W. 1999. The Vermilion Flycatcher in Texas. Texas Birds 1(2): 41--45. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Balcones Canyonland NWR, Austin, TX 78751, USA.)---Pyrocephalus rubinus status for Texas is reviewed.---J.B.O. {ROL #82}

{B118} Smith, R. B., et al. 1999. The relationship between Spotted Owl diet and reproductive success in the San Bernardino Mountains, California. Wilson Bull. 111: 22--29. (Peery, M. Z.: 927 Lincoln Way, San Francisco, CA 94122, USA; EM: woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes) dominated Strix occidentalis occidentalis diet in both frequency and biomass. Successful nesters consumed more woodrat biomass.---J.J.Dos. {C918, D302} {ROL #82}

{B118} Tobin, M. E. (Tech. Coord.). 1999. Symposium on Double-crested Cormorants: population status and management issues in the Midwest. USDA Anim. Plant Health Inspection Serv. Tech. Bull. 1879, 164 pp. (USDA/APHIS/WS, Natl. Wildl. Res. Ctr., 4101 Laporte Ave., Ft. Collins, CO 80521 USA.)---Proceedings of a symposium held in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 9 Dec 1997; focused mainly on Phalacrocorax auritus in the Great Lakes; the 16 papers in this volume are listed separately.---J.L.T. {B500, B504, B908, C909, C914, D302, E520} {ROL #82}

{B118} Wauer, R. H. 1999. A Texas specialty: White-tailed Hawk. Texas Birds 1(2): 4--8. (315 Padre Lane, Victoria, TX 77905, USA.)---A general overview of Buteo albicaudatus in Texas.---J.B.O. {ROL #82}

{B118} Wauer, R. H. 2000. Colima Warbler---a Texas specialty. Texas Birds 2(1): 44--47. (315 Padre Ln., Victoria, TX 77905, USA.)---Vermivora crissalis. {ROL #82}

{B118} Wendelm, H., & P. H. Becker. 1999. Does disturbance by nocturnal predators affect body mass of adult Common Terns? Waterbirds 22: 401--410. (Inst. f. Vogelforschung 'Vogelwarte Helgoland', An der Vogelwarte 21, D-26386, Wilhelmshaven, Germany.; EM: by Asio otus on Sterna hirundo caused prolonged incubation and lowered hatching and breeding success, but the disturbance caused by predation did not affect adult body mass.---R.B.C. {B710, B718, E118} {ROL #82}

{B118} Weseloh, D. V., & S. J. Lewis. 1999. Information needs for the Double-crested Cormorant in midwestern North America, as identified by an audience survey. USDA Anim. Plant Health Inspection Serv. Tech. Bull. 1879: 157--158. (Can. Wildl. Serv., 4905 Dufferin St., Downsview, ON M3H 5T4, Can.)---List 19 items for Phalacrocorax auritus .---J.L.T. {ROL #82}

{B120} Ueta, M., & M. J. McGrady, Eds. 2000. First Symposium on Steller's and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia. Tokyo; Wild Bird Soc. Japan. (Wild Bird Soc. Japan, 1-47-1 Hatsudai, Shibuya, Tokyo 151-0061, Japan.)---11 papers on Haliaeetus pelagicus and Haliaeetus albicilla listed separately.---M.J.U. {ROL #82}

{B124} Filardi, C. E., et al. 1999. New behavioral, ecological, and biogeographic data on the avifauna of Rennell, Solomon Islands. Pacific Sci. 53: 319--340. (Florida Mus. Nat. Hist., Univ. Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.)---New records for Hirundo nigricans and Coracina novaehollandiae; notes increases in colonizers Phalacrocorax carbo and Aplonis cantoroides.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B124} Monteiro, L. R. 1999. Status and distribution of Fea's Petrel, Bulwer's Petrel, Manx Shearwater, Little Shearwater and Band-rumped Storm-petrel in the Azores archipelago. Waterbirds 22: 358--366. (Dept. Oceanogr. Fish., Univ. Azores, 9901-862, Horta, Portugal.; EM: colonies found for Puffinus puffinus (4), Puffinus assimilis baroli (24), hot season Oceanodroma castro (3) cold season (5), but breeding of Pterodroma feae unconfirmed and no new sites found for Bulweria bulwerii.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B124} Vilina, Yerko A., & F. J. Gazitua. 1999. The birds of Sala y Gomez island, Chile. Waterbirds 22: 459--462. (Escuela de Med. Vet., Univ. Santo Tomas, Ejercito 146, Santiago, Chile.; EM: species, 10 nesting; 1st records for Phaethon aethereus, Gygis alba and significant breeding colonies of Procelsterna cerulea, Puffinus nativitatis)---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B128} Ebreo, M. F. 1993. Biology of Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea manilensis) and the preservation of Samponong Bolo [Sara, Iloilo Province, Philippines] as its sanctuary. Asia Life Sci. 2(2): 149--162. (No address available.) {ROL #82}

{B128} Gamauf, A., M. Preleuthner, & H. Winkler. 1998. Philippine birds of prey: interrelations among habitat, morphology, and behavior. Auk 115: 713--726. (HW: Konrad-Lorenz-Inst. Comp. Ethol., Austrian Acad. Sci., A-1160 Vienna, Austria; EM: behavior, habitat, and morphology are related and are independent of phylogenetic relationships.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{B128} Nijman, V., S. van Balen, & R. SÖzer. 2000. Breeding biology of Javan Hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi in West Java, Indonesia. Emu 100: 125--132. (Inst. Syst. Popn. Biol., Zool. Mus., Univ. Amsterdam, PO Box 94766, 1090 GT Amsterdam, Netherlands.)---Results of 100 h of observations of two nests of this rare and endangered species during two breeding seasons.---W.K.S. {B702, B716, B718, C918} {ROL #82}

{B130} Robbins, M. B., R. S. Ridgely, & S. W. Cardiff. 1994. Voice, plumage and natural history of Anthony's Nightjar (Caprimulgus anthonyi). Condor 96: 224--228. (Div. Ornithol., Mus. Nat. Hist., Univ. Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA; EM: maps localities in Ecuador where anthonyi has been found.---R.B.C. {B700, B320, C330, E114} {ROL #82}

{B300} Furlow, B., R. T. Kimball, & M. C. Marshall. 1998. Are rooster crows honest signals of fighting ability? Auk 115: 763--766. (Dept. Biol., 167 Castetter Hall, Univ. New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.)---Dominant frequency of rooster crow vocalizations in Gallus gallus is accurate indicator of resource-holding potential.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{B300} Piper, W. H. 1994. Courtship, copulation, nesting behavior and brood parasitism in the Venezuelan Stripe-backed Wren. Condor 96: 654--671. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Chapman Univ., One Univ. Dr., Orange, CA 92866; EM: Campylorhynchus nuchalis defend nests vigorously against Molothrus bonariensis but at least 16% of nests surveyed were parasitized severely reducing nesting success. Amount of food provided to nestlings of this polyandrous cooperative breeder varied among adults of group but unrelated to how closely related or how dominant they were.---R.B.C. {B312, B704} {ROL #82}

{B300} Whitney, B. M., & J. F. Pacheco. 1994. Behavior and vocalizations of Gyalophylax and Megaxenops (Furnariidae), two little-known genera endemic to northeastern Brazil. Condor 96: 559--565. (Field Guides Inc., P.O. Box 160723, Austin, TX 78716-0723, USA.) {B320} {ROL #82}

{B300} Zimmer, K. J. 1999. Behavior and vocalizations of the Caura and the Yapacana antbirds. Wilson Bull. 111: 195--209. (1665 Garcia Rd., Atascadero, CA 93422, USA; EM: sound spectrograms and natural history descriptions of Percnostola caurensis and Myrmeciza disjuncta.---J.J.Dos. {B320, C330, C908} {ROL #82}

{B302} Alworth, T., & I. B. R. Scheiber. 1999. An incident of female-female aggression in the House Wren. Wilson Bull. 111: 130--132. (IBRS: Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Albany, Albany, NY 12222, USA; EM: female Troglodytes aedon usurped resident and paired with its mate.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{B302} Charley, D. 2000. Predator avoidance behaviour in the Double-eyed Fig-Parrot Cyclopsitta diophthalma macleayana . Australian Bird Watcher 18: 203. (13 Hurley St., Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia.)---Fig-parrot hung motionless, head-down below branch in response to Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus alarm call.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{B302} Davis, W. E. D. Jr., & H. F. Recher. 2000. False-brooding behaviour in the Red-capped Plover Charadrius ruficapillus. Australian Bird Watcher 18: 248--249. (Coll. Gen. Stud., Boston Univ., Boston, MA 02215, USA.)---Simulated brooding away from nest as a distraction display.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{B302} Grey, M. J., M. F. Clarke, & R. H. Loyn. 1998. Influence of the Noisy Miner Manorina melanocephala on avian diversity and abundance in remnant Grey Box woodland. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 55--69. (Sch. Zool., La Trobe Univ., Bundoora, Vic. 3083, Australia.)---Noisy Miners affect avian diversity and abundance through the aggressive exclusion of small insectivorous and nectarivorous species. Experimental removal of miners from remnant woodland plots resulted in increases in avian diversity and abundance. Removal of miners may be a useful short-term measure to assist recovery of threatened or endangered bird populations. The increase in small bird numbers following removal of miners has potential to reduce insect infestations and may assist in recovery of dieback-affected woodland remnants.---W.K.S. {B910, E520} {ROL #82}

{B302} Kershner, E. L., & E. K. Bollinger. 1999. Aggressive response of chickadees towards Black-capped and Carolina chickadee calls in central Illinois. Wilson Bull. 111: 363--367. (Dept. Nat. Resour. Environ. Sci., 350 Burnsides Res. Lab., 1208 W. Pennsylvania Ave., Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA; EM: towards presumed heterospecific vocalizations for Poecile atricapillus and Poecile carolinensis was greater closer to contact zone between historic ranges.---J.J.Dos. {B320} {ROL #82}

{B302} Tyler, S. J. 1998. Aggression by a male South African Shelduck Tadorna cana towards White-faced Ducks Dendrocygna viduata. Babbler 34: 29. (c/o Room 106, D.A.H.P., Private Bag 0032, Gaborone, Botswana.) {ROL #82}

{B302} Yosef, R. 1994. Sex-related differences in distraction displays by Florida Sandhill Cranes. Condor 96: 222--224. (Internatl. Birdwatching Cent., P.O. Box 774, Eilat 88000, Israel; EM: canadensis pratensis. {ROL #82}

{B304} Fairfield, G. M. 1999. An example of crow intelligence. Ontario Birds 17: 94--95. (332 Sheldrake Blvd., Toronto, ON M4P 2B8, Can.)---After snowstorm, American Crows, Corvus brachyrhynchos, watched for Blue Jays, Cyanocitta cristata, to drop peanuts on ground after prying them from container too small for crows to perch on. Also recalls Blue Jays retrieving food cached by Gray Jays, Perisoreus canadensis.---M.K.M. {D306} {ROL #82}

{B306} Bosque, C., & E. A. Herrera. 1999. "Snorkeling" by the chicks of the Wattled Jacana. Wilson Bull. 111: 262--265. (Dept. Biol. Organismos, Univ. Simón Bolívar, Apartado 89.000, Caracas 1080, Venezuela; EM: predator escape behavior by Jacana jacana. Forward placement of nostrils facilitates breathing while submerged.---J.J.Dos. {B302, C916, E122} {ROL #82}

{B306} Diehl, R. H., & R. P. Larkin. 1998. Wingbeat frequency of two Catharus thrushes during nocturnal migration. Auk 115: 591--601. (Illinois Nat. Hist. Survey, 607 E. Peabody Dr., Champaign, IL 61820, USA; EM: transmitters used to record continuous flapping in migration as well as distinct differences in wingbeat frequency during takeoff and cruising flight in Catharus ustulatus and Catharus fuscescens.---S.C.L. {D902} {ROL #82}

{B306} Moyle, R. G., & F. H. Heppner. 1998. Flight without horizon references in European Starlings. Auk 115: 771--774. (Mus. Nat. Sci., 119 Foster Hall, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA; EM: vulgaris were reluctant to fly when horizon references were lost; those that did increased flapping rate and lowered feet during flight.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{B306} Warrick, D. R. 1998. The turning- and linear-maneuvering performance of birds: the cost of efficiency for coursing insectivores. Can. J. Zool. 76: 1063--1079. (Div. Biol. Sci., Univ. Montana, Missoula, MT 59812-1002, USA.) {ROL #82}

{B306} Warrick, D. R., K. P. Dial, & A. A. Biewener. 1998. Asymmetrical force production in the maneuvering flight of pigeons. Auk 115: 916--928. (Div. Biol. Sci., Univ. Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA; EM: livia more commonly produced a series of small force asymmetries to create a saltatory turn than the previously suggested symmetrical flight pattern.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{B308} Craig, A. J. F. K. 1999. Anting in Afrotropical birds: a review. Ostrich 70: 203--207. (Dept. Zoo. Entomol., Rhodes Univ., PO Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, S. Africa; EM: reported, but in the field passive anting recorded in 4 non-passerine species, active or passive anting in 21 passerine species; in captivity in a further 27 passerine species. All ants identified belong to sub-family Formicinae.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{B308} Gauthier-Clerc, M., A. Tamisier, & F. Cezilly. 1998. Sleep-vigilance trade-off in Green-winged Teals (Anas crecca crecca). Can. J. Zool. 76: 2214--2218. (Ctr. Ecol. et Physiologie Energetiques-CNRS, 23, rue Becquerel, 67 087 Strasburg Cedex 2, France.) {ROL #82}

{B308} Górska, E. 1998. The influence of weather factors on the daily activity of urban populations of birds at their common roosts in Slupsk. Acta zool. cracov. 41(1): 35--43. (Inst. Biology & Environ. Protection, Pedagogical Univ., Arciszewskiego 22B, PL 76 200 Slupsk, Poland.) {ROL #82}

{B308} Hendricks, P. 2000. Arboreal nocturnal roosting behavior of a fledgling American Dipper. Wilson Bull. 112: 148--150. (Montana Nat. Heritage Prog., 9090 Locust St., Missoula, MT 59802, USA; EM: report of Cinclus mexicanus or any dipper species roosting in a tree at night.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{B308} Moore, J. E., & P. V. Switzer. 1998. Preroosting aggregations in the American Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos . Can. J. Zool. 76: 508--512. (PVS: Dept. Zool., East. Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL 61920, USA.) {ROL #82}

{B308} Schram, B. 2000. Notes on the behaviour of Curl-crested Manucode Manucodia comrii. Muruk 8: 75. (Victor Emanuel Nature Tours, PO Box 33008, Austin, TX 78764, USA.)---Observations made on Fergusson Island, Papua New Guinea, on 23 Sept. 1999.---I.R. {ROL #82}

{B308} Sovern, S. G., et al. 1994. Diurnal behavior of the Spotted Owl in Washington. Condor 96: 200--202. (USDA For. Serv., Pacific NW Res. Stn., 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.)---Nesting Strix occidentalis more active during day than non-nesting ones.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B308} Tyler, S. J. 1999. Bathing habits of birds---foliage-bathing. Babbler 35: 29. (c/o Room 106, D.A.H.P., Private Bag 0032, Gaborone, Botswana.) {ROL #82}

{B308} Tyler, S. J. 2000. Birds at pools in the Boteti river near Khumanga [Botswana]. Babbler 36: 12--13. (c/o Room 106, D.A.H.P., Private Bag 0032, Gaborone, Botswana.) {ROL #82}

{B312} Andersson, S. 1994. Costs of sexual advertising in the lekking Jackson's Widowbird. ÊCondor 96: 1--10. (Dept. Biol., 0116, Univ. California, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.)---Costs for Euplectes jacksoni in central Kenya evidently primarily physiological.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B312} Barbraud, C., & J. C. Barbraud. 1999. Is there age assortative mating in the European White Stork? Waterbirds 22: 478--481. (Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, 13200, Arles, France.; EM: in Ciconia ciconia in western France.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B312} Birks, S. M. 1999. Unusual timing of copulations in the Australian Brush-turkey. Auk 116: 169--177. (Burke Mus., Univ. Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; within-pair copulations among Alectura lathami occur < 1-hr before laying.---S.C.L. {B714} {ROL #82}

{B312} Blache, D., C. D. Barrett, & G. B. Martin. 2000. Social mating system and sexual behaviour in captive Emus, Dromaius novaehollandiae. Emu 100: 161--168. (Fac. Agric. [Anim. Sci.], Univ. W. Aust., Nedlands, WA 6907, Australia.)---Study of 33 females and 27 males in large free-range pen.---W.K.S. {ROL #82}

{B312} Coupe, M., & F. Cooke. 1999. Factors affecting the pairing chronologies of three species of mergansers in southwest British Columbia. Waterbirds 22: 452--458. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., 8888 Univ. Dr., Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Can.; EM: Lophodytes cucullatus began to pair in mid-Nov, Mergus serrator in early Feb, Mergus merganser in late Feb; earlier pairing of smallest, cucullatus, suggests differences in pairing chronology likely the result of constraints caused by winter sexual segregation.)---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B312} Ferguson, J. W. H. 1999. The significance of mate selection and mate recognition in speciation. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 1496--1504. (Department of Zoology and Entomology, Pretoria University, Pretoria, South Africa; EM: appears that mate recognition systems may have dynamics separate from mate selection and which may strongly affect speciation. New World avian and other examples.---R.J.D. {D105} {ROL #82}

{B312} Friesen, L. E., V. E. Wyatt, & M. D. Cadman. 1999. Pairing success of Wood Thrushes in a fragmented agricultural landscape. Wilson Bull. 111: 279--281. (Can. Wildl. Serv., 75 Farquhar St., Guelph, ON N1H 3N4, Can.; EM: singing Hylocichla mustelina in small woodlots are paired.---J.J.Dos. {B320, B908} {ROL #82}

{B312} Garavanta, C. A. M., & R. D. Wooller. 2000. Courtship behaviour and breeding biology of Bridled Terns, Sterna anaethetus, on Penguin Island, Western Australia. Emu 100: 169--174. (Biol. Sci. Murdoch Univ., Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia.) {B702} {ROL #82}

{B312} Hirano, T. 1999. Displays of Japanese Lesser Sparrowhawks during pre-laying period. Japanese Journal of Ornithology 48: 157--160. (c/o Tomuro, 2-3-15 Yoshino, Utsunomiya 320-0838, Japan.)---Accipiter gularis. {ROL #82}

{B312} Rice, N. H. 1999. Courtship behavior of the Buff-necked Ibis (Theristicus caudatus). Wilson Bull. 111: 118--119. (Nat. Hist. Mus., Univ. Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA; EM: resemble those of other ibis species.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{B312} Schmidt, V., H. M. Schaffer, & A. Leisler. 1999. Song behaviour and range use in the polygamous Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola. Acta Ornith. 34: 209--213. (B. L.: Forschungstelle f. Ornithologie Max-Planck Ges., Vogelwarte Radolfzell D 78 315 Radolfzell, Germany; EM: {B320} {ROL #82}

{B312} Sorenson, L. G. 1994. Forced extra-pair copulation in the White-cheeked Pintail: Male tactics and female responses. Condor 96: 400--410. (Smithson. Inst., Conserv. Res. Cent., Front Royal, VA 22630, USA.)---Male chases of fertile hen Anas bahamensis in the Bahamas more often and more frequently than they chased non-fertile birds. High resistance by females suggested as a means to preserve pair-bond and investment in mates.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B312} Stanback, M., C. Boix, D. Richardson, T. Birkhead, B. Fletcher, & J. Mendelsohn. 1999. Sperm storage, pair bondage, and genetic monogamy in hornbills. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 2657--2665. (Department of Biology, Davidson College, PO Box 1719, Davidson, NC 28036, USA; EM: hornbill (Bucerotidae) eggs laid weeks after female seals herself into nest. Males go to great effort to avoid cuckoldry and Monteiro's Hornbill Tockus monteiri showed no extra-pair offspring in a dense population. Other species: Red-billed Hornbill Tockus erythrorhynchus, Yellow-billed Tockus flavirostris , and Grey Tockus nasutus.---P.C.L., R.J.D. {B712, D502, E120} {ROL #82}

{B312} Wolfenbarger, L. L. 1999. Female mate choice in Northern Cardinals: Is there a preference for redder males? Wilson Bull. 111: 76--83. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA; EM: cardinalis showed no color preference. Females may choose based on other morphological characteristics or aspects of a territory.---J.J.Dos. {B318, B714} {ROL #82}

{B312} Young, H. G. 1999. Comparative study of the courtship displays of Meller' s Duck Anas melleri, Yellowbilled Duck A. undulata and Northern Mallard A. platyrhynchos. Ostrich 70: 117--122. (Bird Dept., Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Les Augrés Manor, Trinity, Jersey JE3 5BF, Channel Is., UK.)---Monochromatic Anas melleri shows some behavioural similarities to African Anas sparsa. Anas undulata, Anas platyrhynchos.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{B314} Belthoff, J. R., A. M. Dufty, Jr., & S. A. Gauthreaux, Jr. 1994. Plumage variation, plasma steroids and social dominance in male House Finches. Condor 96: 614--625. (Dept. Biol., Boise State Univ., Boise, ID 83725, USA.; EM: dominance during the non-breeding season may not be related to testosterone levels in Carpodacus mexicanus and colorful plumage not related either.---R.B.C. {E108, E114} {ROL #82}

{B314} Hahn, S. 2000. The timing of activity of Blackbellied Storm-petrels at a high latitude colony. Emu 100: 155--159. (Inst. Ecol., Dornburger Strasse 159, 07743 Jena, Germany.)---Flight activity and calling of Fregetta tropica were highly synchronized with periods of darkness at Antarctic colony.---W.K.S. {ROL #82}

{B314} Hebert, P. N., & R. McNeil. 1999. Nocturnal activity of Ring-billed Gulls at and away from the colony. Waterbirds 22: 445--451. (Dept Biol., Univ. Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2, Can.; EM: interruptions of copulation, few birds on land but larger groups at night and more feeding of chicks by day at Larus delawarensis colony in the St. Lawrence Seaway. Responses to predators at night similar to during day but less intense.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B314} Krams, I. 1998. Individual adjust their body reserves to dominance position within mixed flocks of the Willow ( Parus montanus) and the Crested Tit (Parus cristatus): A field experiment. Pol. J. Ecol. 46: 207--216. (Dept. Sci. Daugavpils Pedagogical Univ., Daugavpils, Latvia, LV 5407; EM: reserves of Willow Tits as subordinate flock members were found to be dependent on the presence of dominant Crested Tit.---J.K.P. {ROL #82}

{B314} Pierotti, R., & C. Annett. 1994. Patterns of aggression in gulls: asymmetries and tactics in different social categories. Condor 96: 590--599. (Dept. Syst. Ecol., Univ. Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-2106, USA.; EM: holding male Larus occidentalis on Southeast Farallon Island could defeat almost all aggressors; females could defend against neighbors, immatures, and adult females, but were often unsuccessful against males.---R.B.C. {B302} {ROL #82}

{B314} Pravosudov, V. V., & T. C. Grubb, Jr. 1999. Effects of dominance on vigilance in avian social groups. Auk 116: 241--246. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, IN 47907, USA; EM: three predictions about dominance-related vigilance; supported the hypothesis that in conspecific pairs the subordinate displays higher vigilance.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{B314} Rose, A. B. 2000. Communal roosting of Red-whiskered Bulbuls. Australian Bird Watcher 18: 207. (61 Boundary St., Forster, NSW 2428, Australia.)---Roost departure behaviour of Pycnonotus jocosus.---I.D.E. {B308} {ROL #82}

{B314} Russell, K. R., & S. A Gauthreaux, Jr. 1999. Spatial and temporal dynamics of a Purple Martin pre-migratory roost. Wilson Bull. 111: 354--362. (Willamette Industries, Inc., P.O. Box 488, Dallas, OR 97338-0488, USA; EM: of Progne subis movements related to ambient light. Exited roost in organized departures, returned in scattered flocks.---J.J.Dos. {B308, E524} {ROL #82}

{B314} Westcott, D. A., & J. N. M. Smith. 1994. Behavior and social organization during the breeding season in Mionectes oleagineus, a lekking flycatcher. Condor 96: 672--683. (Coop. Res. Centre Trop. Rainfall Ecol. Manage., CSIRO Div. Wildl. Ecol., CSIRO Trop. For. Res. Centre, P.O. Box 780, Atherton, Qld. 4883, Australia.; EM Rican males defended display territories, acted as subordinate satellites in leks (ca. 10%), or did not have or associate (48%) with such territories. Territories averaged 763 m². Displays and copulation described.---R.B.C. {B312} {ROL #82}

{B316} Anderson, J. T., & W. C. Conway. 2000. The flight song display of the Cassin's Sparrow (Aimophila cassinii ): form and possible function. Bull. Texas Ornithol. Soc. 33(1): 1--5. (Dept. Range, Wildlife, & Fish. Manage., Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX 79409, USA.)---Flight song displays appears to help attract mates, defend territories and detect predators.---J.B.O. {B318, B320} {ROL #82}

{B316} Henrioux, F. 2000. Home range and habitat use by the Long-eared Owl in northwestern Switzerland. J. Raptor Res. 34: 93--101. (Inst. Zool., Univ. Neuchâtel, Emile-Argand 11, 2007 Neuchâtel, Switzerland.)---Asio otus. {C908, E524}. {ROL #82}

{B316} Husak, M. S. 2000. Seasonal variation in territorial behavior of Golden-fronted Woodpeckers in west-central Texas. Southwest. Nat. 45: 30--38. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA.)---Territories/home ranges of Melanerpes aurifrons averaged 17.4 ha in spring, 24.9 ha in summer, and 10.8 ha in winter.---J.J.D. {ROL #82}

{B316} Paruk, J. D. 1999. Territorial takeover in Common Loons. Wilson Bull. 111: 116--117. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID 83209, USA; EM: pair of Gavia immer displaced resident pair after the latter's chick was killed by an adult Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{B316} Stamps, J. A., & V. V. Krishnan. 1999. A learning-based model of territory establishment. Quart. Rev. Biol. 74: 291--318. (Sec. Evol. Ecol., Univ. California, Davis, CA 95616, USA; EM: is applied in large areas that contain patches of equal intrinsic quality, and depends on assumptions that individuals tend to return to areas in which they previously had few or no aggressive encounters, and tend to avoid areas in which they engaged in costly aggressive interactions.---J.S.G. {ROL #82}

{B318} Aragonés, J., L. A. De Reyna, & P. Recuerda. 1999. Visual communication and sexual selection in a nocturnal bird species, Caprimulgus ruficollis, a balance between crypsis and conspicuousness. Wilson Bull. 111: 340--345. (Avda. Cádiz nº 5, 14009-Córdoba, Spain; EM: selection favors white wing and tail bands in adult male Red-necked Nightjars.---J.J.Dos. {B312, E114} {ROL #82}

{B320} Baptista, L. F., & S. L. Gaunt. 1994. Advances in studies of avian sound communication. Condor 96: 817--830. (Dept. Ornithol. Mammal., California Acad. Sci., San Francisco, CA 94118, USA.)---Overview asserting advances soon followed technological development of equipment; ca 5 p. bibliography.---R.B.C. {C702, C704} {ROL #82}

{B320} Bay, M. D. 1999. The type B song of the Northern Parula: structure and geographic variation along proposed sub-species boundaries. Wilson Bull. 111: 505--514. (Dept. Biol., East Central Univ., Ada, OK 74820, USA; EM: male Parula americana showed macrogeographic (east/west) variation with respect to duration, frequency, syllables, and phrase patterns.---J.J.Dos. {D108} {ROL #82}

{B320} Burnell, K., & S. I. Rothstein. 1994. Variation in the structure of female Brown-headed Cowbird vocalizations and its relation to vocal function and development. Condor 96: 703--715. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA; EM: distinctive loud "chatter" call of Molothrus ater showed only minor macrogeographic variation among three races and no evidence of local dialects. The calls are variable enough among individuals to allow individual recognition.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B320} Dowsett-Lemaire, F. 1996. A comment on the voice and status of Vermiculated Fishing-Owl Scotopelia bouvieri and a correction to Dowsett-Lemaire (1992) on the Maned Owl Jubula lettii . Bull. Afr. Bird Club 3: 134--135. (Rue de Bois de Breux 194, B--4020 Liège, Belgium.)---Correction to Bull. Brit. Ornithol. Club 112: 213--218, as vocalisations involved actually refer to Scotopelia bouvieri, with some notes on the status and habitat of that species in northern Congo.---G.M.K. {C914, C908} {ROL #82}

{B320} Ewert, D. N., & D. E. Kroodsma. 1994. Song sharing and repertoires among migratory and resident Rufous-sided Towhees. Condor 96: 190--196. (The Nature Conservancy, 2840 E. Grand River Ave., East Lansing, MI 48823, USA; EM (DEK): Pipilo erythrophthalmus from Long Island, New York, sang an average of 3.5 songs per male (n=15) while resident Pipilo erythrophthalmus alleni at Archbold Biological Station, Florida sang 8 (n=15) with latter sharing much more of repertoires with neighbors.---R.B.C. {D108} {ROL #82}

{B320} Fernández-Juricic, E., & M. B. Martella. 2000. Guttural calls of Blue-fronted Amazons: structure, context, and their possible role in short range communication. Wilson Bull. 112: 35--43. (Dept. Biol. Anim. I. Facultad Biol., Univ. Complytense Madrid, E 28040 Madrid, Spain; EM: of Amazona aestiva were given year round and in several contexts. Calls of four structural types but these could not be assigned to specific contexts. Gutturals are likely used for maintaining contact, group spacing, and coordinating movements.---J.J.Dos. {B314} {ROL #82}

{B320} Ficken, M. S., E. D. Hailman, & J. P. Hailman. 1994. The chick-a-dee call system of the Mexican Chickadee. ÊCondor 96: 70--82. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA; EM: sclateri calls in the Chiricahua Mountains, southern Arizona, have four notes, three common, one very rare variant in sequence given and at least 60 different call types; discusses which calls given in different behavioral contexts.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B320} Freeman, P. L. 2000. Identification of individual Barred Owls using spectrogram analysis and auditory cues. J. Raptor Res. 34: 85--92. (Dept. Zool., North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND 58105, USA.)---Strix varia. {ROL #82}

{B320} Frith, C. B. 1994. Adaptive significance of tracheal elongation in manucodes (Paradisaeidae). Condor 96: 552--555. ("Prionodura", P.O. Box 581, Malanda, Queensland 4885, Australia.)---Apparently allows communication over relatively greater distances.---R.B.C. {E116, E122} {ROL #82}

{B320} Gilbert, W. M., & A. F. Carroll. 1999. Singing in a mated female Wilson's Warbler. Wilson Bull. 111: 134--137. (4630 Driftwood Ct., El Sobrante, CA 94803, USA; EM: Wilsonia pusilla songs might function in pair formation.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{B320} Green, G. 1999. Noisy Buff-bellied Hummers. Texas Birds 1(1): 21--23. (Author is deceased.)---Vocalization of Amazilia yucatanensis near Victoria, Texas is discussed.---J.B.O. {ROL #82}

{B320} Harrap, S. 1996. The vocalisations of the African black tits (Parus niger complex). Bull. Afr. Bird Club 3: 99--104. (1 Norwich Road, Edgefield, Melton Constable, Norfolk NR24 2RP, UK.)---Discussion, including sonograms, of five species within this complex, Parus niger, Parus carpi, Parus leucomelas, Parus guineensis and Parus albiventris.---G.M.K. {ROL #82}

{B320} Klatt, P. H., & G. Ritchison. 1994. The effect of mate removal on the vocal behavior and movement patterns of male and female Eastern Screech-owls. Condor 96: 485--493. (Dept. Zool., CW312 Biol. Sci. Bldg., Univ. Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9, Can.)---Kentucky male Otus asio increased song, both sexes moved more; bounce songs used more often than whinny after temporary mate removal, extended bounce songs more frequent after mates released and near potential nest cavities.---R.B.C. {C920} {ROL #82}

{B320} Laiolo, P., C. Palestrini, & A. Rolando. 2000. A study of Choughs 'vocal repertoire:' variability related to individuals, sexes and ages. J. Ornithol. 141: 168--179. (Dipartimento die Biologia Animale e dell'Uomo, Via Accademia Albertina 17, I-10123 Torino, Italy.)---Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax. {ROL #82}

{B320} Liu, R., Q. Yu, & F. Lei. 1998. Vocalization of the Barred Laughing-thrush Garrulax lunulatus (Timaliidae) in China---preliminary study. Acta Ornith. 33: 127--133. (Inst. Zoology, Academia Sinica, 19 Zhongguancun Lu, Beijing 100080 PR China {ROL #82}

{B320} Lloyd, P., P. E. Hulley, & A. J. F. K. Craig. 1999. Song sharing by neighbourhood groups of territorial male Blackeyed Bulbuls. Ostrich 70: 208--213. (FitzPatrick Inst., Univ. Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, S. Africa.)---Pycnonotus barbatus has discrete and highly structured system of phrase sharing in territorial song. Neighbours show strong tendency to share phrase types within their repertoire.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{B320} Malpede, C. E., & M. C. Baker. 2000. A comparison of gargle calls of Black-capped Chickadees recorded in the laboratory and in the field. Wilson Bull. 112: 67--71. (MCB: Biol. Dept., Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA; EM: Poecile atricapillus individuals have repertoires of calls, some of which are shared with conspecifics. A population sample of calls reveals a variety constituting the population repertoire.---J.J.Dos. {E522} {ROL #82}

{B320} Payne, R. B., C. R. Barlow, & T. Wacher. 2000. Adamawa Turtle Dove Streptopelia hypopyrrha in The Gambia, with comparison of its calls in The Gambia and Nigeria. Malimbus 22: 37--40. (Mus. Zool. and Dept. Biol., Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; email field observations and audiospectrographs.---P.W.P.B {ROL #82}

{B320} Pepperberg, I. M. 1999. How cognitive processing and social interaction affect allospecific vocal learning in Grey Parrots. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 177--192. (Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA; EM: erithacus. {B304, B314}} {ROL #82}

{B320} Pérez-Villafaña, M., H. G. de Silva G., & A. DeSucre-Medrano. 1999. Sexual dimorphism in the song of Sumichrast's Wren. Wilson Bull. 111: 128--130. (HGDS: Inst. Ecol., UNAM, Apartado Postal 70-275, Ciudad Univ., UNAM, C.P. 04510, México, D. F., Mexico; EM: sumichrasti . {ROL #82}

{B320} Prinzinger, R., V. Dietz, & D. Bringer. 2000. [Internal pipping (IP): obligatory or facultative behaviour for successful hatching?] J. Ornithol. 141: 191--202. (AK Stoffwechselphysiol., J.W.G.-Univ. Frankf. a.M., Siesmayerstr. 70, D-60323 Frankfurt a.M., FRG.) (German, English summary.) {B718} {ROL #82}

{B320} Skiba, R. 2000. [Possible "Rain call" selection in the Chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) by noise intensity---an investigation of a hypothesis.] J. Ornithol. 141: 160--167. (Muehlenfeld 52, D-42369 Wuppertal, FRG.) (German, English summary.) {D105} {ROL #82}

{B320} Wiebe, M. O., & M. R. Lein. 1999. Use of song types by Mountain Chickadees (Poecile gambeli). Wilson Bull. 111: 368--375. (MRL: Div. Ecol. (Behav. Ecol. Group), Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Can.; EM: and function of repertoires. Different vocalizations associated with different behaviors and levels of aggression.---J.J.Dos. {B302} {ROL #82}

{B500} Giese, M., & M. Clarke. 2000. Managing human visitation to seabirds: Recent research from Antarctica. Australasian Seabird Bulletin 36: 6. (Zool. Dept., Univ. Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3052, Australia; EM: response of seabirds to human approach on foot, in order to estimate minimum approach distances to Adelie Penguin Pygoscelis adeliae colonies and to set guidelines for approaching Adelies, Emperor Penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) and Southern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialoides) by helicopter.---P.S.L. {B906} {ROL #82}

{B500} Holdaway, R. N., & C. Jacomb. 2000. Rapid extinction of the Moas (Aves: Dinornithiformes): Model, test, and implications. Science 287: 2250--2254. (Paleaecol. Research, 167 Springs Road, Hornby, Christchurch 8004, New Zealand; EM: hunting and habitat destruction drove moas to extinction less than 100 years after Polynesian settlement of New Zealand.---M.J.J. {B900} {ROL #82}

{B500} Leddy, K. L., K. F. Higgins, & D. E. Naugle. 1999. Effects of wind turbines on upland nesting birds in Conservation Reserve Program grasslands. Wilson Bull. 111: 100--104. (KFH: South Dakota Coop. Fish Wildl. Res. Unit, USGS-BRD, South Dakota State Univ., Box 2140B, Brookings, SD 57007, USA.)---Areas without turbines or located >180 m from turbines supported higher densities of passerines.---J.J.Dos. {C908} {ROL #82}

{B500} Siegel-Causey, D. 1999. The problems of being successful: managing interactions between humans and Double-crested Cormorants. USDA Anim. Plant Health Inspection Serv. Tech. Bull. 1879: 5--14. (Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.)---Reviews facets of Phalacrocorax auritus natural history and behavior that promote conflicts with humans. Concludes that most effective resolution of conflicts will entail managing the consequences of human activities (e.g., aquaculture) rather than those of the birds themselves.---J.L.T. {B504, conflict, feeding ecology, fisheries, natural history, pests, management} {ROL #82}

{B500} Taylor, R., & S. Albert. 1999. Human hunting of nongame birds at Zuni, New Mexico, U.S.A. Conserv. Biol. 13: 1398--1403. (Dept. Biol., Univ. New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.) {B510} {ROL #82}

{B500} Yorio, P., & G. Caille. 1999. Seabird interactions with coastal fisheries in Northern Patagonia: Use of discards and incidental captures in nets. Waterbirds 22: 207--216. (Centro Nac. Patagonico, Bv. Brown s/n, 9120, Puerto Madryn, Chabut, Argentina; EM: dominicanus and Thalassarche melanophris were seen most frequently and in the greatest numbers and apparently benefit from provision of fishing waste; only two birds were killed during 394 hauls on 124 trips in 5 fishing areas.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B502} Anderson, M. D., A. W. A. Maritz, & E. Oosthuysen. 1999. Raptors drowning in farm reservoirs in South Africa. Ostrich 70: 139--144. (N. Cape Nat. Conservation Service, Private Bag X6102, Kimberley 8300, S. Africa.)---Significant source of mortality for raptors > 300 g in arid areas. Simple solutions proposed.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{B502} Bedard, J., A. Nadeau, & M. Lepage. 1999. Double-crested Cormorant culling in the St. Lawrence River Estuary: results of a 5-year program. USDA Anim. Plant Health Inspection Serv. Tech. Bull. 1879: 147--154. (Dept. Biol., Laval Univ., Ste-Foy, PQ G1K 704, Can.)---In combination, culling adults (7,917) at tree nests and oiling eggs in ground nests (25,095) reduced population from 17,000 pairs to 9,561 pairs in 4 years; the targeted goal was 10,000 pairs in 5 years. The greater-than-predicted decline was due to greater vulnerability of males to shooting.---J.L.T. {egg spraying, overabundance, population control, E520} {ROL #82}

{B502} Robbins, M. B., B. R. Barber, & E. A. Young. 2000. Major bird mortality at a Topeka television tower. Bull. Kansas Ornithol. Soc. 51: 29--30. (Div. Ornithol., Nat. Hist. Museum, Univ. Kansas, Lawrence, KS 6045-2454; Dept. Biol., Southwestern College, 100 College St., Winfield, KS 67156-2499 USA.)---478 individuals of 35 species found dead on 9 October 1999 under TV tower 18 km W of Topeka, KS, USA.---R.F.J. {C706, E116} {ROL #82}

{B504} Belant, J. L., L. A. Tyson, & T. W. Seamans. 1999. Use of alpha-chloralose by the Wildlife Services program to capture nuisance birds. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 938--942. (Natl. Park Serv., Denali Natl. Park Preserve, P.O. Box 9, Denali Park, AK 99755, USA.)---Most alpha-choloralose use during 1994-1995 was directed at waterfowl, primarily Anas platyrhynchos, Branta canadensis and Cairina moschata; other frequently captured birds included Columba livia and Fulica americana..---W.P.J. {ROL #82}

{B504} Khan, A. H. 2000. Feeding regimens of Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) in a maize agro-ecosystem in Central Punjab, Pakistan. Eclectus 8: 9--11. (Dept. Zool. Fish., Univ. Agric., Faisalabad, Pakistan.)---Observations over three successive days during May 1996, 1997, and 1998 showed peaks of feeding by Psittacula krameri on a maize crop in morning and evening. Control tactics are discussed.---I.R. {ROL #82}

{B504} Lowney, M. S. 1999. Damage by Black and Turkey Vultures in Virginia, 1990-1996. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 715--719. (USDA, Wildl. Services, P.O. Box 130, Moseley, VA 23120, USA.)---Most complaints about Coragyps atratus and Cathartes aura concerned livestock.---W.P.J. {ROL #82}

{B504} Nybakk, K., O. Kjelvik, & T. Kvam. 1999. Golden Eagle predation on semidomestic reindeer. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 1038--1042. (Norwegian Inst. Nature Res., Tungasletta 2, N-7485 Trondheim, Norway)---Of 853 Rangifer tarandus that were marked with radios, Aquila chrysaetos killed 9 calves and 3 adults.---W.P.J. {ROL #82}

{B504} Pochup, P. A., J. L. Cummings, et al. 1999. Vegetation preferences of captive Canada Geese at Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 734--740. (USDA, Animal Plant Health Inspection Serv., Natl. Wildl. Res. Ctr., Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA.)---Non-preferred plants have the potential to deter Branta canadensis from airfields.---W.P.J. {B508} {ROL #82}

{B504} Seamans, T. W., & J. L. Belant. 1999. Comparison of DRC-1330 and alpha-chloralose to reduce Herring Gull populations. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 729--733. (USDA, Natl. Wildl. Res. Ctr., 6100 Columbus Ave., Sandusky, OH 44870, USA.)---Alpha-chloralose is recommended to control Larus argentatus.---W.P.J. {ROL #82}

{B504} Trapp, J. L., S. J. Lewis, & D. M. Pence. 1999. Double-crested Cormorant impacts on sport fish: literature review, agency survey, and strategies. USDA Anim. Plant Health Inspection Serv. Tech. Bull. 1879: 87--96. (USFWS, 4401 N. Fairfax Dr., Arlington, VA 22203 USA.)---25 major diet studies, 1923--94, suggest that Phalacrocorax auritus has minor impact on sport fish populations; and a 1996 survey of U.S. State wildlife agencies found little support for reducing cormorant populations to benefit sport fish. Outline strategies for addressing local problems.---J.L.T. {E520, food habits, population control} {ROL #82}

{B508} Burger, L. W., D. A. Miller, & R. I. Southwick. 1999. Economic impact of Northern Bobwhite hunting in the southeastern United States. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 1010--1018. (Dept. Wildl. Fish., Box 9690, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA.)---Colinus virginianus . {ROL #82}

{B508} Cox, R. R., Jr., & A. D. Afton. 1999. Do mini-refuges supply wintering Northern Pintails with important diurnal roost sites? Response to Rave. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 901--903. (USGS, Northern Prairie Wildl. Res. Ctr., 8711 37th St. SE, Jamestown, ND 58401, USA.)---Authors reply to Rave (1999, Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27:897-900) and argue that their interpretation of Rave and Cordes (1993, J. Field Ornithol. 64:211-218) was logical; Anas acuta.---W.P.J. {ROL #82}

{B508} Dörgeloh, W.G. 2000. Relative densities and habitat utilisation of non-utilised, terrestrial gamebird populations in a natural savanna, South Africa. Afr. J. Ecol. 38: 31--37. (Appl. Nat. Sci., Technikon SA, Private Bag X6, Florida 1710, S. Africa.)---Swainson's Francolin Francolinus swainsonii, Crested Francolin Francolinus sephaena and Helmeted Guineafowl Numida meleagris, all favoured a mosaic of areas with both cover and open areas with good visibility, and were present in harvestable numbers.---D.E.P. {B910, C914} {ROL #82}

{B508} Guthery, F. S. 1999. The role of free water in Bobwhite management. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 538--542. (Dept. Forestry, Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.)---Literature review does not provide strong evidence that adding surface water benefits Colinus virginianus.---W.P.J. {ROL #82}

{B508} Heusmann, H. W. 1999. Let's get rid of the midwinter waterfowl inventory in the Atlantic Flyway. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 559--565. (Massachusetts Div. Fish. Wildl., Westboro, MA 01581, USA.) {E506} {ROL #82}

{B508} Miller, M. R., & D. C. Duncan. 1999. The Northern Pintail in North America: status and conservation needs of a struggling population. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 788--800. (USGS-Biol. Resour. Div., Western Ecol. Res. Ctr., Dixon Field Station, Dixon, CA 95620, USA.)---Anas acuta. {ROL #82}

{B508} Rave, D. P. 1999. Do mini-refuges supply wintering Northern Pintails with important diurnal roost sites? Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 897--900. (Minn. Dept. Nat. Resour., Wetland Wildl. Populations & Res. Group, 102 22rd St. NE, Bemidji, MN 56601, USA.)---Author argues that he did not predict Anas acuta would use mini-refuges in greater numbers than other habitats; therefore, he suggests Cox and Afton's (1998, Wildl. Soc. Bull 26:130-137) dismissal of his prediction is unfounded.---W.P.J. {ROL #82}

{B508} Sheaffer, S. E. 1998. Recruitment models for Mallards in eastern North America. Auk 115: 988--997. (New York Coop. Fish & Wildl. Research Unit, Fernow Hall, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA; EM: recruitment index for Anas platyrhynchos was correlated positively with precipitation and negatively with population size.---M.A.L. {C914, C918, E514} {ROL #82}

{B508} Townsend, D. E., II, R. L. Lochmiller, et al. 1999. Using supplemental food and its influence on survival of Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 1074--1081. (Oklahoma Coop. Fish & Wildl. Res. Unit, Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.)---Winter survival rates of Colinus virginianus were greater on areas with supplemental feeders.---W.P.J. {ROL #82}

{B508} Twedt, D. J., & C. O. Nelms. 1999. Waterfowl density on agricultural fields managed to retain water in winter. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 924--930. (USGS, Patuxent Wildl. Res. Ctr., 2524 S. Frontage Rd., Vicksburg, MS 39180, USA.)---Waterfowl density, including Anas platyrhynchos, was greater in fields under a moist-soil management regime than in rice or soybean fields; Anas clypeata density was greatest in soybean fields.---W.P.J. {ROL #82}

{B509} Lockwood, J. L. 1999. Using taxonomy to predict success among introduced avifauna: Relative importance of transport and establishment. Conserv. Biol. 13: 560--567. (Dept. Ecol. Evol. Biol., 569 Dabney Hall, Univ. Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA; EM: {ROL #82}

{B509} Sato, S. 2000. [Naturalization of exotic Hwamei in northern Kyushu, Japan.] Japanese Journal of Ornithology 48: 233--235. (Shikoku Res. Ctr., For. & For. Prod. Res. Inst., Asakura-Nishimachi 2-915, Kochi 780-8077, Japan.)---Garrulax canorus. {ROL #82}

{B510} González, J. A. 1999. Effects of harvesting of waterbirds and their eggs by native people in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon. Waterbirds 22: 217--224. (Avenida de Portugal 61-4EC, 32002-Ourense, Spain; EM: of birds and their eggs near the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve with the latter causing serious losses in some colonies; human disturbance may be a major threat to wading birds of the area.---R.B.C. {B900} {ROL #82}

{B510} Isack, H. A. 1999. The role of culture, traditions and local knowledge in co-operative honey-hunting between man and honeyguide: A case study of Boran community of northern Kenya. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 1351--1357. (Ethnobiological Research & Documentation Centre, PO Box 163, Marsabit, Kenya)---It appears that the relationship between Greater Honeyguide Indicator indicator and man is disappearing for cultural reasons. Predicts implications for the bird.---P.C.L., R.J.D. {D106} {ROL #82}

{B510} van Zegeren, K., & J. G. M. Wilson. 1999. Bird catching around Lake Chilwa, Malawi. Ostrich 70: 246--247. (Chancellor College, Univ. Malawi, PO Box 280, Zomba, Malawi; EM: sold as food. Estimated catch from 15 villages is 200,000 birds per annum, main species Dendrocygna bicolor, Gallinula alleni, Gallinula angulata and Rallidae. Additional 10,000 birds, mostly ducks and geese, estimated shot by recreational and professional hunters.---A.J.F.K.C. {B508} {ROL #82}

{B700} Belanger, L., A. Reed, & J. L. Desgranges. 1998. Reproductive variables of American Black Ducks along the St. Lawrence estuary, 1963--1991. Can. J. Zool. 76: 1165--1173. (Environ. Can., Can. Wildl. Serv., 1141 Rt. de l'Eglise, C.P. 10100, Ste-Foy, QC G1V 4H5, Can.)---Anas rubripes nesting date, clutch size, and success vary with habitat.---D.E.F. {C918} {ROL #82}

{B700} Blem, C. R., L. B. Blem, & C. I. Barrientos. 1999. Relationships of clutch size and hatching success to age of female Prothonotary Warblers. Wilson Bull. 111: 577--581. (Dept. Biol., Virginia Commonwealth Univ., 816 Park Ave., Richmond, VA 23284-2012, USA; EM: clutches of 1-year-old Protonotaria citrea females were smaller, had more infertile eggs and lower hatching rates than older birds. Mean number of eggs and number of infertile eggs in second clutches were not significantly different among age classes.---J.J.Dos. {C918} {ROL #82}

{B700} Boon, L. A., & C. D. Ankney. 1999. Body size, nest initiation date, and egg production in Ruddy Ducks. Auk 116: 228--231. (Ducks Unlimited, Inc., 3074 Gold Canal Dr., Rancho Cordova, CA 95670, USA; EM: jamaicensis . {C918} {ROL #82}

{B700} Brewster, C. A. 2000. Breeding of Collared (Red-winged) Pratincoles Glareola pratincola at Shashe dam [Botswana]. Babbler 36: 21. (Private Bag 0024, Bobonong, Botswana.) {ROL #82}

{B700} Campos, A. R., & J. P. Granadeiro. 1999. Breeding biology of the White-faced Storm-Petrel on Selvagem Grande Island, North-east Atlantic. Waterbirds 22: 199--206. (JPG: Inst. Conserv. Nat., Rua Ferreira Lapa 38, 6 E, 1150 Lisboa, Portugal; Pelagodroma marina hypoleuca mean incubation period 53.7 days but highly variable and mean nestling period of 60.3; data also on growth, nesting success, causes of nest failure, etc.---R.B.C. {B710, B720, C918} {ROL #82}

{B700} Carlson, P. C., W. S. LaHaye, & A. B. Franklin. 1998. Incestuous behavior in Spotted Owls. Wilson Bull. 110: 562--564. (House 80, Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA 95521, USA; EM: occidentalis. {B714} {ROL #82}

{B700} Chmielewski, S., & C. Iwañczuk. 1998. The nesting of Common Gull on the Pilica River [Poland]. Kulon 3: 209--210. (Rynek 12, PL 05 640 Mogielnica, Poland.)---Larus canus. (Short note, Polish, English summ.) {C310} {ROL #82}

{B700} Clarke, R. H., & M. F. Clarke. 2000. The breeding biology of the Crescent Honeyeater Phylidonyris pyrrhoptera at Wilson's Promontory, Victoria. Emu 100: 115--124. (Dept. Zool., La Trobe Univ., Bundoora, Vic. 3083, Australia.)---Results of study of breeding biology of this species. Crescent Honeyeater is unusual among Meliphagidae in being sexually dichromatic and dimorphic. Nonetheless, its breeding biology found to be similar to other honeyeater species.---W.K.S. {B720, B710} {ROL #82}

{B700} Duyck, B., & D. B. McNair. 1991. Notes on egg-laying, incubation, and nestling periods and of food brought to the nest by four species of cavity-nesting birds. Chat 55: 21--29. (53 Merion Dr., Asheville, NC 28806 USA.)---Otus asio, Melanerpes carolinus, Colaptes auratus, Sitta carolinensis. {ROL #82}

{B700} Dyer, P. K. 2000. Wedge-tailed Shearwaters on Mudjimba Island, Queensland: numbers and breeding success. Corella 24: 15--18. (Univ. Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs Dr., Sippy Downs, Qld. 4556, Australia.)---Stratified sample counts of Puffinus pacificus burrows yielded breeding rate of 37% and breeding success of 84%.---I.D.E. {C918} {ROL #82}

{B700} Eberhard, J. R. 1998. Breeding biology of Monk Parakeet. Wilson Bull. 110: 463--473. (Smithsonian Trop. Res. Inst., Unit 0948, APA AA 34002-0948, USA; EM: Myiopsitta monachus builds a stick nest, unique among parrots, and may breed cooperatively.---J.J.Dos. {B706, B716} {ROL #82}

{B700} Frith, D. W., & C. B. Frith. 2000. The nesting biology of the Grey-headed Robin Heteromyias albispecularis (Petroicidae) in Australian upland tropical rainforest. Emu 100: 81--94. ('Prionodura', PO Box 581, Malanda, Qld. 4885, Australia.)---Results of detailed study of breeding ecology from 81 nests.---W.K.S. {B702, B710, B716, B718, B720, C918} {ROL #82}

{B700} Gervais. J. L., & D. K. Rosenberg. 1999. Western Burrowing Owls in California produce second broods of chicks. Wilson Bull. 111: 569--571. (Oregon Coop. Fish Wildl. Res. Unit., Dept. Fish. Wildl., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR 97331, USA; EM: evidence of second attempt after successful first brood in Athene cunicularia . Two pair observed with one pair successfully producing 5 additional fledglings.---J.J.Dos. {C918} {ROL #82}

{B700} Haas, C. A. 1998. Effects of prior nesting success on site fidelity and breeding dispersal: an experimental approach. Auk 115: 929--936. (Dept. Fish. Wildl. Sci., Virginia Polytechnic Inst. State Univ., Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA; EM: return rates in American Robins, Turdus migratorius, and Brown Thrasher, Toxostoma rufum, are due to previous nesting failure.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{B700} Harper, C. A., & J. H. Exum. 1999. Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) renest after successful hatch. Wilson Bull. 111: 426--427. (Dept. For., Wildl Fish., P.O. Box 1071, Univ. Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901, USA; EM: broods fail after hatch. None of 3 renests were successful. Human disturbance caused abandonment.---J.J.Dos. {B708, B710, C918} {ROL #82}

{B700} James, R. D. 1999. Yellow-throated and Blue-headed vireos in Ontario: 5. nestling period, and post-nesting activities. Ontario Birds 17: 14--21. (R.R. 3, Sunderland, ON L0C 1H0, Can.)---Data on behavior of parents and young Vireo flavifrons and Vireo solitarius from hatching to post-fledging, including feeding of young, brooding, nest sanitation, fledging behavior, interactions between young, learning by young to feed, and maintenance behavior. Data on morphometric, behavioral and vocal development of young are presented.---M.K.M. {B304, B308, B320} {ROL #82}

{B700} Kopij, G. 1998. Breeding ecology of the Southern Bald Ibis Geronticus calvus in the Free State, South Africa. Acta Ornith. 33: 99--112. (Dept. Biology, Natl. Univ. Lesotho, P. O. Roma 180, Lesotho, South Africa)---Fledglings/eggs ratio: 18% only.---J.K.P. {ROL #82}

{B700} Kristensen, J., T. J. Kristensen, & K. J. Kristensen. 1999. Eared Grebe nesting and behaviour. Alberta Nat. 29: 44--46. (23324 Township Rd. 515, Sherwood Park, AB T8B 1L1, Can.)---Details on nesting chronology, nest-building behavior, nest-sites, nesting success in relation to water level and other aspects of nesting behavior in colony of Podiceps nigricollis in central Alberta.---M.K.M. {ROL #82}

{B700} Marti, C. D. 1994. Barn Owl reproduction: Patterns and variation near the limit of the species distribution. Condor 96: 468--484. (Dept. Zool., Weber State Univ., Ogden, UT 84408-2505, USA.; EM: alba in Utah began nesting at one year and produced one brood. First clutches, replacement clutches, and second clutches averaged 7.17 (n=275), 5.81 (n=16) and 5.79 (n=19), respectively. Successful nests produced 5.09, 4.94, and 3.60 young, respectively. 63% of eggs laid hatched, 55% produced fledglings, 13 Mar mean date of clutch initiation, latest 2nd clutches hatched 4 Oct. Snow cover and low winter temperatures delayed onset of breeding.---R.B.C. {C918} {ROL #82}

{B700} Mermoz, M. E., & J. C. Reboreda. 1998. Nesting success in Brown-and-yellow Marshbirds: effects of timing, nest site, and brood parasitism. Auk 115: 871--878. (Inst. de Biol. y Medicina Exp. (CONICET), Vuelta de Obligado 2490, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina; EM: survival rate in Pseudoleistes virescens (0.133) varied by initiation month, nesting stage, and substrate plant species, but not by presence of parasitism.---M.A.L. {C918} {ROL #82}

{B700} Morrison, J. L. 1998. Effects of double brooding on productivity of Crested Caracaras. Auk 115: 979--987. (Dept. Wildl. Ecol. Conserv., P.O. Box 110430, Univ. Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; EM: plancus. {ROL #82}

{B700} Pearson, S. F., & S. Rohwer. 1998. Influence of breeding phenology and clutch size on hybridization between Hermit and Townsend's warblers. Auk 115: 739--745. (Dept. Zool., P.O. Box 118525, Univ. Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; EM: phenology does not seem to influence competition among Dendroica occidentalis , Dendroica townsendi, and their hybrids. However, Dendroica townsendi has larger clutch than Dendroica occidentalis, suggesting hybrids may be inferior to both.---A.A.W. {D508} {ROL #82}

{B700} Post, W. 1998. Advantages of coloniality in female Boat-tailed Grackles. Wilson Bull. 110: 489--496. (Charleston Mus., 360 Meeting St., Charleston, SC 29403, USA; EM: Quiscalus major reproductive success was lower for solitary females than colony-nesting birds. Success is related to extrinsic factors rather than to differences in female quality.---J.J.Dos. {B314, C918} {ROL #82}

{B700} Roberts, C., & C. J. Norment. 1999. Effects of plot size and habitat characteristics on breeding success of Scarlet Tanagers. Auk 116: 73--82. (CJN: Dept. Biol. Sci., SUNY Coll. Brockport, Brockport, NY 14420, USA; EM: success of Piranga olivacea was affected by patch size and habitat characteristics; absent from areas < 10 ha, fledgling success increased with area, and higher pairing success occurred in patches with high canopy cover and low density of oaks.---A.A.W. {C918} {ROL #82}

{B700} Rose, R. E., & M. C. Rose. 1999. Observations of nesting Eurasian Collared-Doves (Streptopelia decaocto ) in Gulf Breeze, Florida. Alabama Birdlife 45(1): 1--3. (200 Pensacola Beach Rd. #1-3, Gulf Breeze, FL 32561, USA.)---Reports observations of nest-building, incubation, hatching, development of young, and fledging during 41-day period.---J.B.O. {B702, B710, B716, B718, B720} {ROL #82}

{B700} Safford, R. J. 1997. The annual cycle and breeding behaviour of the Mauritius Fody Foudia rubra. Ostrich 68: 58--67. (R. Holloway Inst. Env. Res., Huntersdale, Callow Hill, Virginia Water, Surrey GU25 4LN, UK; EM: occupied exclusive territories throughout the year. Apparently monogamous; both sexes built the nest. Female incubated and brooded, male shared in feeding young. Diet of insects, nectar and fruit.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{B700} Sanz, J. J. 1998. Effects of geographic location and habitat on breeding parameters of Great Tits. Auk 115: 1034--1051. (Depto. Ecología Evolutiva, Mus. Nac. Cienc. Nat., José Gutierrez Abascal 2, E-28006 Madrid, Spain; EM: Parus major. {ROL #82}

{B700} Scharf, W. C. 1999. Black Tern nesting colonies and habitats in marshes of the St. Mary's River, Michigan. Michigan Birds Nat. Hist. 6: 65--73. (760 Kingston Ct., Traverse City, MI 49684, USA.)---Data on 254 Chlidonias niger nests from 1989--1991.---J.A.C. {ROL #82}

{B700} Scheuerlein, A., & E. Gwinner. 1999. Proximate and ultimate aspects of photoperiodic sensitivity in equatorial Stonechats Saxicola torquata axillaris. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 1756-1766. (Bir Research Centre for Ornithology of the Max-Planck Gesellschaft, Von-der-Tannstrasse 7, 82346 Andechs, Germany, fax 0049 8152 37333; EM: {ROL #82}

{B700} Soler, M., et al. 1994. Activity, survival independence and migration of fledgling Great Spotted Cuckoos. Condor 96: 802--805. (Dept. Biol. Anim. Ecol., Fac. Ciencias, Univ. de Granada, E-18071 Granada, Spain.; EM: of fledgling Clamator glandarius in Spain survived to independence with post-fledging dependence periods of 25--29 days = 33.2, n=25); fledgling groups depart suddenly and migrate independently of adults.---R.B.C. {B308, B704} {ROL #82}

{B700} Steyn, P. 1999. The breeding biology of the Scimitarbilled Woodhoopoe. Ostrich 70: 173--178. (PO Box 54, Newlands 7725, S. Africa.)---Rhinopomastus cyanomelas breeding season in Zimbabwe from Aug--Dec. Clutch 2--4 (mean 2.9), female fed by male while incubating for 13--14 days. During nestling period of 21--24 days, male brought food for chicks, but delivered it to female. No evidence of helpers.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{B700} Van Zyl, A. J. 1999. Breeding biology of the Common Kestrel in southern Africa (32°S) compared to studies in Europe (53°N). Ostrich 70: 127--132. (Dept. Birds, Transvaal Mus., PO Box 413, Pretoria 0001, S. Africa.)---Falco tinnunculus rupicola showed breeding density comparable to European birds, but clutch size smaller (3.2 vs. 4.4). Incubation (26 days), nestling (30--31 days) and post-fledging periods (32--39 days) also similar to northern race. Only clutch size fitted predictions of life-history theory over latitudinal gradients.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{B700} Volponi, S. 1999. Reproduction of a newly-established population of the Great Cormorant in northeastern Italy. Waterbirds 22: 263--273. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Ferrara, Via L. Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara, Italy; EM: carbo sinensis populations steadily increasing in the Po Valley with high-level reproductive parameters usually found in newly-established colonies.---R.B.C. {C914} {ROL #82}

{B700} Wasilewski, R. L., & R. Koval. 1999. Successful nesting by Wyoming Valley [Pennsylvania] Peregrine Falcons. PA Birds 13: 169--171. (No address given.)---Details of a complete breeding cycle of Falco peregrinus in 1999, in which three young fledged.---P.D.H. {Falconiformes, Falconidae, B716, B718, B720) {ROL #82}

{B700} Winter, M. 1999. Nesting biology of Dickcissels and Henslow's Sparrows in southwestern Missouri prairie fragments. Wilson Bull. 111: 515--527. (611 Winston Ct., Apt. 4, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA; EM: americana might reproduce less successfully and have higher rates of Molothrus ater parasitism than Ammodramus henslowii and be of higher conservation concern.---J.J.Dos. {B704, B904, B908, C918} {ROL #82}

{B702} Brodin, A., O. Olsson, & C. W. Clark. 1998. Modeling the breeding cycle of long-lived birds: why do King Penguins try to breed to late? Auk 115: 767--771. (Dept. Ecol., Div. Theoretical Ecol., Ecol. Bldg., S-223 62 Lund, Sweden; EM: Aptenodytes patagonicus, late breeding attempts reduce annual adult survival by such a small amount (~1%) that an optimal lifetime reproductive success strategy includes them when their probability of success is as low as 0.045.---M.A.L. {C910} {ROL #82}

{B702} Castell, P. 1999. Notes on the breeding biology of Raso Lark Alauda razae. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 6: 103--106. (679 Chester Rd, Great Sutton, S. Wirral L66 2LN, UK.) {ROL #82}

{B702} Claffey, P. 1998. New breeding records of Verreaux's Eagle Owl Bubo lacteus in Bénin, West Africa. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 5: 127. (B.P. 302, Parakou, Benin; EM: {ROL #82}

{B702} Crawford, R. J. M., B. M. Dyer, & L. Upfold. 1999. Seasonal pattern of breeding by Cape and Crowned Cormorants off western South Africa. Ostrich 70: 193--195. (Marine and Coastal Management, Private Bag X2, Rogge Bay 8012, S. Africa; EM: Phalacrocorax capensis breeds primarily from Sept--Feb, Phalacrocorax coronatus from Dec--Mar. Both species may also breed throughout the year.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{B702} Johnstone, R. E., & N. Kolichis. 1999. First description of the nest and eggs of the Black Grasswren Amytornis housei (Milligan) with notes on breeding. Records of the Western Australian Museum 19: 259--265. (West. Aust. Mus., Francis St., Perth, WA 6000, Australia.)---Details of ten nests and four clutches are given.---M.G.B. {B710, B716} {ROL #82}

{B702} Ralph, C. J., & S. G. Fancy. 1994. Timing of breeding and molting in six species of Hawaiian Honeycreepers. Condor 96: 151--161. (U.S. For. Serv., Redwood Sci. Lab., 1700 Bayview Dr., Arcata, CA 95521, USA.)---Himatione sanguinea, Vestiaria coccinea, Hemignathus virens, Oreomystis mana, Loxops coccineus, and Hemignathus munroi on island of Hawaii all had extended breeding and molting periods with peak breeding Apr--Jul and peak molting in Aug.---R.B.C. {B904, E114} {ROL #82}

{B702} Smith, K. G., et al. 1999. Additional records of fall and winter nesting by Killdeer in southern United States. Wilson Bull. 111: 424--426. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA; EM: Charadrius vociferus nesting in October and November, attempt in December.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{B702} Walk, J. W., T. L. Esker, & S. A. Simpson. 1999. Continuous nesting of Barn Owls in Illinois. Wilson Bull. 111: 572--573. (Univ. Illinois, Dept. Nat. Resour. Environ. Sci., Urbana, IL 61801, USA; EM: alba laying, incubation and brood-rearing were attempted in every month of the year. Owls in nest box hatched 5 clutches and fledged young from 4 within 23 months.---J.J.Dos. {B716, C318} {ROL #82}

{B702} Young, B. E. 1994. The effects of food, nest predation and weather on the timing of breeding in tropical House Wrens. Condor 96: 341--353. (Organ. para Estud. Trop., Apdo 676-2050, San Pedro, Costa Rica.)---Costa Rican Troglodytes aedon breeding timed so that juvenile dispersal and molt occurring when food most plentiful; only at 1 of 4 sites, the highest, did egg-laying wait until the early dry season and subsiding mists.---R.B.C. {C906, C918} {ROL #82}

{B704} Brush, T. 2000. Bronzed Cowbirds ( Molothrus aeneus) still parasitize Hooded Orioles (Icterus cucullatus ) in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Bull. Texas Ornithol. Soc. 33(1): 9--11. (Dept. Bio., Univ. Texas-Pan American, 1201 W. Univ. Dr., Edinburg, TX 78539, USA.)---From 1994-1998 Hooded Orioles were observed to most frequently raise Bronzed Cowbirds even though the population of this host is very small and dispersed.---J.B.O. {ROL #82}

{B704} Davies, N. B. 1999. Cuckoos and cowbirds versus hosts: Co-evolutionary lag and equilibrium. Ostrich 70: 71--79. (Dept. Zoo., Univ. Cambridge, Downing St., Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK; EM: hosts accept non-mimetic eggs. Variation in host acceptance may reflect a mixture of systems at equilibrium, and those showing evolutionary lag.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{B704} Dufty, A. M., Jr. 1994. Rejection of foreign eggs by Yellow-headed Blackbirds. Condor 96: 799--801. (Biol. Dept., Boise State Univ., Boise, ID 83725, USA; EM: egg removed and replaced with egg of Agelaius phoeniceus in 19 nests of Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus in Idaho. Red-winged Blackbird eggs disappeared from Yellow-head nests in 5 of 25 instances but acceptance was higher later in incubation.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B704} Dugger, B. D., L. C. Bollmann, & L. H. Fredrickson. 1999. Response of female Hooded Mergansers to eggs of an interspecific brood parasite. Auk 116: 269--273. (Coop. Wild. Res. Lab, South. Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL 62901, USA; EM: cucullatus females removed Aix sponsa eggs from nests more often than conspecific parasitic additions.---A.D.F. {ROL #82}

{B704} Grzybowski, J. A., & C. M. Pease. 1999. A model of the dynamics of cowbirds and their host communities. Auk 116: 209--222. (Coll. Math. Sci., Univ. Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK 73034, USA; EM: spp. {ROL #82}

{B704} Hauber, M. E., & S. A. Russo. 2000. Perch proximity correlates with higher rates of cowbird parasitism of ground nesting Song Sparrows. Wilson Bull. 112: 150--153. (Field Neurobiol. Behav., Seeley G. Mudd Hall, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, USA; EM: Melospiza melodia, Molothrus ater. {ROL #82}

{B704} Hébert, P. N.. 1999. Evidence of egg ejection in Mountain Bluebirds. Wilson Bull. 111: 440--442. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Can.; EM: recorded interspecific egg removal by bluebird species. Sialia currucoides rejects Passer domesticus egg.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{B704} Kozlovic, D. R. 1998. Parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds and productivity of House Finch hosts. Can. J. Zool. 76: 1714--1721. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3G5, Can.)--- Molothrus ater reduced Carpodacus mexicanus by about one offspring per nest.---D.E.F. {ROL #82}

{B704} Mermoz, M. E., & J. C. Reboreda. 1994. Brood parasitism on of the Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis, on the Brown-and-Yellow Marshbird, Pseudoleistes virescens. Condor 96: 716--721. (Lab. de Biol. del Comport., Inst. Biol. y Med. Exp.-CONICET, Vuelta de Obligado 2490, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina.)---Cowbird that lays both spotted and white eggs mostly laid spotted eggs in marshbird nests, the latter rejecting white eggs. Marshbird could raise up to four cowbird young and suffered greatest losses to parasitism through punctured or cracked eggs.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B704} Neudorf, D. L., & S. G. Sealy. 1994. Sunrise nest attentiveness in cowbird hosts. Condor 96: 162--169. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 95521, Can.)---No correlation between frequency of parasitism by Molothrus ater and attentiveness in 6 accepter species at Delta Marsh, Manitoba, nor were there differences in attentiveness between these 6 and 4 rejecter species; species that roost on nest may have advantage in deterring parasitism over those that do not.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B704} Parker, T. H. 1999. Responses of Bell's Vireos to brood parasitism by the Brown-headed Cowbird in Kansas. Wilson Bull. 111: 499--504. (Dept. Biol., Univ. New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA; EM: bellii abandoned parasitized nests at higher rate than unparasitized nests. Burial of Molothrus ater eggs was observed. Did not detect strong relationship between nest site characteristics and probability of parasitism.---J.J.Dos. {B716} {ROL #82}

{B704} Peer, B. D., & S G. Sealy. 1999. Laying time of the Bronzed Cowbird. Wilson Bull. 111: 137--139. (3163 5th St., East Moline, IL 61244, USA; EM: observations of Molothrus aeneus egg laying. Pre-sunrise timing may be brood parasitism adaptation.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{B704} Peer, B. D., & E. K. Bollinger. 1998. Rejection of cowbird eggs by Mourning Doves: a manifestation of nest usurpation? Auk 115: 1057--1062. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Can.: EM: usurpation appears to be the most reasonable explanation for Molothrus ater egg rejection by Zenaida macroura .---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{B704} Webster, M. S. 1994. Interspecific brood parasitism of Montezuma Oropendolas by Giant Cowbirds: Parasitism or mutualism? Condor 96: 794--798. (Dept. Biol. Sci., SUNY, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA.; EM: Rican Psarocolius montezuma drove Scaphidura oryzivora from their nests with cowbirds being able to enter nests in only 7 of 83 visits; no evidence for mutualism in these colonies.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B706} Christman, B. J., & S. J. C. Gaulin. 1998. Unambiguous evidence of helping at the nest in Bridled Titmice. Wilson Bull. 110: 567--569. (Southwest. Res. STN., P.O. Box 1655., Portal, AZ 85632, USA; EM: instances of assistance by Baeolophus wollweberi males.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{B706} Fontanini, L. 2000. Australasian Grebe feeding young Eurasian Coots. Australian Bird Watcher 18: 202. (RMB 312, Manjimup, WA 6258, Australia.)---A Tachybaptus novaehollandiae adult assisted with feeding Fulica atra chicks probably resulting in the rearing of a larger brood than normal.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{B706} Komdeur, J. 1999. Reproductive control in cooperatively- and polygynously-breeding Acrocephalus species. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 2910--2921. (Zoological Laboratory, University of Groningen, PO Box 14, 9750 AA Haren, The Netherlands; EM:"Using a cross-taxonomic comparison of Acrocephalus species, I show the plasticity of reproductive control, and the variation in control mechanisms used by individuals to optimise their reproduction". Particularly Bebrornis sechellensis.---R.J.D. {B714} {ROL #82}

{B706} Langen, T. A., & S. L. Vehrencamp. 1999. How White-throated Magpie-Jay helpers contribute during breeding. Auk 116: 131--140. (Dept. Biol., Univ. California, 405 Hilgard Dr., Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; EM: of Calocitta formosa with many helpers produced more successful nests and fledglings.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{B706} Webster, M. S. 1994. The spatial and temporal distribution of breeding female Montezuma Oropendolas: effects on male mating strategies. Condor 96: 722--733. (Dept. Biol. Sci., SUNY, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA.; EM: montezuma females in Costa Rica alone built nests and cared for young. Nesting synchrony was low among but relatively high within nest clusters, lower than reported for most monogamous colonial birds but similar to those for polygynous colonial nesters.---R.B.C. {B702} {ROL #82}

{B708} Gutzwiller, K. J., et al. 1998. Vertical distributions of breeding-season birds: Is human intrusion influential? Wilson Bull. 110: 497--503. (Dept. Biol., Baylor Univ., Waco, TX 76798, USA; EM: gambeli, Regulus calendula, Dendroica coronata and Junco hyemalis were able to tolerate low levels of intrusion.---J.J.Dos. {C908} {ROL #82}

{B710} Adams, N. J., G. I. H. Kerley, & J. J. Watson. 1999. Disturbance of incubating African Black Oystercatchers: is heating of exposed eggs a problem? Ostrich 70: 225--228. ([incomplete address] EM: moquini incubation temperature 34.4°C, maximum temperature for exposed eggs (40.1°C) within lethal limits for other species. Suggests that overheating of eggs, if incubating bird is disturbed, may not influence breeding success.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{B710} Bednarczyk, M., & A. Rosinski. 1999. Comparison of egg hatchability and in vitro survival of goose embryos of various origins. Poult. Sci. 78: 579--585. (Rosinski, A., Agric. Univ. Poznan, Dept. Poult. Breed. Prod., Wolynska 33, 60-637, Poznan, Poland; EM: factors beyond that of shell quality alone, seemed to have an effect on hatchability in several strains of domestic White Italian Geese (Anser domesticus ).---I.L.B. {embryonic mortality, culture in vitro} {ROL #82}

{B710} Christensen, V. L., D. O. Noble, & K. E. Nestor. 2000. Influence of selection for increased body weight, egg production, and shank width on the length of the incubation period of turkeys. Poult. Sci. 79: 613--618. (Nestor, K. E., Dept. Anim. Sci., Ohio Agric. Res. Dev. Ctr., Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH 44691, USA; EM: from turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from a line selected for increased egg production, took longer to hatch due to an increase in the time required for the poult to break out of the shell. Birds with increased adult body weights laid eggs with shorter hatching times.---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{B710} Coulson, J. C. 1999. Variation in clutch size of the Common Eider: A study based on 41 breeding seasons on Coquet Island, Northumberland, England. Waterbirds 22: 228--238. (JC Environ. Consultancy, 29, St Mary's Close, Shincliffe Village, Durham City, DH1 2ND, UK; EM: mollissima shows declining mean clutch size from 5.37 eggs in 1962 to 3.43 eggs in 1996 with younger females initially but no longer laying smaller clutches than adult birds. Decline thought to be related to deterioration of eider food supply at nesting ground.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B710} Esler, D., & J. B. Grand. 1994. The role of nutrient reserves for clutch formation by Northern Pintails in Alaska. Condor 96: 422--432. (Alaska Fish Wildl. Res. Cent., USGS/BRD, 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, AK 99503, USA; EM:, age of Anas acuta, and year did not affect use of nutrient reserves with Pintail depending more on lipid reserves than other ducks, such reserves apparently affecting timing of nesting and proximately limiting clutch-size.---R.B.C. {E118, E120} {ROL #82}

{B710} Flint, P. L., & J. B. Grand. 1999. Patterns of variation in size and composition of Greater Scaup eggs: are they related? Wilson Bull. 111: 465--471. (Alaska Biol. Sci. Ctr., USGS, 1011 East Tudor Rd., Anchorage, AK 99503, USA; EM: Aythua marila egg size did not vary with clutch size or serve as index of body size. Proportion of lipid decreased and protein increased with increasing egg size.---J.J.Dos. {E118, E120} {ROL #82}

{B710} Gonzalez, A., et al. 1999. Factors affecting ostrich egg hatchability. Poult. Sci. 78: 1257--1262. (Satterlee, D. G., Appl. Anim. Biotech. Lab., Dept. Poult. Sci., Louisiana Agric. Exp. Stn., Louisiana State Univ. Agric. Ctr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA; EM: of ostriches (Struthio camelus) with low numbers of large pores per sq cm of shell and increased eggshell thickness showed poor hatchability. Eggs of intermediate size showed the highest hatchability and large eggs were found to produce larger chicks. Storage for a minimum of 10 days did not negatively affect hatchability.--I.L.B. {egg weight, preincubation time, E118, E120} {ROL #82}

{B710} González-Solís, J., et al. 1999. Intraindividual seasonal decline of egg-volume in Common Tern Sterna hirundo. Acta Ornith. 34: 185--190. (Dept. de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Univ. de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, Barcelona--08028, Spain; decline in egg-volume is a non-adaptive consequence of physiological effect of condition on both timing of breeding and egg volume.---J.K.P. {E118, E120} {ROL #82}

{B710} Lipar, J. L., E. D. Ketterson, & V. Nolan, Jr. 1999. Intraclutch variation in testosterone content of Red-winged Blackbird eggs. Auk 116: 231--235. (Dept. Biol. Ctr. Integrative Study Anim. Behav., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN 47405, USA; EM: concentrations in yolk increase with laying order in Agelaius phoeniceus .---A.A.W. {E108, E118, E120} {ROL #82}

{B710} McMaster, D. G., et al. 1999. Timing of egg laying in Yellow Warblers. Auk 116: 236--240. (Saskatchewan Wetland Conserv. Corporation, 202-2050 Cornwall St., Regina, SK S4P 2K5, Can.; EM: times and laying bouts did not vary significantly in Dendroica petechia; eggs were laid, on average, 10 minutes after sunrise.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{B710} Salt, J. R. 1998. Displacement of Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) eggs and young at natural nest-sites. Brit. Columbia Birds 8: 19--20. (464 Nelson St., Victoria, BC V9A 6P4, Can.)---Eggs were moved at 3 natural sites, one clutch 3 times. Instances are also reported of small young being moved, 2 involving clutches in which eggs were moved previously.---M.K.M. {B702, B716, B720} {ROL #82}

{B710} Sockman, K. W., & H. Schwabl. 1998. Hypothermic tolerance in an embryonic American Kestrel (Falco sparverius ). Can. J. Zool. 76: 1399--1402. (Dept. Zool., Ctr. Reproductive Biol., Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA 99164--4236, USA.) {ROL #82}

{B710} Strausberger, B. M. 1998. Temperature, egg mass, and incubation time: a comparison of Brown-headed Cowbirds and Red-winged Blackbirds. Auk 115: 843--850. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Illinois Chicago, 845 W. Taylor St., Chicago, IL 60607, USA; EM: Molothrus ater showed no correlation between egg mass and incubation time and can tolerate variation in incubation temperatures. Agelaius phoeniceus showed a positive correlation and had similar temperature requirements.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{B710} Takahashi, Y., et al. 1999. [Is clutch-size of Slaty-backed Gulls determined by incubation cost?] Japanese Journal of Ornithology 48: 127--133. (Lab. Appl. Zool., Fac. Agric., Hokkaido Univ., Kita-9, Nishi-9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8589, Japan.)---Larus schistisagus adults could not effectively incubate experimentally enlarged clutches. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---H.N. {ROL #82}

{B710} Tharrington, J. B., et al. 1999. Comparison of physical quality and composition of eggs from historic strains of single comb White Leghorn chickens. Poult. Sci. 78: 591--594. (Dept. Food Sci., North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695, USA; EM: of domestic laying chickens (Gallus domesticus) has produced larger eggs which contain a lower percentage of yolk.---I.L.B. {egg quality} {ROL #82}

{B710} Tilgar, V., R. Mänd, & A. Leivits. 1999. Breeding in calcium-poor habitats: are there any extra costs? Acta Ornith. 34: 215--218. (R. M.: Dept. Zoology & Hydrobiology, Univ. Tartu, Vanemuise 46, Tartu, 51014 Estonia; EM: effects of calcium supplementation on the egg volume, shell thickness, start of laying and fledglings parameters of Parus major and Ficedula hypoleuca were revealed.---J.K.P. {E118, E120} {ROL #82}

{B710} Whittow, G. C., & T. N. Pettit. 2000. Egg dimensions and shell characteristics of Bulwer's Petrels, Bulweria bulwerii, on Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Sci. 54: 183--188. (Dept. Physiol., Univ. Hawai'i, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.)---Measurements within 10% of values predicted in literature; develops predictive equations for egg volume, fresh-egg contents, and total functional pore area of the shell.---R.B.C. {E514} {ROL #82}

{B710} Whittow, G. C., & M. B. Naughton. 1999. Christmas Shearwater egg dimensions and shell characteristics on Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Wilson Bull. 111: 421--422. (Dept. Physiol., John A. Burns Sch. Med., Univ. Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA; EM: nativitatis. {ROL #82}

{B710} Wood, A., & D. N. Johnson. 1997. The incubation period of Stanley's Bustard Neotis denhami stanleyi . Ostrich 68: 45. (KwaZulu Dept. Nat. Conservation, PO Box 36, Boston 3211, S. Africa.)---Based on a clutch of 2 eggs, estimated at 23--25 days.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{B710} Yom-Tov, Y., M. I. Christie, & G. J. Iglesias. 1994. Clutch size in passerines of southern South America. Condor 96: 170--177. (Dept. Zool., Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv 69978, Israel.)---Literature study indicates mean clutch size of 2.98 for 331 species breeding in Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, and southern Brazil. Deutero-oscine clutch size (2.73) significantly smaller than Oscine (3.32). No correlation between size and body mass, nest type, or migration and no latitudinal gradient in clutch-size.---R.B.C. {D108, C918} {ROL #82}

{B710} Zieliñski, P., & J. Bañbura. 1998. Egg size variation in the Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica . Acta Ornith. 33: 191--196. (Dept. Ecology & Vertebrate Zoology, Univ. Lodz, Banacha 12/16 PL 90 237 Lodz, Poland, EM:; some breeding seasons size of eggs was negatively correlated with the date of laying, hatching and fledging success, but not with clutch size or female/male wing length.---J.K.P. {ROL #82}

{B712} Barber, C. A., & R. J. Robertson. 1999. Floater males engage in extrapair copulations with resident female Tree Swallows. Auk 116: 264--269. (Dept. Biol., Acadia Univ., Wolfville, NS B0P 1Z0, Can.; EM: floater male Tachycineta bicolor engaged in extrapair copulations, none were successful in fertilization.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{B712} Otter, K., L. Ratcliffe, & P. T. Boag. 1994. Extra-pair paternity in the Black-capped Chickadee. Condor 96: 218--222. (Queen's Univ., Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Can.)---DNA fingerprinting of Poecile atricapillus in Ontario showed that 3 of 8 nests held at least one nestling genetically mismatched with their behavioral father; 9 of 53 nestlings with extra-pair parent overall, 9 of 19 in nests with extra-pair young. Polyandrous pairings apparently usually involve males that had lost mates.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B712} Petren, K., B. R. Grant, & P. R. Grant. 1999. Low extrapair paternity in the Cactus Finch (Geospiza scandens ). Auk 116: 252--256. (Dept. Ecol. Evol. Biol., Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ 08544, USA; EM: {ROL #82}

{B712} Pierce, E. P., & J. T. Lifjeld. 1998. High paternity without paternity-assurance behavior in the Purple Sandpiper, a species with high paternal investment. Auk 115: 602--612. (Zool. Mus., Univ. Oslo, Sars gate 1, N-0562 Oslo, Norway; EM: male Calidris maritima did not exhibit frequent copulation or mate guarding, only 1 of 82 offspring was sired by an extrapair male; suggest females have few benefits to gain from seeking extra-pair copulations.---M.A.L. {ROL #82}

{B714} Czapka, S. J., & L. Scott Johnson. 2000. Consequences of mate sharing for first-mated females in a polygynous songbird, the House Wren. Wilson Bull. 112: 72--81. (LSJ: Dept. Biol. Sci., Towson Univ., Towson, MD 21252, USA; EM: some years there may be a delayed cost of mate sharing in Troglodytes aedon. Overall, mate sharing does not affect reproductive output of first mated females in the first breeding attempts of the season, but may affect second attempts.---J.J.Dos. {B712, B718, C918} {ROL #82}

{B714} Dyrcz, A. 1998. Mating systems in birds---a new perspective. Wiad. Ekol. 44: 3--19. (Dept. Bird Ecol., Wroclaw Univ., Sienkiewicza 21, PL 50 335 Wroclaw, Poland.) (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{B714} Sandercock, B. K. 1998. Assortative mating and sexual size dimorphism in Western and Semipalmated sandpipers. Auk 115: 786--791. (Univ. California, Ecosystem Sci. Div., Dept. Environ. Sci. Policy Manage., 151 Hilgard Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; EM: no evidence for assortative mating in Calidris mauri or Calidris pusilla; discusses possible causes for sexual size dimorphism.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{B714} Wink, M., & A. Dyrcz. 1999. Mating systems in birds: a review of molecular studies. Acta Ornith. 34: 91--109. (Inst. f. Pharmazeutische Biologie, Ruprecht-Karls-Univ. Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, D 69 120 Heidelberg, Germany; EM: and benefits of extra-pair copulation is analysed.---J.K.P. {D504} {ROL #82}

{B716} Antipow, J., & A. Domaszewicz. 1997. Lêgi dziko zyjacych bocianów bialych Ciconia ciconia w gniazdach umiejscowionych na ziemi (Europa Srodkowa) [Breeding of White Storks Ciconia ciconia in nests placed on the ground in Central Europe]. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 53(5): 111--118. (A. D.: Warszawska 29/48, PL 17 200 Hajnówka, Poland.) (in Polish) {ROL #82}

{B716} Barszcz, P. 1998. Zagêszczenie i umiejscowienie gniazd sroki Pica pica w Krakowie-Krowodrzy [Location and density of the nests of Pica pica in urban conditions, as exemplified by the district of Krowodrza in Kraków]. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 54(3): 119--124. ([no address]) (in Polish) {ROL #82}

{B716} Bischoff, T., H. Lutter, & S. J. S. Debus. 2000. Square-tailed Kites breeding on the mid-north coast of New South Wales. Australian Bird Watcher 18: 233--240. (Natl. Pks. Wildl. Serv., PO Box 61, Port Macquarie, NSW 2444, Australia.)---Nest-building behaviour and vocalisations of Lophoictinia isura and observations of feeding on paper-wasp (Polistes) nest.---I.D.E. {B708, D302} {ROL #82}

{B716} Boe, J. S. 1994. Nest site selection by Eared Grebes in Minnesota. ÊCondor 96: 19--35. (Minnesota County Biol. Surv., Minnesota Dept. Nat. Resour., Box 308, Deer River, MN 56636, USA.)---Podiceps nigricollis nearest neighbor distances between nests decreasing with increase in emergent vegetation with later nests in vicinity of earliest ones; clutch sizes larger in earlier nests that were more successful than later ones with most nest loss to waves and <2% to predators.---R.B.C. {C918, B314} {ROL #82}

{B716} Breitwisch, R., A. J. Schilling, & J. B. Banks. 1999. Parental behavior of a bigamous male Northern Cardinal. Wilson Bull. 111: 283--286. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469-2320, USA; EM: Cardinalis cardinalis provisioned only primary female during incubation. Fed both sets of nestlings.---J.J.Dos. {B714, B712} {ROL #82}

{B716} Bull, L. S. 2000. Factors influencing Little Penguin, Eudyptula minor, egg success on Matiu-Somes Island, New Zealand. Emu 100: 199--204. (Sch. Biol. Sci., Victoria Univ. Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand.)---Nest type: cave, soil burrow, side of rock, vegetation, rock crevice, under boulder, etc., was the only variable tested which showed a relationship with the fate of eggs.---W.K.S. {B710, B718} {ROL #82}

{B716} Burhans, D. E., & F. R. Thompson, III. 1999. Habitat patch size and nesting success of Yellow-breasted Chats. Wilson Bull. 111: 210--215. (North Central Res. Stn., USDA For. Serv., 202 Nat. Resour. Bldg., Univ. Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA; EM: dburhans/ site selection, nest predation, and Molothrus ater parasitism on Icteria virens.---J.J.Dos. {B704, C916, C918} {ROL #82}

{B716} Cely, J. E., & D. P. Ferral. 1991. An unusually small Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity tree. Chat 55: 57--58. (S.C. Wildl. Mar. Resour. Dept., NonGame Heritage Trust Sec., P.O. Box 167, Columbia, SC 29202 USA.)---Cavity tree (11.9 m tall, 17.5 cm dbh) was in Picoides borealis colony damaged by Hurricane Hugo preceding fall (1989). Cavity 3.5 m above ground, facing SW; tree diameter at cavity height estimated at 15 cm. The Pinus echinata appeared to be severely suppressed and older than size suggested.---E.F.P. {ROL #82}

{B716} Cully, J. F., Jr., & H. L. Michaels. 2000. Henslow's Sparrow habitat associations on Kansas tallgrass prairie. Wilson Bull. 112: 115--123. (Kansas Coop. Fish Wildl. Res. Unit., USGS/BRD, Div. Biol., 204 Leasure Hall, Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS 66506, USA; EM: a large scale Ammodramus henslowii was associated with grasslands burned 2 or 3 years previous. Use sites characterized by high litter cover and structurally homogeneous vegetation. Level of military disturbance did not differ from random survey points.---J.J.Dos. {B708, B904, C908} {ROL #82}

{B716} Drew, L. 1999. Unusual European Starling nesting attempt. Ontario Birds 17: 24--25. (R.R. 5, Merlin, ON N0P 1W0, Can.)---Nesting material pushed through hole in granary by Sturnus vulgaris accumulated to 1.5 m.---M.K.M. {ROL #82}

{B716} Fisher, B. 1998. Unusual nest site of a Spectacled Weaver Ploceus ocularis. Babbler 33: 27. (Beaumont Ho., Beaumont-cum-Moze, Thorpe le Soken, Essex CO16 0AR, UK)---Nest attached to reed stem.---N.J.S. {ROL #82}

{B716} Folliard, L. B., K. P. Reese, & L. V. Diller. 2000. Landscape characteristics of Northern Spotted Owl nest sites in managed forests of northwestern California. J. Raptor Res. 34: 75--84. (Dept. Fish Wildl. Resour., Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA.)--- Strix occidentalis caurina. {B904, B910} {ROL #82}

{B716} Friesen, L. E., V. E. Wyatt, & M. D. Cadman. 1999. Nest reuse by Wood Thrushes and Rose-breasted Grosbeaks. Wilson Bull. 111: 132--133. (Can. Wildl. Ser., 75 Farquhar St., Guelph, ON N1H 3N4, Can.; EM: within the same season and successive years by Hylocichla mustelina and successive years by Pheucticus ludovicianus. Young were successfully fledged in both original and second episodes.---J.J.Dos. {C918} {ROL #82}

{B716} Gonzalex, M. J., H. B. Quibley, & C. I. Taylor. 1998. Habitat use and reproductive ecology of the Ocellated Turkey in Tikal National Park, Guatemala. Wilson Bull. 110: 505--510. (Plasticolor Airpak Courier, GPL 10, 1325 NW, 93 Ct., Unit B-102, Miami, FL 33172, USA.)---Meleagris ocellata uses tall forest cover to care for its poults and forest clearings and other vegetation types during courtship and nesting.---J.J.Dos. {B312, B700, C908, C910} {ROL #82}

{B716} Grauman, B., & E. Kuyt. 1999. Home is a cow skull. Alberta Nat. 29: 16. (1, 54023 Secondary Hwy. 779, Spruce Grove, AL T6J 2X9, Can.)---Successful nesting by House Wren, Troglodytes aedon, in cow skull during 2 consecutive years. Dates and times of fledging included.---M.K.M. {B720} {ROL #82}

{B716} Grieco, F. 1999. Nest-site limitations and colony development in tree-nesting Great Cormorants. Waterbirds 22: 417--423. (Center Terr. Ecol., Netherlands Inst. Ecol., NL 6666 ZG, Heteren, Netherlands.; EM: of tree sites by Phalacrocorax carbo and their quality not related to nesting attempts by immatures or mean brood size and with low quality sites used only in years when space was limited.---R.B.C. {C908, C914} {ROL #82}

{B716} Hake, T. R. 2000. Some early Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) nest records from Pennsylvania USA. International Hawkwatcher 1: 2--3. (deceased; ed. D. S. Heintzelman, 629 Green St., Allentown, PA 18102, USA; EM: catalogued 14 nests, 1966--1979, in York County.---P.D.H. {Ciconiiformes, Cathartidae, C318} {ROL #82}

{B716} Hess, P. D. 2000. Notes on urban raptors and their breeding habitats in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. International Hawkwatcher 2: 8--14. (1412 Hawthorne St., Natrona Heights PA 15065, USA.)---Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii), Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus ), Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), Eastern Screech-Owl (Otus asio ), Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus), and possibly Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus) have nested in the city.---P.D.H. {Falconiformes, Strigiformes, Accipitridae, Falconidae, Tytonidae, Strigidae, C908} {ROL #82}

{B716} Hooge, P. N., M. T. Stanback, & W. D. Koenig. 1999. Nest-site selection in the Acorn Woodpecker. Auk 116: 45--54. (WDK: Hastings Nat. Hist. Reservation, 38601 E. Carmel Valley Rd., Carmel Valley, CA 93924, USA; EM: are significant ecological and demographic constraints on nest-site selection in Melanerpes formicivorus.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{B716} Houston, C. S. 1999. Barred Owl nest in attic of shed. Wilson Bull. 111: 272--273. (863 Univ. Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0J8, Can.; EM: record of Strix varia nesting in building in North America. Behavior repeated 12 out of 13 years with 12 nestlings banded in 5 seasons.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{B716} Janes, S. W. 1994. Partial loss of Red-tailed Hawk territories to Swainson's Hawks: relations to habitat. ÊCondor 96: 52--57. (Biol. Dept., Southern Oregon State Coll., Ashland, OR 97520, USA.)---Ca. 1/3 of 33 Buteo jamaicensis pairs in north-central Oregon lost portions of territory to later arriving Buteo swainsoni with jamaicensis preferentially retaining areas with greater perch densities.---R.B.C. {B302, B316} {ROL #82}

{B716} Kêdra, A. H., T. D. Mazgajski, & K. Kowalczyk. 1999. Influence of the nest-site size on nestling's condition, the case of Starling Sturnus vulgaris. Acta Ornith. 34: 205--208. (T. D. M.: Mus. Inst. Zoology PAS, Wilcza 64, PL 06 697 Warszawa, Poland; nest-box negatively affects condition of nestlings during first days of life.---J.K.P. {B720} {ROL #82}

{B716} Kojima, Y. 1999. Nest site characteristics of the Grey-faced Buzzard. Japanese Journal of Ornithology 48: 151--155. (Dept. Biol., Fac. Sci., Osaka City Univ., Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585, Japan.)---Butastur indicus. {ROL #82}

{B716} Krogh, M. G., & S. H. Schweitzer. 1999. Least Terns nesting on natural and artificial habitats in Georgia, USA. Waterbirds 22: 290--296. (25100 Hwy. 441 N, Okeechobee, FL 34972 USA.)--- Sterna antillarum nesting success 1995--1997 on beaches, dredged-material islands and roofs. Colonies on roofs poorly to moderately successful contrasted with better results previously reported elsewhere.---R.B.C. {C918} {ROL #82}

{B716} Mannan, R. W., & C. W. Boal. 2000. Home range characteristics of male Cooper's Hawks in an urban environment. Wilson Bull. 112: 21--27. (Sch. Renewable Nat. Resour., Univ. Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA; EM: cooperii territories in Tucson, Arizona, are small because the birds do not need to range far from their nests to forage. Average territory size was 65.5 ha ± 40.7 (SD) and decreased in size with the number of years a hawk lived on its territory.---J.J.Dos. {C908, E524} {ROL #82}

{B716} Masterov, V. B., M. U. Soloviev, & V. B. Zykov. 2000. Numbers and current status of the population of Steller's Sea Eagle on Sakhalin Island. In: Ueta, M., & McGrady, M. J. (eds). First Symposium on Steller's and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia: 45--57. Tokyo: Wild Bird Soc. Japan. (Dept. Vertebrate Zool., Biol. Fac. Moscow State Univ., 119899 Moscow, Russia; EM:, habitat preferences and population trend of Haliaeetus pelagicus .---M.J.U. {C908, C914, C918} {ROL #82}

{B716} McClelland, B. R., & P. T. McClelland. 2000. Red-naped Sapsucker nest trees in northern Rocky Mountain old-growth forest. Wilson Bull. 112: 44--50. (P.O. Box 366, West Glacier, MT 59812, USA; EM: nuchalis nests were located in Western larch (Larix occidentalis), paper birch ( Betula papyrifera), and 7 conifer species. Most nest trees were live and had broken tops.---J.J.Dos. {B910} {ROL #82}

{B716} Milton, S. J., & W. R. J. Dean. 1999. The selective use of green aromatic plants in Karoo [central South Africa] bird nests. Ostrich 70: 243--245. (Dept. Conservation, Forestry Faculty, Univ. Stellenbosch, Private Bag X01, Matieland 7602, S. Africa; EM: melanurus selectively includes fresh aromatic plant species in nest.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{B716} Nurse, P. 1998. A Black Sparrowhawk Accipiter melanoleucus nest at Tshesebe [Botswana]. Babbler 34: 38--39. (P.O. Box 40, Francistown, Botswana.) {ROL #82}

{B716} Potapov, E., I. Utekhina, & M. J. McGrady. 2000. Habitat preferences and factors affecting population density and breeding rate of Steller's Sea Eagle on Northern Okhotia. In: Ueta, M., & McGrady, M. J. (eds). First Symposium on Steller's and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia: 59--70. Tokyo: Wild Bird Soc. Japan. (Inst. Biol. Problems of the North, Russian Acad. Sci., Magadan 685000, Russia; EM: preferences of Haliaeetus pelagicus.---M.J.U. {C908, C914} {ROL #82}

{B716} Potapov, E., I. Utekhina, & M. J. McGrady. 2000. Steller's Sea Eagle in Magadan District and in the North of Khabarovsk District. In: Ueta, M., & McGrady, M. J. (eds). First Symposium on Steller's and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia: 29--44. Tokyo: Wild Bird Soc. Japan. (Inst. Biol. Problems of the North, Russian Acad. Sci., Magadan 685000, Russia; EM: and breeding success of Haliaeetus pelagicus, 1991--98. Breeding success and ratio of breeding pairs to territorial pairs decline.---M.J.U. {C914, C918, C320} {ROL #82}

{B716} Regehr, H. M., M. S. Rodway, & W. A. Montevecchi. 1998. Antipredator benefits of nest-site selection in Black-legged Kittiwakes. Can. J. Zool. 76: 910--915. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Can.)---Rissa tridactyla nest-site cliff microtopography affects predation rates by Larus marinus & Larus argentatus, but not by Corvus corax.---D.E.F. {ROL #82}

{B716} Renton, K., & A. Salinas-Melgoza. 1999. Nesting behavior of the Lilac-crowned Parrot. Wilson Bull. 111: 488--493. (Durell Inst. Conserv. Ecol., Univ. Kent Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NJ, UK; EM: site characteristics and parental care of Amazona finschi.---J.J.Dos. {B702, B718} {ROL #82}

{B716} Robert, M., et al. 2000. The breeding range of the Barrow's Goldeneye in eastern North America. Wilson Bull. 112: 1--7. (Can. Wildl. Serv., Quebec Region, Environ. Can., 1141 route de l'Église, P.O. Box 10100, Sainte-Foy, PQ G1V 4H5, Can.; EM: islandica found mostly on small lakes at elevations greater than 500 m. First documentation of eastern North America breeding.---J.J.Dos. {C318, C926, E524} {ROL #82}

{B716} Rodway, M. S. 1998. Habitat use by Harlequin Ducks breeding in Hebron Fiord, Labrador. Can. J. Zool. 76: 897--901. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Can.)--- Histrionicus histrionicus. {C908} {ROL #82}

{B716} Roulin, A. 1999. Stealing nest material in Ploceus cucullatus nigriceps: costs and benefits of coloniality. Ostrich 70: 152. (Zoo. Dept., Univ. Bern, CH--3032 Hinterkappelen, Switzerland; EM: of material stolen from other nests. Optimum strategy likely to differ for individual males.---A.J.F.K.C. {B314} {ROL #82}

{B716} Safford, R. J. 1997. The nests of sympatric native and introduced fody Foudia species on Mauritius. Ostrich 68: 27--30. (Royal Holloway Inst. Env. Res., Huntersdale, Callow Hill, Virginia Water, Surrey GU25 4LN, UK; EM: of endemic Foudia rubra seems better suited in material and architecture to cool, wet, local climate than nest of Foudia madagascariensis .---A.J.F.K.C. {B509} {ROL #82}

{B716} Siebenheller, N., & B. Siebenheller. 1999. Bobolinks nest in Haywood County, NC. Chat 63: 179--180. (187 Glen Cannon Dr., Pisgah For., NC 28768 USA.)---Pair present beside hiking trail across a mountain bald (elevation ca. 1900 m). Only female carried food to secluded young 20 and 22 July 1998. Southernmost reported breeding site in state and highest in elevation.---E.F.P. {C318} {ROL #82}

{B716} Stolenson, S. H., & D. M. Finch. 1999. Unusual nest sites for Southwestern Willow Flycatchers. Wilson Bull. 111: 574--575. (USDA For. Serv., Rocky Mtn. Res. Stn., 2205 Columbia SE, Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA; EM: sstoleso/ reports of Empidonax traillii extimus nesting in Arizona sycamore (Platanus wrightii) and in a climbing rose vine (Rosa multiflora ).---J.J.Dos. {B904} {ROL #82}

{B716} Suzuki, T. 1999. [Nesting habitat of the Northern Goshawk in the Tokachi Plain, eastern Hokkaido.] Japanese Journal of Ornithology 48: 135--144. (Lab. Wildl. Ecol., Obihiro Univ. Agric. Vet. Med., Inada, Obihiro 080-8555, Japan.)---Accipiter gentilis . (Japanese, Engl. summ.) {C908} {ROL #82}

{B716} Thorstrom, R., & L. A. R. de Roland. 1997. First nest record and nesting behaviour of the Madagascar Red Owl Tyto soumagnei. Ostrich 68: 42--43. (The Peregrine Fund, 566 W. Flying Hawk Lane, Boise, Idaho 83709, USA.)---2 young fledged from nest in natural cavity in tree, 23 m above ground.---A.J.F.K.C. {B718, E116} {ROL #82}

{B716} Trexel, D. R., et al. 1999. Comparative nest site habitats in Sharp-shinned and Cooper's Hawks in Wisconsin. Wilson Bull. 111: 7--14. (Rosenfield, R. N.: Dept. Biol., Univ. Wisconsin, Stevens Point, WI 54481, USA; EM: cooperii use areas with lower densities of taller and larger diameter trees than Accipiter striatus and prefer a larger proportion of hardwood cover. Intraspecific differences were few.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{B716} Tryjanowski, P., M. Hromada, & M. Antczak. 1999. Breeding habitat selection in the Great Grey Shrike Lanius excubitor---the importance of meadows and spring crops. Acta Ornith. 34: 59--63. (Dept. Avian Biology & Ecology, A. Mickiewicz Univ., Fredry 10, PL 61 701 Poznañ, Poland; EM: {ROL #82}

{B716} Wilson, J. K. 1999. Nest-reuse for the Yellow-billed Cuckoo in Arkansas. Southwest. Nat. 44: 538--539. (Sch. For. Resour., Univ. Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.)---Coccyzus americanus. {ROL #82}

{B716} Zambrano, R. 1998. The first record of Burrowing Owls nesting in a building. Wilson Bull. 110: 560--561. (Florida Game Fresh Water Fish Comm., 8535 Northlake Blvd., West Palm Beach, FL 33412, USA; EM: cunicularia . {ROL #82}

{B718} Carere, C., & E. Alleva. 1998. Sex differences in parental care in the Common Swift (Apus apus): effect of brood size and nestling age. Can. J. Zool. 76: 1382--1387. (EA: Sec. Behav. Pathol., Lab. Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Instituto Superiore di Sanita, viale Regina Elena 299, I--00161 Rome, Italy.) {ROL #82}

{B718} Cezilly, F., C. Tourenq, & E. Johnson. 1994. Variation in parental care with offspring age in the Greater Flamingo. Condor 96: 809--812. (Stn. Biol. de la Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, 13200 Arles, France.)---Male, but not female, Phoenicopterus ruber roseus in the Camargue, France, increased feeding bouts with chick age.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B718} Conner, R. N., et al. 1999. Relationships among Red-cockaded Woodpecker group density, nestling provisioning rates, and habitat. Wilson Bull. 111: 494--498. (Wildl. Habitat Silviculture Lab., Southern Res. Stn., USDA For. Serv., Nacogdoches, TX 75962, USA; EM: to detect chick feeding differences in areas with different densities of Picoides borealis.---J.J.Dos. {B716, C914} {ROL #82}

{B718} Conway, A. E. 1991. Strange behavior in a Canada Goose. Chat 55: 8. (1672 Deer Run Rd., Catawba, SC 29704 USA.)---Branta canadensis held ducklings under water for short periods; none drowned.---E.F.P. {ROL #82}

{B718} Gawlik, D. E., J. Papp, & K. L. Bildstein. 1991. Nestling diet and prey-delivery rates of Loggerhead Shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus) in north-central South Carolina. Chat 55: 1--5. (Dept. Wildl. Fish. Sci., Texas A&M Univ., Coll. Stn., TX 77843 USA.)---During 7-day (h = 80) study of one nest, male and female contributed equal numbers of prey (3--17/h; 96% invertebrate, 4% vegetable); rate of delivery higher in morning than in afternoon. In 2-yr study, fledgling rate from 34 nests was 88%.---E.F.P. {ROL #82}

{B718} Gibbs, H. M., F. I. Norman, & S. J. Ward. 2000. Reproductive parameters, chick growth and adult 'age' in Australasian gannets, Morus serrator, breeding in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, in 1994--95. Emu 100: 175--185. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3052, Australia.)---Apparently older birds nested more centrally within the colony, laid earlier, replaced more lost eggs and produced heavier chicks.---W.K.S. {B710, B716} {ROL #82}

{B718} Hatch, J. J., & P. Szczys. 2000. Lack of evidence for female-female pairs among Roseate Terns Sterna dougallii in Western Australia contrasts with North Atlantic. Emu 100: 152--155. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Boul., Boston, MA 02125, USA.) {ROL #82}

{B718} LeCroy, M. 2000. Papuan Flowerpecker leaves young asleep for the night. Australian Bird Watcher 18: 206. (Dept. Ornithol., American Mus. Nat. Hist., Central Pk. W., 79th St., New York, NY 10024, USA.)---Male Dicaeum pectorale shepherded two fledged young together under cover.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{B718} Lozano, G. A., & R. E. Lemon. 1998. Parental-care responses by Yellow Warblers (Dendroica petechia) to simultaneous manipulations of food abundance and brood size. Can. J. Zool. 76: 916--924. (Behav. Ecol. Res. Group, Dept. Biol. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Can.)---Supplemental food did not affect parental care by either sex but brood size did---D.E.F. {ROL #82}

{B718} Maddox, J. D., & E. K. Bollinger. 2000. Male Dickcissels feed nestlings in east-central Illinois. Wilson Bull. 112: 153--155. (EKB: Dept. Biol. Sci., Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL 61920, USA; EM: 6 male-assisted Spiza americana nests, the number of male and female nest visits did not differ significantly. Male feeding behavior may have been prompted by low food abundance.---J.J.Dos. {C918} {ROL #82}

{B718} Markman, S., B. Pinshow, & J. Wright. 1999. Orange-tufted Sunbirds do not feed nectar to their chicks. Auk 116: 257--259. (Jacob Blaustein Inst. Desert Res., Ben-Gurion Univ. Negev, Sede Boqer Campus, 84990 Israel; EM: Nectarinia osea. {ROL #82}

{B718} Martin, T. E., et al. 2000. Parental care and clutch sizes in North and South American birds. Science 287: 1482--1485. (U. S. Geol. Survey Biol. Resour. Div., Montana Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit, Avian Stud. Prog., Univ. Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA; EM: North and South America, clutch size constrained by nest predation.---M.J.J. {C918} {ROL #82}

{B718} Omland, K. E., & T. W. Sherry. 1994. Parental care at nests of two age classes of male American Redstart: Implications for female mate choice. Condor 96: 606--613. (Dept. Biol., State Univ. New York, Albany, NY 12222, USA.)---Nestling provisioning rates did not differ between adult and yearling male Setophaga ruticilla and do not explain why older males are more likely to obtain a mate.---R.B.C. {B312} {ROL #82}

{B718} O'Daniel, D. L. 1997. Observations at a nest of the Madagascar Wagtail Motacilla flaviventris. Ostrich 68: 19--22. (PO Box 418, Lead Hill, AR 72644, USA.)---Both adults incubated, brooded and fed nestlings.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{B718} Page, D. 2000. Interesting breeding record of Sooty Owl Tyto tenebricosa. Corella 24: 18. (40 Frog Hollow Rd., Ulong, NSW 2450, Australia.)---At least one parent still feeding young after ten months, well beyond fledging.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{B720} Adams, J. S., et al. 1994. Survival and growth of nestling Vesper Sparrows exposed to experimental food reductions. Condor 96: 739--748. (Montana Dept. State Lands, P.O. Box 7098, Kalispell, MT 59904-0098, USA.)---Experimental reduction of grasshopper densities around nests of Pooecetes gramineus in North Dakota did not reduce fledging success or nestling growth. Birds on plots with reduced grasshopper densities foraged further than those on control plots.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B720} Brzêk, P. 1998. Factors affecting growth rates in birds. Wiad. Ekol. 44: 329--348. (Dept. Animal Ecol., Univ. Bialystok, Swierkowa 20B, PL 15 950 Bialystok, Poland; EM: final conclusion of this review paper is that growth rates in birds depend on the physiological constraints, which in evolutionary perspective can be mediated by environmental factors.---J.K.P. (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{B720} Chappell, A. A., & G. C. Bachman. 1998. Exercise capacity of House Wren nestlings: begging chicks are not working as hard as they can. Auk 115: 863--870. (Dept. Biol., Univ. California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA; EM: aedon chicks showed average begging intensity that was not a consequence of physiological constraints.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{B720} Gaston, A. J. 1998. Modeling departure strategies in auks. Auk 115: 798--800. (Can. Wildl. Serv., Nat. Wildl. Res. Ctr., 100 Gamelin Blvd., Hull, PQ K1A 0H3, Can.; EM: critical assumption of nest-departure models by Ydenberg (1989) and Ydenberg et al. (1995) that nestlings of the family Alcidae are safer in the nest than at sea appears unlikely to hold in many instances.---M.A.L. {ROL #82}

{B720} Kitaysky, A. S. 1999. Metabolic and developmental responses of alcid chicks to experimental variation in food intake. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 462--473. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Washington, Box 351800, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; EM: chick resting metabolic rates and growth rates in response to short-term food deprivation in puffins Fratercula corniculata and Fratercula cirrhata, and auklets Aethia cristatella and Aethia psittacula .---J.S.G. {E118} {ROL #82}

{B720} Konarzewski, M. 1997. Causes and consequences of hatching asynchrony in birds. Wiad. Ekol. 43: 23--37. (Biol. Inst. Univ. Bialystok, Swierkowa 20B, POB 109 PL 15 950 Bialystok, Poland; EM: good review paper about all actual hypotheses.---J.K.P. (Polish, English summ.) {B718} {ROL #82}

{B720} Machmer, M. M., & R. C. Ydenberg. 1998. The relative roles of hunger and size asymmetry in sibling aggression between nestling Ospreys, Pandion haliaetus. Can. J. Zool. 76: 181--186. (RCY: Behav. Ecol. Res. Group, Dept. Biol. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Can.) {B302} {ROL #82}

{B720} Masterov, V. B. 2000. Postnatal development of Steller's Sea Eagles sexing and aging techniques. In : Ueta, M., & McGrady, M. J. (eds). First Symposium on Steller's and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia: 17--28. Tokyo: Wild Bird Soc. Japan. (Dept. Vertebrate Zool., Biol. Fac. Moscow State Univ., 119899 Moscow, Russia; EM: development of Haliaeetus pelagicus . Effect of water level on the development and breeding success of Steller's Sea Eagle.---M.J.U. {B702, C918} {ROL #82}

{B720} McNair, D. B., & B. Duyck. 1991. Interspecific feeding among some oscines. Chat 55: 9--11. (303 Robinson St., Rockingham, NC 28379 USA.)---Turdus migratorius fed young Sialia sialis in nest-box and after fledging; adults apparently not alarmed by assistance. Toxostoma rufum fed fledgling Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Vireo olivaceus begged food from adult Bombycilla cedrorum, and Icterus galbula fed nestling Icterus spurius.---E.F.P. {ROL #82}

{B720} Negro, J. J., A. Chastin, & D. M. Bird. 1994. Effects of short-term food deprivation on growth of hand-reared American Kestrels. Condor 96: 749--760. (Estación Biol. de Doñana (CSIC), Avda Ma Luisa s.n., E-41013 Sevilla, Spain.; EM: short-term effect on Falco sparverius.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B720} Pearson, J. T. 1998. Development of thermoregulation and posthatching growth in the altricial Cockatiel Nymphicus hollandicus . Physiol. Zool. 71: 237--244. (Dept. Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Muroran Inst. Technol., 27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran 050, Japan; EM: {ROL #82}

{B720} Reed, J. M., et al. 1999. Growth patterns of Hawaiian Stilt chicks. Wilson Bull. 111: 478--487. (Dept. Biol., Tufts Univ., Medford, MA 02155, USA; EM: mexicanus knudseni nestlings raised in captivity and captured in the wild. Describe weekly age class plumage characteristics for age determination in the wild.---J.J.Dos. {B902, B904, D704, E114} {ROL #82}

{B720} Stahlecker, D. W. 1999. Wide disparity in age of nestlings in a Say's Phoebe nest from New Mexico. Southwest. Nat. 44: 540--542. (Eagle Ecol. Serv., 30 Fonda Rd., Santa Fe, NM 87505, USA.)---Sayornis saya. {ROL #82}

{B720} Weinecke, B. C., J. S. Bradley, & R. D. Wooller. 2000. Annual and seasonal variation in the growth rates of young Little Penguins Eudyptula minor in Western Australia. Emu 100: 139--147. (Biol. Sci., Murdoch Univ., WA 6150, Australia.)---Growth rates did not differ significantly between years, but second-hatched chicks grew more slowly than first-hatched chicks.---W.K.S. {ROL #82}

{B720} Ydenberg, R. C. 1998. Evaluating models of departure strategies in alcids. Auk 115: 800--801. (Behavioral Ecol. Res. Group, Dept. Biol. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Can.; EM: should be repeatedly and rigorously tested, but until additional relevant data are collected for such testing, models still have value in identifying new questions, hypotheses, and views.---M.A.L. {B718} {ROL #82}

{B900} Aldrin, N., D. Mallari, & A. Jensen. 1993. Biological diversity in Northern Sierra Madre, Philippines: its implication for conservation and management. Asia Life Sci. 2(2): 101--112. (No address available.) {C328} {ROL #82}

{B900} Anonymous, Eds. 1993. Proceedings of Philippine vertebrates: a symposium in their preservation and conservation. Asia Life Sci. 2(2): Special Issue. (No address available.)--- Symposium held 21--23 Apr 1993. Avian papers cited separately.---J.C.T.G. {ROL #82}

{B900} Barnes, K. N. 1999. Collision of first world and third world conservation problems: The IBA example. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 1528--1537. (Avian Demography Unit, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town, South Africa; EM: IBA programme in South Africa highlighted that the country suffers from both typically first world and third world problems.---P.C.L., R.J.D. {ROL #82}

{B900} Esler, D. 2000. Applying metapopulation theory to conservation of migratory birds. Conserv. Biol. 14: 366--372. (Alaska Biol. Sci. Ctr., U.S. Geol. Surv., 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, AK 99503, USA; EM: {C914, E514} {ROL #82}

{B900} Fjeldså, J., N. Burgess, H. de Klerk, L. Hansen, & C. Rahbek. 1999. Are Endemic Bird Areas the best targets for conservation? An assessment using all landbird distributions of two continents. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 2271--2285. (Zoological Museum, Univesitetsprk. 15, DK--2100 Copenhagen, Denmark; EM: distribution maps from various sources, the authors show that the 22 African EBAs include 96.6% of all resident landbirds, with 85% in EBA 'core areas'. The 43 South American EBAs include 98.5% of all species, with 94.4% in the 'core areas'.---R.J.D. {ROL #82}

{B900} Johnson, K. H., & C. E. Braun. 1999. Viability and conservation of an exploited Sage Grouse population. Conserv. Biol. 13: 77--84. (Yale Sch. For. Environ. Stud., 205 Prospect St., New Haven, CT 06511, USA; EM: urophasianus. {ROL #82}

{B900} Kark, S., et al. 1999. Conservation priorities for Chukar Partridge in Israel based on genetic diversity across an ecological gradiant. Conserv. Biol. 13: 542--552. (Mitrani Ctr. Desert Ecol., Jacob Blaustein Inst. Desert Res., Ben-Gurion Univ. Negev, Sede Boqer 84993, Israel; EM: chukar. {D502} {ROL #82}

{B900} Maccagno, T., & B. R. Parker. 1999. Three million to zero: The passage of the Passenger Pigeon in western Canada. Alberta Nat. 29: 32--33. (Box 1270, Lac La Biche, AB T0A 2C0, Can.)---Selection of some of historical accounts of Ectopistes migratorius in Alberta, Manitoba and Northwest Territories, including use as food and potential impacts on agricultural crops.---M.K.M. {B504, B510, C318} {ROL #82}

{B900} Mason, C. F., & S. M. MacDonald. 2000. Corn Bunting Miliaria calandra populations, landscape and land-use in an arable district of eastern England. Bird Conservation International 10: 169--186. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Essex, Colchester CO4 3SQ, UK.; EM: study in northeast Essex of rapidly declining red-listed species linked to several factors associated with the intensification of agriculture. Retention of winter stubbles and subsidies to manage portions of farms for birds would be useful, though short-term, measures to reverse decline until "more radical changes in farming practices become acceptable."---K.J.E. {Arable Stewardship Schemes; C900) {ROL #82}

{B900} Thirgood, S., S. Redpath, I. Newton, & P. Hudson. 2000. Raptors and Red Grouse: Conservation conflicts and management solutions. Conserv. Biol. 14: 95--104. (Game Conserv. Trust, Inst. Cell, Animal & Popul. Biol., Univ. Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH93JT, UK; EM: lagopus scoticus. {ROL #82}

{B900} Villard, M. 1998. On forest-interior species, edge avoidance, area sensitivity, and dogmas in avian conservation. Auk 115: 801--805. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Moncton, Moncton, NB E1A 3E9, Can.; EM: {ROL #82}

{B902} McCulloch, N. 1996. The Seychelles Magpie Robin: first steps on the road to recovery. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 3: 81--84. (BirdLife International, Wellbrook Court, Girton Road, Cambridge CB3 0NA, UK.)---Description of the management programme developed by BirdLife International to save Copsychus sechellarum from extinction, focusing on techniques and results, translocations and the threat posed by rats.---G.M.K. {B904} {ROL #82}

{B902} Valutis, L. L., & J. M. Marzluff. 1999. The appropriateness of puppet-rearing birds for reintroduction. Conserv. Biol. 13: 584--591. (Nat. Conserv., 2404 Bank Dr., Suite 314, Boise, ID 83705, USA; EM: {ROL #82}

{B904} Allsopp, R., & Perstein, P. 1998. Observations on Wattled Cranes in the Okavango delta April 1998 with particular reference to the influence of flood waters. Babbler 33: 22--25. (Tsetse Control Div., Dept. of Animal Health & Physiol., P.O. Box 14, Maun, Botswana.)---Bugeranus carunculatus. {ROL #82}

{B904} Bolgiano, N. C. 1999. The story of the Ring-necked Pheasant in Pennsylvania. PA Birds 13: 2--10. (711 W. Foster Ave., State College, PA 16801, USA.)---Hay mowing, "clean" farming practices, predation, habitat fragmentation, mortality from vehicles, and severe weather were found to be factors in the decline of (Phasianus colchicus ).---P.D.H. {Phasianidae, game birds, population regulation, B508, B908, B910, B912} {ROL #82}

{B904} Breininger, D. R., M A. Burgman, & B. M. Stith. 1999. Influence of habitat quality, catastrophes, and population size on extinction risk of the Florida Scrub-Jay. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 810--822. (DYN-2, Dynamac Corp., NASA Biomedical Operations Off., JFK Space Ctr., FL 32899, USA.)---Aphelocoma coerulescens. {ROL #82}

{B904} Burbidge, A. 2000. Endangered!---Carnaby's Black Cockatoo. Landscope 15(3): 47. (Dept. Conserv. & Land Manage., Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre, WA 6983, Australia.)---Outlines Recovery Plan funded by Australia's Natural Heritage Trust to reverse decline of Calyptorhynchus latirostris due to loss of breeding habitat and poaching of nestlings and eggs.---I.R. {ROL #82}

{B904} Butynski, T. M., U. Agenonga, B. Ndera, & J. F. Hart. 1997. Rediscovery of the Congo Bay (Itombwe) Owl Phodilus prigoginei. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 4: 32--35. (Zoo Atlanta, National Museums of Kenya, PO Box 24434, Nairobi, Kenya.)---Description and colour photographs of a bird trapped in May 1996, with notes on the conservation importance of the Itombwe area of former Zaire.---G.M.K. {ROL #82}

{B904} Fujimaki, Y. 2000. Recent Hazel Grouse population declines in Hokkaido, Japan. Japanese Journal of Ornithology 48: 281--284. (Lab. Wildl. Ecol., Obihiro Univ. Agric. Vet. Med., Inada, Obihiro 080-8555, Japan.)---Bonasa bonasia. {ROL #82}

{B904} Hamel, P. B. 2000. Cerulean Warbler status assessment. USFWS Admin. Rep., 141 pp. (URL: USFS, South. Res. Stn., Box 227, Stoneville, MS 38766 USA; copies available from USFWS, Fed. Bldg., 1 Federal Dr., Ft. Snelling, MN 55111-4056 USA.)---Reviews natural history, distribution, populations, habitats, threats, management, and conservation of Dendroica cerulea.---J.L.T. {B114} {ROL #82}

{B904} Jones, S. L., & M. T. Green. 1998. Baird's Sparrow status assessment and conservation plan. USFWS Admin. Rep., 24 pp. (URL: USFWS, P.O. Box 25486 DFC, Denver, CO 80225 USA.)---Review natural history, distribution, populations, habitats, threats, management, and conservation of Ammodramus bairdii.---J.L.T. {B114} {ROL #82}

{B904} Kemp, A. C. 1999. Biological attributes predisposing Afrotropical birds to the threats of human-induced extinction. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 1520--1527. (Department of Birds, Transvaal Museum, PO Box 413, 0001 Pretoria, South Africa; EM: of species that are safe, vulnerable, threatened or extinct were compared. Range continuity, range size, population density and body size the most positively related to probability of extinction.---P.C.L., R.J.D. {B908} {ROL #82}

{B904} Lee, D. S. 1999. Extinction, extirpation, and range reduction of breeding birds in North Carolina: What can be learned? Chat 63: 103--122. (N.C. State Mus. Nat. Sci., P.O. Box 29555, Raleigh NC 27626, USA.)---Breeding birds of state "remain for the most part resilient to human activity," the author concludes.---E.F.P. {ROL #82}

{B904} Lewis, A. 1996. In search of Badanga. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 3: 131--132. (No address provided.)---Some observations of Otus capnodes on Anjouan.---G.M.K. {ROL #82}

{B904} Magsalay, P. M. 1993. Rediscovery of four Cebu endemic birds [Philippines]. Asia Life Sci. 2(2): 141--148. (No address available.) {ROL #82}

{B904} Piotrowska, M., & P. Marczakowski. 1998. The Roller population distribution in the Lubelszczyzna until 1997. Kulon 3: 35--46. (Tatarakowa 8/60; PL 20 541 Lublin, Poland.)---East-central Poland. Decrease: breeding only 7 pairs. Habitat selection.---J.K.P. (Polish, English summ.) {C914, C310} {ROL #82}

{B904} Piskorski, M. 1999. Distribution, numbers and conservation of the Bittern Botaurus stellaris in the Lêczyca-Wlodwa Lakeland (E Poland). Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 55(2): 52--54. (Dept. Comparative Anatomy & Anthropology, Maria Curie-Sklodowska Univ., Akademicka 19, PL 20 033 Lublin, Poland.) (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{B904} Pruitt, L. 1996. Henslow's Sparrow status assessment. USFWS Admin. Rep. (URL: USFWS, 620 S. Walker St., Bloomington, IN 47403-2121 USA; copies available from USFWS, Federal Bldg., 1 Federal Dr., Ft. Snelling, MN 55111-4056 USA.)---Reviews natural history, distribution, populations, habitats, threats, management, and conservation of Ammodramus henslowii.---J.L.T. {B114} {ROL #82}

{B904} Pugacewicz, E. 1998. Status of the Roller (Coracias garrulus) population in the Pólnocnopodlaska Lowland in 1960--1996. Kulon 3: 17--34. (Botaniczna 3, PL 17 200 Hajnówka, Poland.)---Northeastern Poland. Decrease: 1960--1983: 250--500; 1984--1990: 100--250; in 1991--1996 only 50--80 breeding pairs. Habitat, breeding ecology, migration.---J.K.P. (Polish, English summ.) {C914} {ROL #82}

{B904} Pugacewicz, E. 1999. The crane Grus grus population in the Northen Podlasie Lowland in 1976--1998. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 55(4): 20--32. (Botaniczna 3, PL 17 200 Hajnówka, Poland.) (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{B904} Rabarisoa, R., R. T. Watson, R. Thorstrom, & J. Berkelman. 1997. Status of the Madagascar Fish Eagle Haliaeetus vociferoides in 1995. Ostrich 68: 8--12. (R. T. Watson: The Peregrine Fund, 566 W. Flying Hawk Lane, Boise ID 83709, USA.)---Populations in W. to NW Madagascar, from Morondava to Antsiranana, estimated at 99 breeding pairs. Increase over previous estimate perhaps reflects greater search effort.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{B904} Reed, J. M. 1999. The role of behavior in recent avian extinctions and endangerments. Conserv. Biol. 13: 232--241. (Dept. Biol., Tufts Univ., Medford, MA 02155, USA; EM: {B300} {ROL #82}

{B904} Ruth, J. M. 2000. Cassin's Sparrow ( Aimophila cassinii) status assessment and conservation plan. USFWS Biol. Tech. Publ. BTP-R6002-2000, 104 pp. (USGS/BRD, Midcontinent Ecol. Sci. Ctr., 4512 McMurray Ave., Ft. Collins, CO 80525 USA; copies available from USFWS, P.O. Box 25486 DFC, Denver, CO 80225 USA.)---Reviews natural history, distribution, populations, habitats, threats, management, and conservation.---J.L.T. {B114} {ROL #82}

{B904} Samano, S., et al. 1998. Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers ensnared in mesh snake traps. Wilson Bull. 110: 564--566. (Wood, J.: Dept. Wildl. Fish., Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA.)---U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has ordered the removal of all such traps from Picoides borealis cavity trees.---J.J.Dos. {C912} {ROL #82}

{B904} Shuford, W. D. 1999. Status assessment and conservation plan for the Black Tern in North America. USFWS Admin. Rep., 129 pp. (URL: Pt. Reyes Bird Obs., 4990 Shoreline Dr., Stinson Beach, CA 94970 USA; copies available from USFWS, P.O. Box 25486 DFC, Denver, CO 80225 USA.)---Reviews natural history, distribution, populations, habitats, threats, management, and conservation of Chlidonias niger.---J.L.T. {B114} {ROL #82}

{B904} Sørensen, U. G., J. Bech, K. Halberg, & E. Krabbe. 1997. Notes on the possible breeding of Prince Ruspoli's Turaco Tauraco ruspolii. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 4: 29--30. (Mollegade 21,, DK-2200, Copenhagen, Denmark.)---Description and photograph of egg, claimed by local people to be of Tauraco ruspolii .---G.M.K. {B700} {ROL #82}

{B904} Stachyra, P., & M. Tchórzewski. 1998. Stan populacji zolny Merops apiaster w województwie zamojskim w latach 1996--1998 [The population of Merops apiaster in the Zamosc region in 1996--1998]. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 54(4): 104--110. ([no address]) (in Polish) {ROL #82}

{B904} Webb, R., & S. Smith. 1996. Degodi Lark Mirafra degodiensis, one of Africa's most poorly-known species. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 3: 85--86. (55 Millstream Close, Hitchin, Herts. SG4 0DA, UK.)---Based on observations in December 1995.---G.M.K. {ROL #82}

{B904} West, J. N. (Ed.). 1998. Status of the Northern Goshawk in the Midwest. USFWS Admin. Rep., 41 pp. (URL: USFWS, Federal Bldg., 1 Federal Way Dr., Ft. Snelling, MN 55111-4056 USA; copies available from S. J. Lewis at same address.)---Proceedings of a workshop held at Midwest Regional Raptor Management and Peregrine Symposium in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 14 Mar 1997, reviews population status and biology of Accipiter gentilis in Great Lakes region, summarizes past and present monitoring and research activities, and identifies information gaps.---J.L.T. {B114} {ROL #82}

{B904} Wolcott, D. L., & T. G. Wolcott. 1999. High mortality of Piping Plovers on beaches with abundant ghost crabs: correlation, not causation. Wilson Bull. 111: 321--329. (Dept. Mar., Earth, Atmospheric Sci., Box 8208, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695-8208, USA; EM: between Charadrius melodus adults, chicks and eggs and Ocypode quadrata were observed, but never predation. Increased deaths may be due to indirect causes.---J.J.Dos. {B718, C916} {ROL #82}

{B904} Young, H. G. 1996. Meller's Duck, Africa's forgotten Mallard. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 3: 87--89. (Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Les Augres Manor, Trinity, Jersey JE3 5BF, Channel Islands, UK.)---Distribution, status, origin, taxonomy and where to see Anas melleri , a little-known Malagasy bird.---G.M.K. {B104} {ROL #82}

{B906} Augustin, J. C., J. W. Grabough, & M. R. Marshall. 1999. Validating macroinvertebrate assumptions of the shorebird management model for the Lower Mississippi Valley. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 552--558. (Tenn. Dept. Health, Lab. Services, 630 Hart Ln., Nashville, TN 37247, USA.) {ROL #82}

{B906} Bennun, L. A. 1999. Threatened birds and rural communities: Balancing the equation. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 1546--1555. (Ornithology Department, National Museums of Kenya, PO Box 40658, Nairobi, Kenya; EM: and grassroots level approaches are essential. Imaginative combination of education, land purchase and economic incentives may be needed but not yet attempted in Africa.---P.C.L., R.J.D. {B904} {ROL #82}

{B906} Burtt, E. H., Jr, & W. H. Wilson, Jr. 1999. A survey of undergraduate ornithology courses in North America. Wilson Bull. 111: 287--293. (Dept. Zool., Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, OH 43015, USA; EM: {B500, E500} {ROL #82}

{B906} Cooper, J. 2000. Conserving Southern Hemisphere albatrosses and petrels with the Bonn Convention for Migratory Species. Australasian Seabird Bulletin 36: 25--26. (Avian Demography Unit, Dept. Statistical Sci., Univ. Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa; EM: species of Macronectes and Procellaria petrels, under threat from longline fishing, were nominated to Appendix II of The Bonn Convention at the sixth Conference of Parties in November 1999. Range states adopted resolutions on fisheries by-catch and to quickly finalise an Agreement for Southern Albatross and Petrels (ASAP) and plan further meetings to carry out the resolutions.---P.S.L. {ROL #82}

{B906} Dunn, E., D. Hussell, & D. Welsh. 1999. Priority-setting tool applied to Canada's landbirds based on concern and responsibility for species. Conserv. Biol. 13: 1404--1415. (Can. Wildl. Serv., Natl. Wildl. Res. Ctr., 100 Gamelin Blvd., Hull, PQ K1A 0H3, Can.; EM: {ROL #82}

{B906} Garnett, S. T. 2000. Parrot Action Plan---Australasian Section. Eclectus 7: 2--18, 33--38. (Dept. Env. Heritage, PO Box 2066, Cairns, Qld. 4870, Australia.)---Outlines threats, solutions and priority projects; lists 23 threatened species in Australasia (11), New Zealand (5) and SW Pacific (7).---I.R. {ROL #82}

{B906} Gichuki, N. N. 1999. The contribution of indigenous knowledge to bird conservation. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 1345--1350. (Centre for Biodiversity, National Museums of Kenya, PO Box 40658, Nairobi, Kenya; EM:"This paper provides an overview of recent case studies indigenous knowledge and programmes that show the contribution of local knowledge to bird conservation and constraints of using indigenous knowledge." With examples from Africa.---R.J.D. {ROL #82}

{B906} Jepson, P. 2000. Parrot Action Plan---Indonesian Section. Eclectus 7: 18--38. (Sch. Geogr., Oxford Univ., Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 2SB, UK.)---Outlines unique nature of problems facing parrots in Indonesia with its many islands, rapidly growing human population and traditional trade in birds. Location and status of 14 threatened species are given.---I.R. {ROL #82}

{B906} Latta, S. 2000. Making the leap from researcher to planner: Lessons from avian conservation planning in the Dominican Republic. Conserv. Biol. 14: 132--139. (Div. Biol. Sci., 110 Tucker Hall, Univ. Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA; EM: {ROL #82}

{B908} Allan, D. G. 1999. Mega-developments and birds: The waterbirds impacted by the Lesotho Highlands Water Scheme as an example. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 1556--1578. (Avian Demography Unit, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa, and Durban Natural Science Museum, PO Box 4085, Durban 4000, South Africa; EM: one of world's Endemic Bird Areas holding 3 endemic species and many more subspecies. Study details impact of various dams built and being built and tries to generalise lessons.---P.C.L., R.J.D. {ROL #82}

{B908} Arnold, G. W., & J. R. Weeldenburg. 1998. The effects of isolation, habitat fragmentation and degradation by livestock grazing on the use by birds of patches of Gimlet Eucalyptus salubris woodland in the wheatbelt of Western Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 155--163. (Div. Wildl. Ecol., CSIRO, LMB No. 4, Midland, WA 6056, Australia.)---Cacatua roseicapilla and Platycercus zonarius found in remnant patches of all sizes whereas other large birds (Corvus coronoides, Cracticus nigrogularis , Ocyphaps lophotes and Manorina flavigula) found more frequently in small remnant patches than in large ones. Conversely, most small passerine species were found more frequently in larger remnant patches. However, most small patches in this study were too small to support resident birds and so constituted only part of home range of larger bird species, thus increasing size of remnant patches is still an important conservation action. M. flavigula was the only species among the larger birds to show influence of patch structural attributes on distribution whereas all small passerine species did so. Among small passerine species, overall species richness and frequency of occurrence of Pardalotus striatus increased with decreasing distance from remnant patch to nearest native vegetation. Overall frequency of occurrence of small passerine species increased with number of linear strips of native vegetation linked to remnant patch.---W.K.S. {B910} {ROL #82}

{B908} Barrett, G. W., H. A. Ford, & H. F. Recher. 1994. Conservation of woodland birds in a fragmented rural landscape. Pacific Conservation Biology 1: 245--256. (Dept. Zool., Univ. New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia.)---The conservation status of 137 bird species in northeastern NSW is assessed. Of these, 45 species were probably never abundant in the area, even prior to habitat clearance and fragmentation resulting from modern agricultural practice. An overemphasis on the conservation of these species would lead to inappropriate management of the environment for the remaining species. Remnant woodland management guidelines are suggested.---W.K.S. {B906, B910} {ROL #82}

{B908} Brooks, T., S. Pimm, & J. Oyugi. 1999. Time lag between deforestation and bird extinction in tropical forest fragments. Conserv. Biol. 13: 1140--1150. (Dept. Biol. Sci. Ctr. Advanced Spatial Technol., Univ. Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA; EM: {ROL #82}

{B908} Cahill, A. J., & J. S. Walker. 2000. The effects of forest fire on the nesting success of the Red-knobbed Hornbill Aceros cassidix. Bird Conservation International 10: 109--114. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Manchester Metropolitan Univ., Chester St., Manchester M1 5GD, UK.)---Detrimental land use practices and severe drought conditions induced by El Niño resulted in intense and widespread fires in North Sulawesi in 1997. The effects on A. cassidix nests directly experiencing fire or heat and smoke in the vicinity reduced population recruitment by 47% from previous years. Of greater long-term significance to population is the fire-related loss of breeding females and of nesting and foraging trees.---K.J.E. {Tangkoko Nature Reserve; C918} {ROL #82}

{B908} Cornelius, C., H. Cofre, & P. Marquet. 2000. Effects of habitat fragmentation on bird species in a relict temperate forest in semiarid Chile. Conserv. Biol. 14: 534--543. (Dept. Ecol., Fac. Sci. Biol., Pontificia Univ., Catolica de Chile, Casilla 114-D, Santiago, Chile; EM: {ROL #82}

{B908} Dale, S., K. Mork, R. Solvang, & A. Plumptre. 2000. Edge effects on the understory bird community in a logged forest in Uganda. Conserv. Biol. 14: 265--276. (Dept. Biol. Nat. Conserv., Agric. Univ. Norway, P.O. Box 5014 N-1432 As, Norway; EM: {ROL #82}

{B908} Duncan, R., & J. Young. 1999. The fate of passeriform introductions on oceanic islands. Conserv. Biol. 13: 934--936. (Soil, Plant, Ecol. Sci. Div., P.O. Box 84, Lincoln Univ., Canterbury, New Zealand; EM: {B509} {ROL #82}

{B908} Ezaki, Y., et al. 2000. [Breeding and wintering of Northern Goshawks in an isolated forest of southern Kyoto.] Japanese Journal of Ornithology 48: 267--280. (Dept. Ecol., Inst. Nat. & Environ. Sci., Himeji Inst. Tech., Yayoigaoka 6, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1546, Japan.)---Accipiter gentilis. (Japanese, Engl. summ.) {ROL #82}

{B908} Friesen, L., M. D. Cadman, & R. J. MacKay. 1999. Nesting success of Neotropical migrant songbirds in a highly fragmented landscape. Conserv. Biol. 13: 338--346. (Can. Wildl. Serv., 75 Farquhar St., Guelph, ON N1H 3N4, Can.; EM: Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) and Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus). {ROL #82}

{B908} Glahn, J. F., M. E. Tobin, & J. B. Harrel. 1999. Possible effects of catfish exploitation on overwinter body condition of Double-crested Cormorants. USDA Anim. Plant Health Inspection Serv. Tech. Bull. 1879: 107--113. (USDA/APHIS/WS, Natl. Wildl. Res. Ctr., P.O. Box 6099, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA.)---Premigratory body masses of Phalacrocorax auritus collected near commercial aquaculture ponds in Mississippi were significantly greater than those of birds from areas in Alabama remote from catfish production. Improved body condition of cormorants exploiting catfish may have increased winter survival and contributed to P. auritus population explosion of past decade.---J.L.T. {E116, body condition, body mass, omental fat deposits} {ROL #82}

{B908} Jessop, R., & P. Du Guesclin. 2000. The effects of an oil spill at Apollo Bay, Victoria, on Little Penguins Eudyptula minor in May 1990. Australian Bird Watcher 18: 192--198. (Phillip Island Nat. Pk., PO Box 97, Cowes, Vic. 3922, Australia.)---Percentage of birds rehabilitated and released was considered low and attributable to degree of oiling, amount ingested, low body weight, and inappropriate cleaning techniques by inexperienced volunteers.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{B908} Law, B. S., M. Chidel, & G. Turner. 2000. The use by wildlife of paddock trees in farmland. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 130--143. (For. Res. & Devel. Div., State For. NSW, PO Box 100, Beecroft, NSW 2119, Australia.)---Used by Southern Boobook (Ninox novaeseelandiae), Barn Owl (Tyto alba) and 35 diurnal species of bird.---W.K.S. {C908} {ROL #82}

{B908} Lindeman, D. H., & R. G. Clark. 1999. Amphipods, land-use impacts, and Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) distribution in Saskatchewan wetlands. Wetlands 19: 627--638. (Can. Wildl. Serv., Prairie & North. Wildl. Res. Ctr., 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4, Canada.)---Aythya affinis are most common in wetlands with abundant amphipods and minimal impacts to pond margins.---W.P.J. {D302, C908} {ROL #82}

{B908} Matthysen, E., & F. Adriaensen. 1998. Forest size and isolation have no effect on reproductive success of Eurasian Nuthatches (Sitta europaea). Auk 115: 955--963. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Antwerp, B-2610 Antwerpen, Belgium; EM: {ROL #82}

{B908} Parejo, D., & J. M. Sánchez-Guzmán. 1999. Effects of agricultural development on colonial ardeid populations in southwestern Spain. Waterbirds 22: 302--306. (Grupo Invest. Conserv., Dept. Cien. Morpfol., Fac. Cien., Univ. Extremadura, Ave. de Elvas s/n 06071 Badajoz, Spain; EM: ibis, Ardea cinerea populations positively affected; Egretta garzetta , Nycticorax nycticorax populations unaffected.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B908} Porneluzi, P., & J. Faaborg. 1999. Season-long fecundity, survival, and viability of ovenbirds in fragmented and unfragmented landscapes. Conserv. Biol. 13: 1151--1161. (Central Methodist Coll., Fayette, MO 65248, USA; EM: Seiurus aurocapillus. {C910, C918} {ROL #82}

{B908} Pyle, P., W. J. Sydeman, & E. McLaren. 1999. Organochlorine concentrations, eggshell thickness, and hatchability in seabirds off central California. Waterbirds 22: 376--381. (Point Reyes Bird Obs., 4990 Shoreline Hwy., Stinson Beach, CA, 94970, USA.; EM: levels and eggshell thinning currently do not pose a problem for Phalacrocorax penicillatus, Phalacrocorax pelagicus, Larus occidentalis, Cepphus columba, Cerorhinca monocerata, Uria aalge, and Ptychoramphus aleuticus .)---R.B.C. {C902} {ROL #82}

{B908} Renjifo, L. 1999. Composition changes in a subandean avifauna after long-term forest fragmentation. Conserv. Biol. 13: 1124--1139. (Inst. Invest. de Recursos Biol. Alexander von Humboldt, A.A. 8693, Santafe de Bogota, Colombia; EM: {ROL #82}

{B908} Robinson, W. D., & S. K. Robinson. 1999. Effects of selective logging on forest bird population in a fragmented landscape. Conserv. Biol. 13: 58--66. (Dept. Zool. Wildl. Sci., 331 Funchess Hall, Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL 36849, USA; EM: {ROL #82}

{B908} Rosenberg, K. V., J. D. Lowe, & A. A. Dhondt. 1999. Effects of forest fragmentation on breeding tanagers: A continental perspective. Conserv. Biol. 13: 568--583. (Cornell Lab. Ornithol., 159 Sapsucker Woods Rd., Ithaca, NY 14850, USA; EM: Piranga spp. {ROL #82}

{B908} Saunders, D. A., & J. A. Ingram. 1998. Twenty-eight years of monitoring a breeding population of Carnaby's Cockatoo. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 261--270. (Div. Wildl. Ecol., CSIRO, GPO Box 284, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.)---Long-term (1969--96) study of population of Calyptorhynchus funereus latirostris in southwestern Australia. This period saw extensive clearance of bird's habitat for agriculture and resultant decline in annual number of breeding attempts.---W.K.S. {C914} {ROL #82}

{B908} Shepherd, P. C. F., & J. S. Boates. 1999. Effects of a commercial baitworm harvest on Semipalmated Sandpipers and their prey in the Bay of Fundy Hemispheric Shorebird Reserve. Conserv. Biol. 13: 347--356. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Can.; EM: pusilla {ROL #82}

{B908} Soderstrom, B., & T Part. 2000. Influence of landscape scale on farmland birds breeding in semi-natural pastures. Conserv. Biol. 14: 522--533. (Dept. Conserv. Biol., Swedish Univ. Agric. Sci., Box 7002, Se 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden; EM: {ROL #82}

{B908} Stratford, J., & P. Stouffer. 1999. Local extinctions of terrestrial insectivorous birds in a fragmented landscape near Manaus, Brazil. Conserv. Biol. 13: 1416--1423. (Dept. Zool. Wildl., 331 Funchess Hall, Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL 36849-5414, USA; EM: {ROL #82}

{B908} Sutter, G. C., & R. M. Brigham. 1998. Avifaunal and habitat changes resulting from conversion of native prairie to crested wheat grass: patterns at songbird community and species levels. Can. J. Zool. 76: 869--875. (Roy. Saskatchewan Mus., 2340 Albert St., Regina, SK S4P 3V7, Can.)---Songbird species richness & diversity may be reduced when prairie conversion to crested wheat grass results in a more open habitat---D.E.F. {ROL #82}

{B908} Tyler, S. J. 2000. The demise of some artificial wetlands in Gaborone [Botswana]. Babbler 36: 13--15. (c/o Room 106, D.A.H.P., Private Bag 0032, Gaborone, Botswana.) {ROL #82}

{B908} Villard, M., M. K. Trzcinski, & G. Merriam. 1999. Fragmentation effects on forest birds: Relative influence of woodland cover and configuration on landscape occupancy. Conserv. Biol. 13: 774--783. (Dept. Biol., Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS B3H 4J1, Can.; EM: {ROL #82}

{B908} Watkinson, A. R., et al. 2000. Predictions of biodiversity response to genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. Science 289: 1554--1557. (Schools of Environ. and Biol. Sci., Univ. E. Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK; EM: crops allow weeds to be reduced, which removes food resources for Alauda arvensis .---M.J.J. {C902} {ROL #82}

{B908} Watson, D. M., R. MacNally, & A. F. Bennett. 2000. The avifauna of severely fragmented Buloke Allocasuarina luehmanni woodland in western Victoria, Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 46--60. (Environ. Studies Unit, Charles Sturt Univ., Bathurst, NSW 2794, Australia.)---Bird communities of 27 remnant patches of this endangered habitat type were studied.---W.K.S. {ROL #82}

{B908} Weinberg, H. J., & R. R. Roth. 1998. Forest area and habitat quality for nesting Wood Thrush. Auk 115: 879--889. (RRR: Dept. Entomol. Appl. Ecol., Univ. Delaware, Newark, DE 19717 USA; EM: of Hylocichla mustelina breeding habitat declined with decreasing area of forest fragments.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{B908} Winter, M., & J. Faaborg. 1999. Patterns of area sensitivity in grassland-nesting birds. Conserv. Biol. 13: 1424--1436. (Div. Biol. Sci., Univ. Missouri, 110 Tucker Hall, Columbia, MO 65211, USA; EM: {ROL #82}

{B910} Crawford, R. J. M. 2000. Fishing out the food of seabirds around southern Africa---primary and secondary effects. Australasian Seabird Bulletin 36: 4--5. (Mar. & Coastal Manage., Private Bag X2, Roggebaai 8012, South Africa; EM: with fisheries is viewed as main threat to seabird populations, particularly Spheniscus demersus, Morus capensis and Phalacrocorax capensis.---P.S.L. {B504, C914} {ROL #82}

{B910} Egan, K., & G. Webb. 2000. A useful strategy for the management of eggs dislodged from the nests of Little Terns Sterna albifrons. Corella 24: 13--14. (1 Bowman St., Mortdale, NSW 2223, Australia.)---Chick fledged successfully from egg replaced in nest after being washed out by high tide. Recommends egg replacement rather than destructive fertility check.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{B910} Falkowski, M., K. Nowicka, & J. Krechowski. 1998. Chronione i rzadkie rosliny naczyniowe projektowanego rezerwatu ornitologicznego "Stawy Siedleckie" [Protected and rare vascular plants in the projected "Stawy Siedleckie" (Siedlce Ponds) ornithological reserve]. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 54(4): 72--74. (Inst. Biol. WSRP, Prusa 12, PL 08 110 Siedlce, Poland.)---Mostly floristical, but also ornithological description of planned bird reserve in E. Poland.---J.K.P. (in Polish) {ROL #82}

{B910} Gabrey, S. W., A. D. Afton, & B. C. Wilson. 1999. Effects of winter burning and structural marsh management on vegetation and winter bird abundance in the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain, USA. Wetlands 19: 594--606. (ADF: USGS, Louisiana Coop. Fish Wildl. Res. Unit, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.)---Agelaius phoeniceus, Chen caerulescens and Quiscalus major were more abundant in recently burned plots; Ammodramus maritimus, Cistothorus spp. and Geothlypis trichas avoided recently burned areas but recolonized within one year after burning. Seaside Sparrows and Ammodramus nelsoni occurred more frequently in unmanaged than managed, or impounded, marshes; however, Red-winged Blackbirds were more common in managed marshes; Melospiza georgiana, Passerculus sandwichensis.---W.P.J. {C926} {ROL #82}

{B910} Hanowski, J. M., D. P. Christian, & M. C. Nelson. 1999. Response of breeding birds to shearing and burning in wetland brush ecosystems. Wetlands 19: 584--593. (Ctr. Water & Environ., Nat. Resour. Res. Inst., Univ. Minnesota, 5013 Miller Trunk Hwy., Duluth, MN 55811, USA.)---Cistothorus platensis, Ammodramus leconteii and species associated with emergent wetlands were more abundant in managed sites; whereas, Empidonax alnorum, Vermivora chrysoptera, and species associated with brush were more abundant in unmanaged sites.---W.P.J. {ROL #82}

{B910} Harrison, J. A., & R. A. Navarro. 1999. Is size important? Preliminary implications from the Birds in Reserves Project for the Woodland Biome. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 1538--1545. (Avian Demography Unit, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town, South Africa; EM: from atlas and Birds in Reserves Project showed that some species are very dependent on large protected areas and many also on unprotected areas.---P.C.L., R.J.D. {B908} {ROL #82}

{B910} Hebda, G. 1999. Projektowany rezerwat przyrody "Czapliniec" w dolinie Odry na OpolszczyZnie [Czapliniec: a proposed nature reserve in the Odra River valley in the Opole region]. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 55(2): 106--108. ([no address]) (in Polish) {ROL #82}

{B910} King, T. G., et al. 1998. Comparisons of wintering bird communities in mature pine stands managed by prescribed burning. Wilson Bull. 110: 570--574. (Chapman, R. R.: Daniel B. Warnell Sch. For. Resour., Univ. Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA; EM: differences in mean bird abundance or species richness were detected between burn treatments.---J.J.Dos. {C908, C922} {ROL #82}

{B910} Lourdes Avila Hernández, M. De. 1998. The Quetzal and its conservation in the Mexican Southeast. Wilson Bull. 110: 559. (Inst. Hist. Nat., Apartado Postal No. 6, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Mexico.)---Pharomachrus mocinno. {B904} {ROL #82}

{B910} Marsh, C. P., & P. M. Wilkinson. 1991. The significance of the central coast of South Carolina as critical shorebird habitat. Chat 55: 69--92. (Dept. Biol., USC--Coastal Carolina Coll., Conway, SC 29526 USA.)---Contains data on 22 species; recommends that Cape Romain-Santee Delta Biosphere Reserve become part of Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network.---E.F.P. {ROL #82}

{B910} Nisbet, I. C. T., & J. A. Spendelow. 1999. Contribution of research to management and recovery of the Roseate Tern: Review of a twelve-year project. Waterbirds 22: 239--252. (150 Alder Ln., North Falmouth, MA 02556 USA; EM: regional population in northeast U.S. of ca. 4000 breeding pairs of Sterna dougallii. Notable demographic features include skewed sex ratio (ca. 127F:100M), high average productivity (1.0-1.2 fledglings per pair), adult annual survival (0.83) and probably low survival from fledging to first breeding season.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B910} Olijnyk, C. G., & K. M. Brown. 1999. Results of a seven year effort to reduce nesting by Herring and Great Black-backed Gull. Waterbirds 22: 285--289. (Jamaica Bay Wildl. Ref., Bldg. 69, Floyd Bennett Field, Brooklyn, NY 11234 USA; EM: of pyrotechnics had no apparent effect on Larus argentatus and Larus marinus in western Long Island, New York. Destruction of nests and eggs reduced nesting attempts by about 60% over a 3-year period.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{B910} Pearce, J. 2000. Mountain Swamp Gum Eucalyptus camphora at Yellingbo State Nature Reserve: habitat use by the endangered Helmeted Honeyeater Lichenostomus melanops cassidix and implications for management. Victorian Naturalist 117: 84--92. (Landscape Analysis Applications Sec., Can. For. Serv., 1219 Queen St. E., Sault Ste. Marie, ON P6A 3X7, Canada; EM: occupy stands in more waterlogged sites but regeneration inhibited by rush Phragmites australis.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{B910} Ratyñska, H., & W. Szwed. 1999. Nature evaluation and protection recommendation for flooded terraces of the Warta river in landscape parks in Middle Wielkopolska. Biul. Park. Krajobraz. Wielkopolski 4(6): 5--116. (Inst. Biology & Environ. Protection, Pedagogical Univ., Kordeckiego 20, PL 85 225 Bydgoszcz, Poland.)---Among others: bird protection on flooded terraces.---J.K.P. (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{B910} Rauzon, M. J., & D. Drigot. 1999. Red-footed Booby use of artificial nesting platforms. Waterbirds 22: 474--477. (Marine Endeavors, Berkeley, CA, 94704, USA.; EM: most resembling trees were preferred by Sula sula at the Marine Corps base, Kaneohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawaii.)---R.B.C. {E510} {ROL #82}

{B910} Rodgers, R. D. 1999. Why haven't pheasant populations in western Kansas increased with CRP? Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 654--665. (Kansas Dept. Wildl. Parks, P.O. Box 338, Hays, KS 67601, USA.)---Lands enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program, or CRP, are not adequate to compensate for habitat deterioration resulting from post-harvest herbicide use in wheat stubble; habitat for Phasianus colchicus in CRP can be enhanced through a variety of techniques aimed at increasing plant diversity and increasing the amount of edge.---W.P.J. {ROL #82}

{B910} Sidlo, P. O. 1998. Lugi bird reservation conservation research project. Przegl. Przyr. 9(4): 77--86. (Ogólnopolskie Towarzystwo Ochrony Ptaków, Hallera 4/2, PL 80 401 Gdañsk, Poland.) (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{B910} Wigley, T. B., S. W Sweeney, & J. R. Sweeney. 1999. Habitat attributes and reproduction of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers in intensively managed forests. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 801--809. (Dept. Aquaculture, Fish. & Wildl., Clemson Univ., P.O. Box 3403362, Clemson, SC 29634-0362, USA.)---Variables currently used to assess foraging habitat quality for Picoides borealis on public land may not adequately measure habitat in intensively managed, private land.---W.P.J. {ROL #82}

{B910} Woehler, E. J. 2000. Towards a conservation strategy for the Antarctic. Australasian Seabird Bulletin 36: 9. (Aust. Antarct. Div., Channel Hwy., Kingston, Tas. 7050, Australia; EM: of Important Bird Areas (IBAs) inventory for Antarctica and subantarctic seas and islands is underway. Main criterion for inclusion is that site should regularly be used by more than 1% of global breeding population of a species.---P.S.L. {C306} {ROL #82}

{B912} Baker, G. B., N. Montgomery, & A. McNee. 2000. Australian policy and actions relating to albatross conservation. Australasian Seabird Bulletin 36: 3--4. (GPO Box 787, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia; EM: three-pronged approach, working toward Regional Agreement for southern hemisphere albatrosses under Convention for the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS or Bonn Convention).---P.S.L. {Diomedea, Thalassarche} {ROL #82}

{B912} Franzreb, K. E. 1999. Factors that influence translocation success in the Red-cockaded Woodpecker. Wilson Bull. 111: 38--45. (South. Res. Stn.-USDA For. Serv., Dept. For. Resour., Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC 29634-1003, USA; EM: the distance of the move was statistically significant. Picoides borealis success increased with increasing distance.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{B912} KuZniak, S., G. Lorek, & M. Lewandowski. 1999. The status and protection of the Black Stork Ciconia nigra in the district of Leszno (W Poland). Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 55(3): 5--18. (Ogólnopolskie Towarzystwo Ochrony Ptaków, Grupa Leszczyñska, Sikorskiego 28 m.10, PL 64 100 Leszno, Poland.) (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{B912} Martell, M. S., J. L. McNicoll, & P. T. Redig. 2000. Probable effect of delisting of the Peregrine Falcon on availability of urban nest sites. J. Raptor Res. 34: 126--132. (The Raptor Center Univ. Minnesota, 1920 Fitch Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.)---Interviews with building owners and site managers that provide nest sites for urban-breeding Falco peregrinus suggest that delisting the species will not result in widespread loss of man-made, urban nesting sites in the eastern U.S.---P.A.G. {ROL #82}

{B912} Nagata, H. 1999. [The applications of molecular techniques to avian biological conservation.] Japanese Journal of Ornithology 48: 101--121. (Lab. Wildl. Conserv., Natl. Inst. Environ. Studies., 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-0053, Japan.)---Review of the subject. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---H.N. {D502} {ROL #82}

{B912} Robertson, G. 2000. Seabird mortality in the Patagonian Toothfish longline fishery. Australasian Seabird Bulletin 36: 7. (Aust. Antarct. Div., Channel Hwy., Kingston, Tas. 7050, Australia; EM: 1998, 50,000--100,000 seabirds are estimated to have been killed as by-catch of toothfish fishery in Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) waters. Mitigation practices to limit seabird by-catch has been effective, but improvement is still required, particularly to allow vessels to fish unrestricted by season and to target illegal fishing.---P.S.L. {B106, B132} {ROL #82}

{B912} Sorrow, J. A. 1991. Peregrine Falcon nest at Table Rock, South Carolina. Chat 55: 53--54. (S.C. Wildl. Mar. Resour. Dept., NonGame Heritage Trust Sec., P.O. Box 1806, Clemson, SC 29633 USA.)---Eyrie with two young Falco peregrinus found 29 May 1990 on north cliff face of Table Rock, Pickens County; nine young released there 1985--1986; 38 released at nearby Lake Jocasse 1986--1990. First known nesting in state since 1933.---E.F.P. {ROL #82}

{C102} Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Update: West Nile virus activity---northeastern United States, January--August 7, 2000. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 49: 714--417. (URL: No address available.)---Routine surveillance has identified 188 WNV-infected birds from 34 counties in 4 States (New York--128 birds, New Jersey--54, Massachusetts--4, Connecticut--2). Mostly American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos--78%) and Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata--12%), but including 12 other species in 8 families. WNV has not been reported in sentinel domestic chickens.---J.L.T. {B500} {ROL #82}

{C102} Clarke, J. R., & K. R. Kerry. 2000. Occurrence of disease in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic seabirds. Australasian Seabird Bulletin 36: 4. (Aust. Antarct. Div., Channel Hwy., Kingston, Tas. 7050, Australia; EM: out comprehensive literature review on disease in penguins. Summarized diseases recorded and potential for outbreak and spread of disease.---P.S.L. {Sphenisciformes, Procellariiformes} {ROL #82}

{C102} Daoust, P.-Y., et al. 2000. Proliferative pododermatitis associated with virus-like particles in a Northern Gannet. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 378--382. (Dept. Pathol. Microbiol., Atlantic Vet. Coll., Univ. Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PEI C1A 4P3, Can.; EM: emaciated adult male Morus bassanus had lesions suggestive of Papovaviridae.---J.R.P. {case report} {ROL #82}

{C102} Dubey, J. P., et al. 2000. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in Ostriches (Struthio camelus ). J. Parasitol. 86: 623--624. (USDA, Agric. Res. Serv., Livestock Poultry Sci. Inst., Parasite Biol. Epidemiol. Lab., Beltsville Agric. Res. Ctr., Beltsville, MD 20705-2350, USA.)---The first record of T. gondii exposure in ostriches, with 2.9% of 973 birds seropositive for antibodies to it.---J.R.P. {ROL #82}

{C102} El-Massry, A., et al. 2000. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera of turkeys, chickens and ducks from Egypt. J. Parasitol. 86: 627--628. (J. P. Dubey: Parasite Biol. Epidemiol Lab., Livestock Poultry Sci. Inst., USDA, Agric. Res. Serv., Beltsville, MD 20705-2350, USA.)---Anti-T. gondii antibodies occurred in 47-60% of the turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo ), chickens (Gallus gallus) and ducks examined in Giza.---J.R.P. {ROL #82}

{C102} Fisher, J. R., et al. 1997. Mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in wild songbirds: the spread of a new contagious disease in a mobile host population. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3: 69--72. (URL: Southeast. Coop. Wildl. Disease Stud., Coll. Vet. Med., Wildl. Health Bldg., Univ. Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7393 USA.)---Document rapid spread of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) and American Goldfinch ( Carduelis tristis) in east. U.S., 1994--96.---J.L.T. {ROL #82}

{C102} Gopee, N. V., A. A. Adesiyun, & K. Caesar. 2000. Retrospective and longitudinal study of salmonellosis in captive wildlife in Trinidad. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 284--293. (A. A. A.: Sch. Vet. Med., Fac. Med. Sci., Univ. W. Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad; EM: spp. were isolated from 3% of birds tested at the Emperor Valley Zoo, including Pionus menstruus, Anatidae, Eudocimus ruber and Pelecanus occidentalis, Pandion haliaetus, Milvago chimachima, Ciccaba virgata, and Ramphastos vitellinus.---J.R.P. {survey} {ROL #82}

{C102} Gryczyñska, A. 1997. Ecology of Lyme boreliosis---the role of terrestrial vertebrates. Wiad. Ekol. 43: 207--222. (Dept. Ecology, Fac. Biol., Univ. Warsaw, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 26/28 PL 00 325 Warszawa, Poland.)---Among others: role of birds in Lyme disease transmission.---J.K.P. (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C102} Hartup, B. K., G. V. Kollias, & D. H. Ley. 2000. Mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in songbirds from New York. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 257--264. (Div. Wildl. Health, Coll. Vet. Med., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, USA; EM: was found in Carpodacus mexicanus, Carduelis tristis, and Carpodacus purpureus; Mycoplasma gallisepticum was isolated from House Finches and a Purple Finch, and plate agglutination tests were positive for 2 Molothrus ater and 4 Baeolophus bicolor.---J.R.P. {host range, mycoplasmosis} {ROL #82}

{C102} Hubálek, Z., & J. Halouzka. 1999. West Nile fever---a reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease in Europe. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5: 643--650. (URL: Inst. Vert. Biol., Acad. Sci., Klasterni 2, CZ-69142 Valtice, Czech Republic; 11 reported occurrences in wild birds, 1960--98.---J.L.T. {ROL #82}

{C102} Kuiken, T. 1999. Review of Newcastle disease in cormorants. Waterbirds 22: 333--347. (Inst. Virol., 3000 DR, Rotterdam, Netherlands.; EM: in Phalacrocorax auritus in North America and in Phalacrocorax aristotelis and Phalacrocorax carbo in Europe; disease may cause high mortality in young auritus and poses the threat of spread to other wild birds.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{C102} Ley, D. H., J. E. Berkhoff, & S. Levisohn. 1997. Molecular epidemiologic investigations of Mycoplasma gallisepticum conjunctivitis in songbirds by random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3: 375--380. (URL: Coll. Vet. Med., North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC)---Isolates of M. gallisepticum from 3 species (Blue Jay, Cyanocitta cristata; House Finch, Carpodacus mexicanus; American Goldfinch, Carduelis tristis ) examined 1994--96 from 11 U.S. States are identical, suggesting a common source of infection, but differ from commercial poultry isolates.---J.L.T. {ROL #82}

{C102} Lombardo, M. P., & P. A. Thorpe. 2000. Microbes in Tree Swallow semen. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 460--468. (Dept. Biol., Grand Valley State Univ., Allendale, MI 49401-9403, USA; EM: 30 Tachycineta bicolor, 1 had sperm with beneficial microbes, 7 had sperm with pathogenic microbes, and 11 had sperm with both types of microbes.---J.R.P. {sexually transmitted diseases, sexually transmitted microbes} {ROL #82}

{C102} Rappole, J. H., S. R. Derrickson, & Z. Hubálek. 2000. Migratory birds and spread of West Nile virus in the Western Hemisphere. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 6: 319--328. (URL: Conserv. Res. Ctr., Natl. Zool. Pk., Smithsonian Inst., 1500 Remount Rd., Front Royal, VA 22630 USA; 38 species considered most likely to contribute to potential spread of virus because they form large, dense flocks at feeding or roosting sites in or near wetlands, and hence susceptible to infection by mosquitos.---J.L.T. {ROL #82}

{C102} Reisen, W. K., et al. 2000. Method of infection does not alter response of chicks and House Finches to western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. J. Med. Entomol. 37: 250--258. (Arbovirus Res. Unit, Ctr. Vector-Borne Disease Res., Sch. Vet. Med., Univ. California, Davis, CA, USA.)---Subcutaneous syringe inoculation provides a biologically sound mode of infection that did not alter viremia and antibody responses in Gallus gallus and Carpodacus mexicanus when compared with infection by mosquito ( Culex tarsalis) bite.---J.R.P. {ROL #82}

{C102} Reisen, W. K., et al. 2000. Response of House Finches to infection with sympatric and allopatric strains of western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses from California. J. Med. Entomol. 37: 259--264. (Arbovirus Res. Unit, Ctr. Vector-Borne Disease Res., Sch. Vet. Med., Univ. California, Davis, CA, USA.)---Carpodacus mexicanus inoculated with virus strains from Culex tarsalis , had an immune response independent of virulence; virulence varied significantly among strains but was independent of geographical origin.---J.R.P. {viremia, antibody} {ROL #82}

{C102} Reisen, W. K., et al. 2000. Patterns of avian seroprevalence to western equine encephalomyelitis and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses in California, USA. J. Med. Entomol. 37: 507--527. (Arbovirus Res. Unit, Ctr. Vector-Borne Disease Res., Sch. Vet. Med., Univ. California, Davis, CA, USA.)---House finches (Carpodacus mexicanus ), House Sparrows (Passer domesticus), Gambel's Quail (Callipepla gambelii), California quail (Callipepla californica), Common Ground Doves (Columbina passerina), and Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura) were most frequently positive for antibodies.---J.R.P. {wetlands} {ROL #82}

{C102} Richter, D., et al. 2000. Competence of American Robins as reservoir hosts for Lyme disease spirochetes. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 6: 133--138. (URL: Inst. Pathol., Charité, Med. Fak. Humboldt-Univ. Berlin, Malteserstraße 74-100, 12249 Berlin, Germany; laboratory, Turdus migratorius becomes as infectious for vector ticks as do reservoir white-footed deer mice (Peromyscus leucopus), but infectivity in robins wanes more rapidly.---J.L.T. {ROL #82}

{C102} Rocke, T. E., et al. 2000. Efficacy of a type C botulism vaccine in Green-winged Teal. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 489--493. (USGS, Natl. Wildl. Health Ctr., 6006 Schroeder Rd., Madison, WI 52711, USA; EM: Anas crecca were more resistant to Clostridium botulinum type C toxin, but with higher doses of the toxin about half of the immunized ducks were affected.---J.R.P. {vaccination} {ROL #82}

{C102} Samuel, M. D., J. Y. Takekawa, et al. 1999. Avian cholera mortality in lesser Snow Geese nesting on Banks Island, Northwest Territories. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 780--787. (USGS, Natl. Wildl. Health Ctr., 6006 Schroeder Rd., Madison, WI 53711, USA.)---Pasteurella multocida, Chen caerulescens. {ROL #82}

{C102} Schulz, J. H., et al. 2000. Blood plasma chemistries from wild Mourning Doves held in captivity. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 541--545. (Missouri Dept. Conserv., Conserv. Res. Ctr., 1110 S Coll. Ave., Columbia, MO 65211, USA; EM: clinical biochemical reference values were determined for Zenaida macroura .---J.R.P. {ROL #82}

{C102} Sellin, M., et al. 2000. Involving ornithologists in the surveillance of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 6: 87--88. (URL: [Incomplete address] Umeå Univ., Umeå, Sweden.)---Report detection of Enterococcus in a migrant Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus ) in Sweden and in "sub-Arctic birds" on South Georgia. Bacteriological surveys of wild birds may provide vital information for assessing dispersion of drug-resistant pathogens from farms and hospitals.---J.L.T. {ROL #82}

{C102} Tripathy, D. N., et al. 2000. Characterization of poxviruses from forest birds in Hawaii. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 225--230. (Dept. Vet. Pathobiol., Coll. Vet. Med., Univ. Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA; EM: strains were isolated from Corvus hawaiiensis and one from an Himatione sanguinea.---J.R.P. {genetic differences between pox viruses, mild pathogenicity in chickens} {ROL #82}

{C104} Allander, K. 1998. The effects of an ectoparasite on reproductive success in the Great Tit: a 3-year experimental study. Can. J. Zool. 76: 19--25. (Dept. Zool., Uppsala Univ., Villavagen 9, S-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.)---Effects of parasites vary over time and with host populations in Parus major.---D.E.F. {ROL #82}

{C104} Blaski, M. 1998. Fleas (Siphonaptera ) in the bird nests of the urbanized areas. Acta Biol. Silesiana 32(49): 84--90. (Katedra Zoologii, Uniwersytet Slaski, Bankowa 9, PL 40 007 Katowice, Poland.) (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C104} Erwin, K. G., et al. 2000. Survival of Trichomonas gallinae in White-winged Dove carcasses. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 551--554. (S. E. Henke: Caesar Kleberg Wildl. Res. Inst., Mail Stop Ctr. 218, Texas A&M Univ.-Kingsville, Kingsville, TX 78363-8202, USA; EM: Trichomonas gallinae can be obtained from Zenaida asiatica carcasses reliably up to 8 hr, and possibly up to 24 hr, after host death.---J.R.P. {post-mortem isolation, trichomoniasis} {ROL #82}

{C104} Holmstad. P. R., & A. Skorping. 1998. Covariation of parasite intensities in Willow Ptarmigan, Lagopus lagopus L. Can. J. Zool. 76: 1581--1588. (AS: Dept. Zool., Univ. Bergen, Realfagbygget, Allegaten 41, 5007 Bergen, Norway.) {ROL #82}

{C104} Hyland, K. E., et al. 2000. Records of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing birds (Aves) in Rhode Island, USA. Int. J. Acarol. 26: 183--192. (D. Markowski: Monmouth Co. Mosquito Commission, Tick-borne Diseases Prog., P.O. Box 162, Eatontown, NJ 07724, USA; EM: birds of 36 species were host to 1,174 ticks of 6 species; 90% of the ticks were found on the Common Yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, Veery Catharus fuscescens and Carolina Wren Thryothorus ludovicianus .---J.R.P. {Ixodes scapularis, new host record} {ROL #82}

{C104} Kinsey, A. A., L. A. Durden, & J. H. Oliver, Jr. 2000. Tick infestations of birds in coastal Georgia and Alabama. J. Parasitol. 86: 251--254. (Inst. Arthropodol. Parasitol., Georgia Southern Univ., P.O. Box 8056, Statesboro, GA 30460, USA.)---13 species of passerines were host to 7 species of ixodid ticks.---J.R.P. {ROL #82}

{C104} Kopociñski, B., E. Lonc, & M. Modrzejewska. 1998. Fitting a bivariate negative binomial model to the distribution of bird lice (Phthiraptera, Mallophaga) parasitizing the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L. ). Acta Parasitol. 43(2): 81--85. (Dept. Appl. Mathematics, Univ. Wroclaw, Pl. Grunwaldzki 2/4, PL 50 384 Wroclaw, Poland.)---A complex of set of measures of aggregation confirmed the aggregation distributions of all seven lice species parasiting on the Phasianus colchicus.---J.K.P. {ROL #82}

{C104} Krone, O., & W. J. Streich. 2000. Strigea falconispalumbi in Eurasian Buzzards from Germany. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 559--561. (Inst. Zoo Biol. Wildl. Res., Postfach 601103, D-10252 Berlin, Germany; EM: of Strigea falconispalumbi trematodes in 3 populations of Buteo buteo in Germany varied from 3-36% (adult stages in the small intestine), and 10-58% (metacercariae in the neck connective tissue); differences resulted from varying abundance of freshwater habitat for the two intermediate hosts.---J.R.P. {epizootiology, geographic distribution, survey} {ROL #82}

{C104} Madej, G., & M. Stañska. 1999. Gamasid mites (Arachnida, Acari) in the nests of secondary hollow nesters Collared Flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis Temmink) and Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca Pallas) in the Bialowieza Forest. Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyr. 18(1 suppl.): 35--39. (Dept. Ecology, Silesian Univ., Bankowa 9, PL 40 007 Katowice, Poland; EM: (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C104} Mazgajski, T. D., & A. H. Kêdra. 1998. Endoparasite Isospora sp. (Coccidia, Eimeriidae ) affects the growth of Starling Sturnus vulgaris nestlings. Acta Parasitol. 43(4): 214--216. (T. D. M.: Dept. Ecology, Inst. Zoology, Univ. Warsaw, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 26/28, PL 00 927 Warszawa, Poland; A. H. K.: EM: nestlings have greater mass and longer wing than not infected.---J.K.P. {ROL #82}

{C104} Merino, S., & J. Potti. 1998. Growth, nutrition, and blow fly parasitism in nestling Pied Flycatchers. Can. J. Zool. 76: 936--941. (Lab. d'Ecologie, Univ. Pierre-et-Marie Curie, Ctr. Natl. Rech. Sci., Unite Rech. Associee 258, Bataillon A, 7e etage, 7 quai Saint-Bernard, C.P. 237, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05, France.)---Ficedula hypoleuca. {ROL #82}

{C104} MØller, A. P., P. Christe, & E. Lux. 1999. Parasitism, host immune function, and sexual selection. Quart. Rev. Biol. 74: 3--20. (Lab. d'Ecologie, CNRS URA 258 Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, 17 quai St. Bernard, Case 237, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05, France; EM: meta-analysis revealed a negative relationship between parasite loads and the expression of male secondary sexual characters. Parasite resistance may be a general determinant of parasite-mediated sexual selection.---J.S.G. {ROL #82}

{C104} Navone, G. T., J. A. Etchegoin, & F. Cremonte. 2000. Contracaecum multipapillatum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Egretta alba (Aves: Ardeidae) and comments on other species of this genus in Argentina. J. Parasitol. 86: 807--810. (Lab. Helmintos, Ctr. Estudios Parasitol. Vectores (CEPAVE) (CONICET-UNLP), Calle 2 # 584, (1900) La Plata, Argentina.)---Adults of Contracaecum multipapillatum from the Great Egret are described and figured, and Contracaecum philomultipapillatum from this host is reduced to a junior synonym of C. multipapillatum.---J.R.P. {ROL #82}

{C104} Pung, et al. 2000. Survey and host fitness effects of Red-cockaded Woodpecker blood parasites and nest cavity arthropods. J. Parasitol. 86: 506--510. (Dept. Biol. Inst. Arthropodol. Parasitol., Georgia Southern Univ., P. O. Box 8042, Statesboro, GA 30460-8042, USA.)---Prevalence of blood parasites (microfilariae and Haemoproteus) in Picoides borealis in Georgia is low, nest cavities are not heavily infested with haematophagous fleas (Ceratophyllus), and the most prevalent arthropod, facultative haematophagous mite Androlaelaps casalis, did not affect woodpecker fitness.---J.R.P. {ROL #82}

{C104} Rintamaki, P. T., et al. 1998. Blood parasites of migrating Willow Warblers (Phylloscopus trochilus) at a stopover site. Can. J. Zool. 76: 984--988. (Uppsala Univ., Dept. Zool., Villavagen 9, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.) {ROL #82}

{C104} Ryang, Y.-S., et al. 2000. The Palearctic Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus, a natural definitive host for Gymnophalloides seoi. J. Parasitol. 86: 418--419. (J.-Y. Chai: Dept. Parasitol., Seoul Natl. Univ. Coll. Med., Inst. Endemic Diseases, Seoul Natl. Univ. Med. Res. Ctr., Seoul 110-799, Korea.)---5 out of 7 oystercatchers were infected with an average of 892 adult intestinal flukes.---J.R.P. {ROL #82}

{C104} Taft, S. J., & E. A. Jacobs. 2000. Ectoparasitic insects from migrating Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus ) in central Wisconsin. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 102: 755--756. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Stevens Point, WI 54481, USA; EM: (Kurodaia acadicae , Strigiphilus acadicus), Hippoboscidae (Icosta americana , Ornithoica vicina, Ornithomyia fringillina), and Siphonaptera (Cediopsylla simplex, Orchopeas leucopus) were found on the owls during banding.---J.R.P. {ROL #82}

{C104} Zahn, S. N., & S. I. Rothstein. 1999. Recent increase in male House Finch plumage variation and its possible relationship to avian pox disease. Auk 116: 35--44. (804C Wilshire Blvd., Metairie, LA, 70005, USA; EM: and geographic link between recent color variation in Carpodacus mexicanus and incidence of avian pox is shown.---S.C.L. {ROL #82}

{C104}. Corpuz-Raros, L. A. 1993. A checklist of Philippine mites and ticks (Acari) associated with vertebrates and their nests. Asia Life Sci. 2(2): 177--200. (No address available.) {ROL #82}

{C106} Atkinson, C. T., et al. 2000. Pathogenicity of avian malaria in experimentally infected Hawaii Amakihi. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 197--204. (USGS/BRD, Pac. Island Ecosystems Res. Ctr., P.O. Box 218, Hawaii Natl. Park, HI 96718, USA; EM: among Hemignathus virens exposed to one infective mosquito bite was as high as 65%, with enlargement and discoloration of the spleen and liver and parasitaemias as high as 50% of erythrocytes.---J.R.P. {Drepanidinae, honeycreeper, Plasmodium relictum} {ROL #82}

{C106} Holte, A. E., & M. A. Houck. 2000. Juvenile Greater Roadrunner (Cuculidae) killed by choking on a Texas horned lizard (Phrynosomatidae). Southwest. Nat. 45: 74--76. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX 79409-3131, USA.)---Geococcyx californianus, Phrynosoma cornutum. {ROL #82}

{C106} Nicholson, D. S., et al. 2000. Risk factors associated with capture-related death in eastern Wild Turkey hens. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 308--315. (R. L. Lochmiller: Dept. Zool., Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK 74078, USA; EM: Meleagris gallopavo individuals may be identified from creatine kinase activity, and mortality may be minimized by curtailing capture operations based on weather conditions.---J.R.P. {aspartate aminotransferase, capture myopathy, plasma corticosterone, relative humidity, stress, temperature, E526} {ROL #82}

{C106} Quist, C. F., et al. 2000. The effect of dietary aflatoxin on wild turkey poults. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 436--444. (Southeast. Coop. Wildl. Disease Study, Coll. Vet. Med., Univ. Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA; EM: aflatoxin ingestion by Meleagris gallopavo silvestris decreased feed consumption and weight gain, caused low level liver damage, and compromised cell-mediated immunity.---J.R.P. {ROL #82}

{C106} Schreiber, E. A. 1999. Problems encountered when banding frigatebirds and boobies. Waterbirds 22: 310--313. (NHB MRC 114, U.S. Nat. Mus., Washington, DC 20560 USA; EM: buildup inside bands of downy chick Sula sula and Fregata minor and geographical and sexual variation of size in adults leads to damaged legs.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{C106} Spalding, M. G., et al. 2000. Methylmercury accumulation in tissues and its effects on growth and appetite in captive Great Egrets. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 411--422. (Dept. Pathobiol., Coll. Vet. Med., Box 110880, Univ. Florida, Gainesville, FLA 32611, USA; EM: concentrations increased more rapidly in Ardea alba nestlings after 9 weeks, with appetite and weight index declining significantly; deposition of mercury in rapidly growing feathers may protect nestlings from adverse effects on growth until feathers cease growing.---J.R.P. {bioaccumulation, contaminants, tissue accumulation, C902} {ROL #82}

{C106} Spalding, M. G., et al. 2000. Histologic, neurologic, and immunologic effects of methylmercury in captive Great Egrets. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 423--435. (Dept. Pathobiol., Coll. Vet. Med., Box 110880, Univ. Florida, Gainesville, FLA 32611, USA; EM: dosed Ardea alba had lower packed cell volumes, dingy feathers, increased lymphocytic cuffing in a skin test, increased bone marrow cellularity, decreased bursal wall thickness, decreased thymic lobule size, fewer lymphoid aggregates and increased perivascular edema and decreased phagocytized carbon in lung; high dosed birds became severely ataxic and had severe hematologic, neurologic, and histologic changes.---J.R.P. {C902} {ROL #82}

{C106} Work, T. M., et al. 2000. Fatal toxoplasmosis in free-ranging endangered 'Alala from Hawaii. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 205--212. (U. S. Geol. Survey, Biol. Resour. Div., Natl. Wildl. Health Ctr., Honolulu Field Stn., P.O. Box 50167, Honolulu, HI 96850, USA; EM: reintroduced Corvus hawaiiensis, 1 live bird and 4 carcasses, were found with Toxoplasma gondii infections.---J.R.P. {bioassay, diclazuril, immunohistochemistry} {ROL #82}

{C302} Vuilleumier, F. 1999. Biogeography on the eve of the twenty-first century: Towards an epistemology of biogeography. Ostrich 70: 89--103. (Dept. Ornithol., American Mus. Nat. His., C. Park W. at 79th St., New York, NY 10024--5192, USA.)---Despite differences in species definitions and map concepts, all biographers try to answer three hierarchically interrelated questions: (1) what are the patterns of distribution? (2) what processes explain these patterns? (3) how are these patterns controlled?.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{C304} Andrews, M. 1997. Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla and Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularia in Morocco. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 4: 45--46. (Flat 2, 366 Aylestone Road, Leicester LE2 8BL, UK.)---Descriptions of both species, present at Agadir, in May 1995. Both first national records.---G.M.K. {ROL #82}

{C304} Baha el Din, S., & M. Baha el Din. 1997. Crested Honey Buzzard Pernis ptilorhynchus, a new species for Egypt and the African continent. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 4: 31. (4 Ismail El Mazni St., Apt. 8, Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt.)---On 9 May 1996, in the Eastern Desert.---G.M.K. {ROL #82}

{C304} Borello, W. D., & Borello, R. M. 1998. Two Grass Owls Tyto capensis seen at Gaborone dam, south-eastern Botswana in July 1998. Babbler 34: 30--32. (P.O. Box 603, Gaborone, Botswana.)---Third record for Botswana, and only one for many years of this potentially endangered species.---R.J.D., N.J.S. {B904} {ROL #82}

{C304} Brewster, C. A. 1998. Status of Black Cuckoo-shrike Campephaga flava in eastern Botswana. Babbler 34: 36--37. (Private Bag 24, Bobonong, Botswana.)---Occurs mainly July to Feb.---N.J.S. {ROL #82}

{C304} Brewster, C. A. 1998. Large numbers of Stark's Larks Eremalauda starki in southwestern Botswana. Babbler 34: 26--27. (Private Bag 24, Bobonong, Botswana.)---After recent heavy rainfall, this nomadic, opportunistic species exceptionally numerous.---R.J.D., N.J.S. {ROL #82}

{C304} Brewster, C. A. 1999. Status of Horus Swift Apus horus in Botswana. Babbler 35: 24--25. (Private Bag 0024, Bobonong, Botswana.)---Dry season passage migrant, with some breeding in eastern Botswana.---N.J.S. {ROL #82}

{C304} Brewster, C. A. 1999. Large numbers of House Martins Delichon urbica at Bobonong, eastern Botswana. Babbler 35: 23. (Private Bag 0024, Bobonong, Botswana.)---Flocks of up to 2000 birds in late November 1998.---N.J.S. {ROL #82}

{C304} Brewster, C. A. 2000. Bradfield's Swift Apus bradfieldi: a new species for Botswana. Babbler 36: 7--8. (Private Bag 0024, Bobonong, Botswana.)---Seen in Molopo valley, SW Botswana, 13--18 Apr 1998.---N.J.S. {ROL #82}

{C304} Brewster, C. A. 2000. Sharp-tailed Starlings Lamprotornis acuticaudus in north-western Botswana. Babbler 36: 18. (Private Bag 0024, Bobonong, Botswana.)---In July 1986, further suggests that this bird, at the limit of its range, may be only a seasonal visitor.---R.J.D., N.J.S. {ROL #82}

{C304} Brewster, C. A. 2000. A record of a Striped Crake Aenigmatolimnas marginalis in eastern Botswana. Babbler 36: 20--21. (Private Bag 0024, Bobonong, Botswana.)---Second accepted record for Botswana; 3 & 10 Jan 1999, 15 km NW of Bobonong.---N.J.S. {ROL #82}

{C304} Buchan, T., A. W. Hester, & S. J. Tyler. 2000. Yellow-bellied Bulbuls Chlorocichla flaviventris near Kanye---an extension of range. Babbler 36: 11. (P.O. Box 1009, Gaborone, Botswana.)---Significant extension of some 150 km SW in Botswana.---R.J.D. {ROL #82}

{C304} Clancey, P. A. 1997. The assessed parapatric species pairs and combinations of the southern African avifauna. Madoqua 19: 149--158. (Durban Nat. Hist. Mus. Box 4085, Durban 4000, South Africa)---Fifty-five pairs of closely related parapatric species from southern Africa are recognised, as means of raising awareness for further research on zones of overlap and hybridization.---R.E.S. {ROL #82}

{C304} Dijksen, L. J. 1996. White-tailed Plover Vanellus leucurus, new for Ethiopia. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 3: 130. (Fonteinsweg 9, RK den Hoorn, Texel NL--1797, The Netherlands.)---First record in Ethiopia, in October--November 1994.---G.M.K. {ROL #82}

{C304} Dijksen, L. J. 1996. White-tailed Plover Vanellus leucurus, new for Ethiopia. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 3: 130. (Fonteinsweg 9, RK den Hoorn, Texel NL--1797, The Netherlands.)---First record in Ethiopia, in October--November 1994.---G.M.K. {ROL #82}

{C304} Dijksen, L. J. 1996. White-fronted Black Chat Myrmecocichla albifrons breeding in Ethiopia. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 3: 129--130. (Fonteinsweg 9, RK den Hoorn, Texel NL--1797, The Netherlands.)---Nesting data, obtained in March--April 1995, appears to be the first from Ethiopia.---G.M.K. {ROL #82}

{C304} Gardner, N. 1996. Birding in Kieni Forest. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 3: 51--52. (The Gannet, 37 Oaklands Avenue, Loughborough, Leics. LE11 3JF, UK.)---Brief introduction and map of this interesting birding site close to Nairobi.---G.M.K. {ROL #82}

{C304} Hines, C. 1996. Namibia's Caprivi Strip. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 3: 113--128. (PO Box 22527, Windhoek, Namibia.)---Where to go and which species to look for in the extreme northeastern corner of Namibia.---G.M.K. {ROL #82}

{C304} Hornbuckle, J. 1997. Recent observations of birds in the Comoros. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 4: 43--45. (30 Hartington Road, Sheffield S7 2LF, UK.)---Observations of 20 species, including several rarely reported species, in November 1995.---G.M.K. {ROL #82}

{C304} Hunter, N., C. Carter, & E. Mlungu. 1996. Recent observations in the Udzungwa and Uluguru Mountains, central Tanzania. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 3: 96--98. (8 Ennismore Avenue, Chiswick, London W4 1SF, UK.)---Observations of several threatened and little-known species in November 1995.---G.M.K. {B904} {ROL #82}

{C304} Komen, J., & J. Paterson. 1999. First specimens of Royal Tern Sterna maxima in southern Africa. Ostrich 70: 242. (National Mus. Namibia, PO Box 1203, Windhoek, Namibia; EM: mouth (Namibia/Angola), 11 Feb. 1999.---R.J.D. {ROL #82}

{C304} Le Corre, M., & J. M. Probst. 1997. Migrant and vagrant birds of Europa Island (southern Mozambique Channel). Ostrich 68: 13--18. (Mus. Nat. His., 974000 Saint Denis, Réunion Island.)---30 non-breeding species identified from March 1993 to April 1996; 22 species new for the island.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{C304} Louette, M. 1999. Composition of the West African lowland avifauna. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 3042--3062. (Royal Museum for Central Africa, B--3080 Tervuren, Belgium; EM: west of Cameroon ridge found to be an impoverishment of central equatorial avifauna. Periforest fauna outstanding and savanna one poor relative to other areas. Suggests poor habitat diversity is cause.---P.C.L., R.J.D. {ROL #82}

{C304} Lovett, R. 1999. A baseline survey of birds in the proposed area for Ntimbale dam [Botswana]. Babbler 35: 9--14. (P.O. Box 77, Shashe, Botswana.)---On the Tati River at 20°52'S, 27°27'E.---N.J.S. {ROL #82}

{C304} Moore, A. 2000. Comment on species rejected from and added to the avifauna of Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea). Malimbus 22: 31--33. (1 Uppingham Rd., Oakham, Rutland LE15 6JB, UK.)---Status of Gyps africanus and Vanellus albiceps referred to by Perez del Val et al. in Malimbus 19: 19--31.---P.W.P.B. {ROL #82}

{C304} Moyer, D. 1996. Birding in Ghana, West Africa. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 3: 105--112. (PO Box 934, Iringa, Tanzania.)---Details of 29 birding sites or regions in most areas of this ornithologically under-explored country.---G.M.K. {ROL #82}

{C304} Mughogho, D. E. C., L. Rutina, & D. Mosugelo. 1998. Aerial surveys of flamingos at Sua Pan [Botswana] in 1996. Babbler 34: 20--22. (Wildlife Res. Unit, D.W.N.P., P.O. Box 11, Maun, Botswana.)---Approx. 125,000 flamingos present; Phoenicopterus ruber, Phoeniconaias minor.---N.J.S. {ROL #82}

{C304} Nikolaus, G. 2000. The birds of the Parc National du Haut Niger, Guinea. Malimbus 22: 1--22. (Feldweg 87, 27474 Cuxhaven, Germany.)---A description of the park and its habitats followed by an account of habitat preferences, abundance rating (3 levels), breeding indication, and presence each 10-day period during one dry season (late November 1996 to April 1997) of 300 species (17 new to Guinea) based on field observations, mist-netting, captures of hunters and bird sellers.---P.W.P.B. {ROL #82}

{C304} Pausch, E. 1998. Birds of Kutse Game Reserve, Botswana. Babbler 33: 5--16. (2730 Ariane Dr., No. 64, San Diego CA, USA.)---Includes systematic list of 233 species.---N.J.S. {ROL #82}

{C304} Perez del Val, J. 2000. Reply to Moore. Malimbus 22: 33--34. (Mus. Nac. Cienc. Nat. de Madrid, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28020 Madrid, Spain.)---To note in Malimbus 22: 31--33 regarding the avifauna of Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea). Status of Gyps africanus and Vanellus albiceps.---P.W.P.B. {ROL #82}

{C304} Pritchard, D. 1998. A Honey Buzzard Pernis apivorus at Shakawe. Babbler 34: 34. (P.O. Box 846, Amanzimtoti 4125, Kwa--Zulu--Natal, South Africa.) {ROL #82}

{C304} Sacchi, M. 1997. Birding at the Okapi Wildlife Reserve, north-eastern Zaire. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 4: 42--43. (Breitfledstrasse 44, 3014 Bern, Switzerland.)---379 species are known from the area, some of the more interesting observed by the author are listed.---G.M.K. {ROL #82}

{C304} Scholte, P., & R. J. Dowsett. 2000. Birds of Waza new to Cameroon: corrigenda and addenda. Malimbus 22: 29--31. (Ctr. Environ. Sci., PO Box 9518, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands; email to Scholte et al's paper in Malimbus 21: 16--50, corrections to status of 14 species and ringing data on 2 others.---P.W.P.B. {ROL #82}

{C304} Seddon, N., D. R. Capper, J. M. Ekstrom, I. S. Isherwood, R. Muna, R. G. Pople, E. Tarimo, & J. Timothy. 1996. Project Mt. Nilo '95: discoveries in the East Usambara and Nguu Mountains, northern Tanzania. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 3: 91--95. (Dept. of Zoology, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK.)---Observations of threatened and near-threatened species in these mountain ranges in July--October 1995, and recommendations for conservation.---G.M.K. {B900} {ROL #82}

{C304} Spierenburg, P. 2000. Nouvelles observations de six espèces d'oiseaux au Mali [New observations on six species of birds in Mali.] Malimbus 22: 23--28. (SNV--Bhutan, c/o Koeriersdienst BuZa, Postbus 20061, 2500 EB Den Haag, Pays-Bas, The Netherlands.)---Summary of observations on Agapornis pullarius, Apus aequatorialis and Apalis flavida (all three new to Mali), and Machaerhamphus alcinus, Apus caffer and Halcyon malimbica (rarely reported), made from 1994 to 1996 in south-west Mali. (French, Engl. summ.)---P.W.P.B., R.J.D. {ROL #82}

{C304} Tyler, S. J., J. M. S. Lewis, & L. Tyler. 1997. First record of Basra Reed Warbler Acrocephalus griseldis in Botswana. Ostrich 68: 44--45. (Room 106, Dept. Animal Health and Production, Private Bag 0032, Gaborone, Botswana; EM: Gaborone, 28 Jan. (not Feb.) 1997.---R.J.D. {ROL #82}

{C304} Whittington-Jones, C. A. 1997. Apparent range expansion of the Redbilled Quelea Quelea quelea in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Ostrich 68: 97--103. (Dept. Zoo. Ent., Rhodes Univ., Grahamstown 6140, S. Africa.)---Review of pre-1985 records compared to later data suggests that agricultural changes have led to real increase in range, apart from increased recording during atlas project.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{C304} Williams, R. S. R., & M. C. Jacoby. 1996. Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla in the Banc d'Arguin National Park, Mauritania: a new species for Africa. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 3: 132--133. (School of Biological Sciences, Univ. East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK.)---In January 1994.---G.M.K. {ROL #82}

{C308} Collins, P. 2000. Tern counts in South Australia, February--March 2000: a preliminary report. Australasian Seabird Bulletin 36: 11--13. (RMB 4009, Cowes, Vic. 3922, Australia.)---Presents results of survey covering coast from Ceduna to The Coorong. Several valuable sites discovered. Sterna bergii, Sterna caspia, Sterna nereis, Sterna albifrons, Chlidonias hybridus, Chlidonias leucopterus---P.S.L. {ROL #82}

{C308} Collins, P., R. Jessop, & C. Hassell. 2000. A record of the Cape Petrel Daption capense at Broome, Western Australia. Australian Bird Watcher 18: 199--201. (Phillip Island Nat. Pk., PO Box 97, Cowes, Vic. 3922, Australia.)---Range extension by emaciated specimen possibly due to recent gales.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{C308} Conole, L., & R. MacNally. 2000. A record of the King Quail Coturnix chinensis from the Ovens Floodplain, north-east Victoria. Corella 24: 19. (Sec. Ecol., Dept. Biol. Sci., Monash Univ., Vic. 3800, Australia.)---First State record north of Great Dividing Range.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{C308} Conole, L. E. 2000. New inland locality for the Southern Emu-wren Stipiturus malachurus, and first recorded sympatry with two other Malurid wrens in Victoria. Australian Bird Watcher 18: 204--205. (3 Gezireh St., Pascoe Vale S., Vic. 3044, Australia.)---Sighting in gap between previous known localities thus overlapping with Malurus cyaneus and Malurus lamberti assimilis .---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{C308} Fletcher, B. S. 2000. Birds seen in the Bismarck and Admiralty Islands from 22 Oct.--7 Nov. 1996. Muruk 8: 45--60. (11 Boronia Ave., Woy Woy, NSW 2256, Australia.) {ROL #82}

{C308} Fletcher, B. S. 2000. Birds recorded in the Kau Wildlife Area at Baitabag and adjacent coastal strip, Madang Province [Papua New Guinea], May--November 1996. Muruk 8: 76--89. (11 Boronia Ave., Woy Woy, NSW 2256, Australia.)---130 species recorded in 500 ha area of lowland forest at Kau and an additional 27 species from the adjacent coast.---I.R. {ROL #82}

{C308} Gregory, P. 2000. Golden Monarch (Monarcha chrysomela) at Wild Dog, East New Britain [Papua New Guinea]. Muruk 8: 92. (Cassowary House, PO Box 387, Kuranda, Qld. 4872, Australia.)---A new record for New Britain.---I.R. {ROL #82}

{C308} Gregory, P. 2000. Yellow-legged Pigeon (Columba pallidiceps) at Wild Dog, East New Britain [Papua New Guinea]. Muruk 8: 91--92. (Cassowary House, PO Box 387, Kuranda, Qld. 4872, Australia.)---A rarely sighted endangered species.---I.R. {B904} {ROL #82}

{C308} Hobcroft, D. 2000. Ashmore Reef pelagic trip. October to November 1999. Australasian Seabird Bulletin 36: 17--19. (7 Henry St., Lewisham, NSW 2049, Australia; EM: list includes details of first Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma monorhis recorded in Australian seas.---P.S.L. {ROL #82}

{C308} Hulsman, K., T. A. Walker, & C. J. Limpus. 1999. Seabird Island No. 245: Wreck Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland. Corella 23: 88--90. (Fac. Environ. Sci., Griffith Univ., Nathan, Qld. 4111, Australia.)---Description of island, access limitations, ornithological history, breeding seabirds, and factors affecting their status.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{C308} James, D. 2000. Overlooked early records of Matsudaira's Storm-Petrel off north-west Australia? Australasian Seabird Bulletin 36: 19--20. (PO Box 5225, Townsville Mail Ctr., Qld. 4810, Australia; EM: to published but overlooked records including specimens, of storm-petrels possibly Oceanodroma matsudairae , preceding those cited in Marchant & Higgins (1990), Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds Volume 1.---P.S.L. {ROL #82}

{C308} Leavesley, A., & M. Leavesley. 2000. New Hanover [Papua New Guinea] Bird Report, March--May 1999. Muruk 8: 63--73. (Dept. Arch. & Anthr., Aust. Natl. Univ., Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia; EM: {ROL #82}

{C308} Leavesley, A., & M. Leavesley. 2000. Birds reported on Tingwon Island, New Ireland [Papua New Guinea], 18--20 May 1999. Muruk 8: 60--63. (Dept . Arch. & Anthr., Aust. Natl. Univ., Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia; EM: {ROL #82}

{C308} LeCroy, M., & W. S. Peckover. 2000. Birds observed on Goodenough and Wagifa Islands, Milne Bay Province (Papua New Guinea). Muruk 8: 41--44. (Dept. Ornith., American Mus. Nat. Hist., Central Pk. W., 79th St., New York, NY 10024, USA.)---Describes birds seen during 8--14 Aug. 1988 including two new records for Goodenough; gives details of behaviour and vocalisations of Curl-crested Manucode (Manucodia comrii).---I.R. {ROL #82}

{C308} McAllan, I. A. W. 2000. On some New South Wales records of the Grey Grasswren and the Thick-billed Grasswren. Australian Bird Watcher 18: 244--246. (46 Yeramba St., Turramurra, NSW 2074, Australia.)---Re-appraisal of old literature records for Amytornis barbatus and Amytornis textilis.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{C308} McCrie, N. 2000. A sighting of the Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus at Darwin, Northern Territory. Australian Bird Watcher 18: 229--232. (PO Box 41382, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia.)---First confirmed record for Australia, with detailed description and justification.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{C308} Wilson, J. R. 2000. Occasional Counts No. 3: Wader counts on Eyre Island and St Peter Island, South Australia. Stilt 36: 42--44. (13/27 Giles St., Kingston, ACT 2604, Australia.)---Nine species of national or international importance (Ramsar 1% criterion) over 50 km of coastline.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{C310} Brzeg, A., et al. 1999. Ekological [sic] values of the Powidzki Landskape [sic] Park [Poland]. Biul. Park. Krajobraz. Wielkopolski 5(7): 30--56. (Dept. Plant Ecology & Environ. Protection, A. Mickiewicz Univ., Fredry 10, PL 61 701 Poznañ, Poland.)---Among others: birds of Powidzki Landscape Park (Southwestern Poland). (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C310} Ciach, M., & M. Rêbis. 1998. The observations of pigmy [sic] cormorant Phalacrocorax pygmaeus in Mazowiecka Lowland [Poland]. Kulon 3: 207--208. (Glowackiego 39/43/40, PL 97 200 Tomaszów Mazowiecki, Poland.) (Short note, Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C310} Ciach, M., & M. Furmanek. 1998. Records of Little owl Glaucidium passerinum on Mazowiecka Lowland [Poland]. Kulon 3: 210--211. (Glowackiego 39/43/40, PL 97 200 Tomaszów Mazowiecki, Poland.)---Central Poland.---J.K.P. (Short note, Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C310} Cwikowski, C., et al. 1998. Raptors in the Slonne Hills Landscape Park [Poland]. Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyr. 17(3): 77--91. (Osrodek Naukowo-Dydaktyczny Bieszczadzkiego PN, Belzka 7, PL 38 700 Ustrzyki Dolne, Poland.)---Aquila chrysaetos, Aquila pomarina breeding, probably breeding Aquila clanga and Hieraaetus pennatus.---J.K.P. (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C310} Czyz, S., & I. WoZniak. 1998. Stanowisko lêgowe labêdzia krzykliwego Cygnus cygnus w okolicach Czêstochowy [A breeding site of the Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus in the environs of Czêstochowa, Poland]. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 54(2): 108--110. (Kolorowa 52, PL 42 208 Czêstochowa, Poland.) (in Polish) {ROL #82}

{C310} Dombrowski, A., & J. Luczak. 1998. Breeding bird communities in parks of Siedlce [Poland]. Kulon 3: 151--184. (Swierkowa 18, PL 08 110 Siedlce, Poland.) (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C310} Indykiewicz, P., R. Kucharski, & M. Korczyñski. 1997. The birds of Bydgoszcz, Poland 1990--1995. Zeszyty Nauk. WSP, Studia Przyrodnicze 13: 5--33. (Dept. Zoology, Agricultural and Technical Univ., Kordeckiego 20, PL 85 225 Bydgoszcz, Poland.) {ROL #82}

{C310} Jerzak, L., J. Radkiewicz, & A. Wuensche. 1999. Kolonie kormorana czarnego Phalacrocorax carbo w srodkowej czêsci pogranicza polsko-niemieckiego [Colonies of Phalacrocorax carbo in the central part of the Polish-German borderland]. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 55(4): 84--90. (Sportowa 12/1, PL 65 177 Zielona Góra, Poland.) (in Polish) {ROL #82}

{C310} Kopij, G. 1999. The breeding avifauna of Plaskowyz Glubczycki (the Glubczyce Plain; SSW Poland). Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 55(2): 34--51. (Dept. Biology, Natl. Univ. Lesotho, P. O. Roma 180, Lesotho (South Africa)) (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C310} Krupa, A. 1999. Pierwsze obserwacje rybitwy bialowasej Chlidonias hybridus w Nadwarciañskim Parku Krajobrazowym [The first records of Chlidonias hybridus in the Landscape Park on the Warta River (Nadwarciañski P. K. [West-Central Poland])]. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 55(6): 109--110. ([no address]) (in Polish) {ROL #82}

{C310} Kucharski, R. 1998. Population of the Kingfisher Alcedo atthis in the Zaborski Landscape Park [Poland] in 1992--1994. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 54(3): 23--34. (Olszówkowa 2, PL 85 336 Bydgoszcz, Poland.) (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C310} Ostañski, M. 1997. Wystêpowanie orlika krzykliwego Aquila pomarina w Bieszczadach Zachodnich w latach 1985--1996 [The Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina in the Bieszczady Zachodnie Mountains, Poland in 1985--1996]. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 53(6): 89--95. (Glottgera 38/6, PL 44 100 Gliwice, Poland.) (in Polish) {ROL #82}

{C310} Polak, M. 1998. The first statement of the Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) in the area Swiêtokrzyskie Mountains [Poland]. Kulon 3: 97--97. (J. Krasickiego 24 m.33, PL 25 430 Kielce, Poland.) (Short note, Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C310} Stój, M. 1997. The avifauna of the Jasliski Landscape Park in the Beskid Niski Mountains [Poland]. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 53(6): 45--58. (I Liceum Ogólnoksztalcace im. Króla Stanislawa Leszczyñskiego, Czackiego 4, PL 38 200 Jaslo, Poland.) (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C310} Sulek, J. 1998. The first observation of the Canada Goos [sic] (Branta canadensis) in the area of the Swiêtokrzyskie Mountains [Poland]. Kulon 3: 96--96. (Lakowa 8, PL 25 724 Kielce, Poland.) (Short note, Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C310} Wilniewczyc, P. 1998. The first statement of the Great Black-headed Gull (Larus ichthyaetus) in the area Swiêtokrzyskie Mountains [Poland]. Kulon 3: 97--98. (Paderewskiego 15/3, PL 25 017 Kielce, Poland.) (Short note, Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C310} Wójcik, J. D. 1998. The occurrence of the Roller (Coracias garrulus) in Malopolska [Poland]. Kulon 3: 47--55. (Os. Kazimierzowskie 18/156, PL 31 841 Kraków, Poland.)---Southern Poland. in 1991--1997 only 20--40 breeding pairs.---J.K.P. (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C312} Angehr, G. R. 1999. Rapid long-distance colonization of Lake Gatun, Panama, by Snail Kites. Wilson Bull. 111: 265--268. (Smithsonian Trop. Res. Inst., Unit 0948, APO AA 34002-0948, USA; EM: of Rostrhamus sociabilis population after introduction of food species, apple snail (Pomacea spp.).---J.J.Dos. {B509, C908} {ROL #82}

{C312} Burtt, E. H, Jr. 1998. Introduction. Wilson Bull. 110: 504. (Dept. Zool., Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, OH 43015-2370, USA.)---Symposium on ornithology in northern Central America.---J.J.Dos. {B112} {ROL #82}

{C312} Komar, O. 1998. Avian diversity in El Salvador. Wilson Bull. 110: 511--533. (Dept. Ecol. Evol. Biol., Univ. Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA; EM: includes a complete list of reported species with classification of residency status, threatened status, and distribution.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{C312} Macouzet, T. M., & P. Escalante-Pliego. 2000. New records of birds for Cozumel Island, Mexico. Southwest. Nat. 45: 79--81. (Inst. Biol., Dept. Zool., Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-153, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510; EM: new species: Vermivora celata , Vermivora ruficapilla, Wilsonia canadensis, Habia fuscicauda, and Volatinia jacarina.---J.J.D. {ROL #82}

{C312} Peterson, A. T., G. Escalona-Segura, & J. A. Griffith. 1998. Distribution and conservation of birds of northern Central America. Wilson Bull. 110: 534--543. (Nat. Hist. Mus. Dept. Syst. Ecol., Univ. Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA.)---Covers patterns of diversity and endemism and outlines an action plan for further study.---J.J.Dos. {B910, C922} {ROL #82}

{C312} Robinson, W. D. 1999. Long-term changes in the avifauna of Barro Colorado Island, Panama, a tropical forest isolate. Conserv. Biol. 13: 85--97. (Dept. Zool. Wildl. Sci., 331 Funchess Hall, Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL 36849, USA; EM: {ROL #82}

{C312} Ruiz C., G., & A. J. Contreras B. 2000. New northern nesting record of the Peregrine Falcon in Baja California, Mexico. J. Raptor Res. 34: 151. (Fac. Cienc., Univ. Autónoma Baja California, Apdo. Postal 1653, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico 22800)---Reports possible breeding range expansion (or reoccupation) by Falco peregrinus in Baja California, up to 390 km north of earlier nesting records.---P.A.G. {ROL #82}

{C312} Spear, L. B., & D. G. Ainley. 1999. Seabirds of the Panama Bight. Waterbirds 22: 175--198. (H. T. Harvey & Assoc., P.O. Box 1180, Alviso, CA 95002, USA; EM: of study 1984--1991 with analysis of effects of environmental and temporal variables on the more abundant species.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{C312} Watson, D. M., & B. W. Benz. 1999. The Paint-billed Crake breeding in Costa Rica. Wilson Bull. 111: 422--424. (Nat. Hist. Mus. Biodiversity Res. Ctr., Dept. Ecol. Evol. Biol., Univ. Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA; EM: record of Neocrex erythrops young and only breeding record for Central America. Description of chick and adult.---J.J.Dos. {B720, D702, D704} {ROL #82}

{C312} Winkler, K., et al. 1999. Notes on the avifauna of Tabasco [Mexico]. Wilson Bull. 111: 229--235. (Univ. Alaska Mus., 907 Yukon Dr., Fairbanks, AK 99775-6960, USA; EM: new species (Caprimulgus vociferus, Chaetura vauxi, Campylopterus excellens, Empidonax albigularis, Thryothorus modestus, Turdus infuscatus, Myadestes unicolor, Limnothlypis swainsonii, and Vermivora ruficapilla) added to state list and status of 26 other species discussed. Lowland forests used as temporary refugia.---J.J.Dos. {C908} {ROL #82}

{C312} Young, B. E., & J. R. Zook. 1999. Nesting of four poorly-known bird species on the Caribbean Slope of Costa Rica. Wilson Bull. 111: 124--128. (Latin Am. Caribbean Div., Nature Conservancy, 4245 N Fairfax Dr., Arlington, VA 22203, USA; EM: Potoo (Nyctibius grandis), Torrent Tyrannulet (Serpophaga cinerea ), Tawny-chested Flycatcher (Aphanotriccus capitalis), Sooty-faced Finch (Lysurus crassirostris). {B716, C908} {ROL #82}

{C318} Adams, M. T., & K. B. Bryan. 1999. Botteri's Sparrow in Trans-Pecos Texas. Texas Birds 1(1): 6--13. (Univ. Texas-McDonald Observatory, P. O. Box 1337, Fort Davis, TX 79734, USA.)---First record of Aimophila botterii in region 12 Jun--14 Sep 1997.---J.B.O. {ROL #82}

{C318} Auchu, C. 2000. A Common Ringed Plover at Les Escoumins, Québec. Birders Journal 9: 192--195. (9B Gagnon, C.P. 853, Les Escoumins, PQ G0T 1K0, Can.)---Photos and description, including call, of an adult male Charadrius hiaticula in breeding plumage on 7 July 2000; second report for Québec. En anglais avec un résumé français; un male adulte plumage nuptial de Pluvier grand-gravelot à Les Escoumins, le 7 juillet 2000.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{C318} Bain, M. 2000. An Anhinga in Ontario. Birders Journal 9: 182--185. (219 Albert St., Cobourg, ON K9A 2R6, Can.)---Photos and description of breeding plumaged male Anhinga anhinga near Delaware, Ontario; present from 16 Jul 2000; still present at date of publication; first report for Canada with strong evidence; one specimen from a past report was probably purchased and not collected in Ontario, while the specimen from the only other report is missing.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{C318} Bannon, P. 1999. Ancient Murrelet at Chambly, Québec [Can.]. Birders Journal 8: 44--45. (1517 Leprohon St., Montréal, PQ H4E 1P1, Can.)---Description of Synthliboramphus antiquus sighted on 25 Oct 1998; second report for Québec and easternmost report for Canada.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{C318} Bannon, P. 1999. First Quebec [Can.] records of Cave Swallows. Birders Journal 8: 301--304. (1517 Leprohon St., Montréal, PQ H4E 1P1, Can.)---Photos and description of two Petrochelidon fulva at Melocheville 6--11 Nov 1999; report of two at La Malbaie 6--7 Nov 1999; reports of singles of Petrochelidon pyrrhonota at Cap Tourmente and Eastman on 6 Nov 1999 may have been the former species.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{C318} Dalzell, B. 1999. New Brunswick's [Can.] first Sage Thrasher. Birders Journal 8: 257. (no address given)---Photos of Oreoscoptes montanus in the hand, 19--20 Jul 1999 on Kent Is..---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{C318} Davis, S. K., D. C. Duncan, & M. Skeel. 1999. Distribution and habitat associations of three endemic songbirds in southern Saskatchewan. Wilson Bull. 111: 389--396. (Saskatchewan Wetland Conserv. Corp., 202-2050 Cornwall St., Regina SK S4P 2K5, Can.; EM: spragueii, Calcarius ornatus , Ammodramus bairdii. Converting tilled cropland to perennial forage could provide additional habitat.---J.J.Dos. {B910, C908} {ROL #82}

{C318} Denault, S. 2000. A Redwing at Cap Tourmente: a first record for Quebec. Birders Journal 9: 84--85. (75 Beauchemin, St.-Basile-le-Grand, PQ J3N 1J6, Can.)---Description of sighting of Turdus iliacus, 09--12 Mar 2000; includes a summary of nine other North American reports from 25 Nov to 16 Feb, six of which are from NF; une Grive mauvis, 9--12 mars 2000; la première provinciale et de la neuvième mention en Amérique du Nord.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{C318} Dinnes, D. 1999. Whooping Cranes in Bremer County. Iowa Bird Life 69: 104--105. (P.O. Box 187, Kelley, IA 50134, USA.)---Grus americana near Plainfield on 11 Nov 1998; 2nd recent Iowa record.---J.J.D. {ROL #82}

{C318} Dinsmore, S. J., & J. J. Dinsmore. 1999. Arctic Terns at Saylorville Reservoir: A first for Iowa. Iowa Bird Life 69: 133--135. (612 ½ W. Magnolia St., Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA.)---Adult Sterna paradisaea on 18 Aug 1999 and juvenile on 19 Aug 1999, both in Polk County; 1st and 2nd Iowa records.---J.J.D. {ROL #82}

{C318} Dinsmore, S. J. 1999. First record of a Snowy Plover in North Carolina. Chat 63: 85. (612 ½ W. Magnolia St., Ft. Collins, CO 80521 USA.)---First sight record for state.---E.F.P. {ROL #82}

{C318} Dobos, R. Z. 1999. Ontario Bird Records Committee report for 1998. Ontario Birds 17: 62--83. (1156 5th Conc. Rd. W., R.R. 2, Waterdown, ON L0R 2H2, Can.)---Review of 124 records of species considered extralimital in Ontario or "northern" [including western] Ontario, of which 71% were considered valid (correct identity supported by documentation and origin believed "natural"). Addition of Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and Tropical or Couch's Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus or Tyrannus couchii) bring official Ontario list to 472 species. Bewick's Wren (Thryomanes bewickii) also added to "northern" Ontario list, and "Pink-sided" race of Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis mearnsi) added to provincial list of recognizable forms. Corrections and updates to previous reports are included.---M.K.M. {ROL #82}

{C318} Duxbury, J., C. Priestly, & J. Adamyk. 1999. The luck of the ibis: A new species for Beaverhill Lake. Alberta Nat. 29: 20--21. (Beaverhill Bird Obs., Box 1418, Edmonton, AB T5J 2N5, Can.)---Two Plegadis chihi observed and photographed at lake northeast of Edmonton provide northern-most record in province.---M.K.M. {ROL #82}

{C318} D'Anna, W., et al. 1999. First Texas record of Black-tailed Gull. Texas Birds 1(2): 20--24. (2257 Cayuga Dr. Extension, Niagara Falls, NY 14304, USA.)---Larus crassirostris 11 Feb--18 Mar 1999 in Cameron Co.---J.B.O. {ROL #82}

{C318} Eckert, C. 1999. A notable movement of godwits in the Yukon [Can.], spring 1999. Birders Journal 8: 149--150. (1402 Elm St., Whitehorse, YT Y1A 4B6, Can.)---Photos and description of Limosa lapponica, Judas Cr., 26--29 May 1999; second report for YT; new high count of Limosa haemastica for YT.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{C318} Eckert, C. D., & P. H. Sinclair. 2000. Ivory Gull: a southern Yukon [Can.] first at Tagish Narrows. Birders Journal 9: 46--47. (1402 Elm St., Whitehorse, YT Y1A 4B6, Can.)---Photograph of specimen of first-winter plumage Pagophila eburnea, sighted alive 21--24 Nov 1999 and found dead 25 Nov; first well--documented report for YT; three prior, undocumented reports.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{C318} Eckert, C. D., & P. H. Sinclair. 2000. The Yukon's [Can.] first Pacific Golden-Plover at Lees Marsh. Birders Journal 9: 150--152. (1402 Elm St., Whitehorse, YT Y1A 4B6, Can.)---Photos and description of male Pluvialis fulva, 10 May 2000; sight report of male at same site on 25 May; photo of a female at Tagish Narrows on 13 May; May weather was dominated by strong N. winds instead of customary strong SW winds.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{C318} Eckert, C. D. 1999. Bean Goose a Yukon first at Whitehorse [Can.]. Birders Journal 8: 305--309. (1402 Elm St., Whitehorse, YT Y1A 4B6, Can.)---Photos and description of an Anser fabalis on 23--24 Oct 1999.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{C318} Fedak, J. 1999. Documentation of Clay-colored Sparrow breeding at Piney Tract, Clarion County, Pennsylvania. PA Birds 13: 63. (No address given.)---1st confirmed state breeding record of Spizella pallida, June 1999.---P.D.H. {Emberizidae} {ROL #82}

{C318} Fuller, J. 1999. First state record for Eurasian Collared-Dove. Iowa Bird Life 69: 100--102. (6 Longview Knoll NE., Iowa City, IA 52240, USA; EM: decaocto in Grinnell, Poweshiek Co; 29 Aug 1997 onward.---J.J.D. {ROL #82}

{C318} Grant, G. S. 1991. Specimen record of the Great Cormorant from North Carolina. Chat 55: 31--32. (Dept. Math. Sci., Coastal Carolina Commun. Coll., 444 West. Blvd., Jacksonville, NC 28540, USA.)---Data from four Phalacrocorax carbo specimens; species sighted with increasing frequency in state.---E.F.P. {ROL #82}

{C318} Greenfield, T. 1998. Birds observed along the Sikanni Chief River, north-eastern British Columbia 1992--1997. Brit. Columbia Birds 8: 3--18. (Box 319, Sechelt, BC V0N 3A0, Can.)---Annotated list of 134 species observed in remote area, with review of sparse previous literature, breeding evidence, and range extensions within the province. A 1998 postscript adds 5 more species.---M.K.M. {B702, B716, D904} {ROL #82}

{C318} Heindel, M. 1999. The Yellow Wagtail in North America: A summary of its occurrence and notes on identification. Birders Journal 8: 182--193. (4891 Royce Rd., Irvine, CA 92612, USA.)--- Motacilla flava casual in central and south Alaska, central Yukon, British Columbia, and coastal Pacific states; one record from Nevada; sight reports from Alabama and Manitoba; only one of these reports was an adult; discussion of recent photo of Citrine Wagtail Motacilla citreola from Mississippi; lores and auriculars of young Motacilla should be examined for possible Motacilla citreola.---A.L.L. {D702, D704} {ROL #82}

{C318} Horvath, E., & J. Karges. 2000. First Texas record of Buff-breasted Flycatcher---May 3, 1999. Texas Birds 2(1): 4--7. (P.O. Box 721, South Beach, OR 97366, USA.)---Empidonax fulvifrons in Jeff Davis Co.---J.B.O. {ROL #82}

{C318} Johnson, P. L., & L. F. Gardella. 1999. Horned Larks (Eremophila alpestris) nesting in the Coastal Plain of Alabama. Alabama Birdlife 45(2): 17--20. (1207 Charnwood Dr., Montgomery, AL 36111, USA.)---Might be first documented nesting of species in the Coastal Plain of Alabama.---J.B.O. {ROL #82}

{C318} Kent, T. H. 1999. Report of the Records Committee for 1998. Iowa Bird Life 69: 89--90. (211 Richards St., Iowa City, IA 52246, USA.)---Accepted records include 1st Iowa record for Anthus spragueii.---J.J.D. {ROL #82}

{C318} Keys, J. 1999. Whooping Crane in Polk County. Iowa Bird Life 69: 105. (1106 Westside, Polk City, IA 50226, USA.)---Grus americana near Des Moines on 10 Nov 1998; 1st recent Iowa record.---J.J.D. {ROL #82}

{C318} Korfanty, C., W. G. Miyasaki, & J. L. Harcus. 1999. Review of the population status and management of Double-crested Cormorants in Ontario. USDA Anim. Plant Health Inspection Serv. Tech. Bull. 1879: 131--145. (JLH: Ontario Min. Nat. Resour., Fish Wildl. Br., 300 Water St., Box 7000, Peterborough, ON K9J 8M5 Can.)---Review management options for addressing impacts on fish, habitat, and other birds.---J.L.T. {population control, management options, E520} {ROL #82}

{C318} Kreba, R. 1999. Ancient Murrelet at Last Mountain Lake, Saskatchewan [Can.]. Birders Journal 8: 45--47. (Museum Annex, 2340 Albert St., Regina, SK S4P 3V7, Can.)---Description of Synthliboramphus antiquus sighted on 13 Nov 1998; first report for Saskatchewan.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{C318} McKearnan, J., et al. 1999. Possible expansion of Great Black-backed Gulls in Michigan. Michigan Birds Nat. Hist. 6: 15--18. (Dept. Fish. Wildl., 200 Hodson Hall, Univ. Minn., St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.)---Five or six pairs of Larus marinus possibly nesting on Lakes Michigan and Huron in 1998.---J.A.C. {ROL #82}

{C318} McNair, D. B., & W. Post. 1999. First specimen record of the Cave Swallow Petrochelidon fulva pelodoma in eastern North America. Chat 63: 30--32. (Tall Timbers Res. Stn., Rt. 1, Box 678, Tallahassee, FL 32312 USA.)---Emaciated and moribund bird (ChM 93.16.181) found 31 October 1993 at Folly Beach, Charleston County, South Carolina. Occurrence coincided with unusual influx of long-distance migrants at nearby mist-net banding station.---E.F.P. {ROL #82}

{C318} McWilliams, J. 1999. The first successful Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis) nesting in Pennsylvania. PA Birds 13: 62. (3508 Allegheny Rd., Erie, PA 16508, USA.)---Erie Co., in June 1999.---P.D.H. {Laridae} {ROL #82}

{C318} Mlodinow, S. 1999. Common and King Eiders: Vagrancy patterns in western North America. Birders Journal 8: 234--242. (4819 Gardner Ave., Everett, WA 98203, USA.)---Vagrant Somateria spectabilis mostly occur in the interior from late Oct to early Dec; Somateria mollissima mostly occur along Pacific coast from late Oct to mid-May.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{C318} Mlodinow, S. 1999. Southern hemisphere albatrosses in North American waters. Birders Journal 8: 131--141. (4819 Gardner Ave., Everett, WA 98203, USA.)---Summary of occurrences of Thalassarche chlororhynchos, Thalassarche cauta, Thalassarche melanophris, Phoebetria palpebrata, and Diomedea exulans, vagrant species of Diomedeidae; most birds were adults seen from early May through late August.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{C318} Padelford, L., & B. Padelford. 1999. Eurasian Collared-Dove in Osceola County. Iowa Bird Life 69: 103. (1405 Little John Rd., Bellevue, NE 68005, USA; EM: Streptopelia decaocto on 20 Aug 1998; 2nd Iowa record.---J.J.D. {ROL #82}

{C318} Peck, G. K., & R. D. James. 1999. Breeding birds of Ontario: nidiology and distribution. Volume 1: nonpasserines (additions and revisions. Ontario Birds 17: 105--123. (ONRS/Ornithol., CBCB, Roy. Ont. Mus, 100 Queen's Park, Toronto, ON M5S 2C6, Can.)---Extensions of known breeding range within Ontario or James Bay islands portion of Northwest Territories of numerous non-passerines species since publication of 1983 book and 1987-1994 addenda, as well as corrections to previous publications and new data on breeding dates and numerous aspects of breeding biology.---M.K.M. {B700, B702, B710} {ROL #82}

{C318} Post, W., L. Glover, & C. Newkirk. 1999. A midwinter specimen of the Bridled Tern in South Carolina. Chat 63: 86--87. (Charleston Mus., 360 Meeting St., Charleston, SC 29403 USA.)--- ChM 99.22.01 is juvenile male found freshly killed on 18 January 1999 at Pawleys Island in Georgetown County. Bird struck side of house about 300 m from ocean during heavy fog.---E.F.P. {ROL #82}

{C318} Proescholdt, M., & M. Stegmann. 1999. Eurasian Collared-Dove specimen for Iowa. Iowa Bird Life 69: 102. (Box 65, Liscomb, IA 50148, USA.)---Streptopelia decaocto in Grinnell, Poweshiek Co.; 15 Oct 1997.---J.J.D. {ROL #82}

{C318} Pulcinella, N. 1999. Greater Shearwater (Puffinus gavia), Berks County, first documented record for Pennsylvania. PA Birds 13: 126. (No address given.)---Emaciated bird found 9 Sep 1999 in a parking lot after passage of Hurricane Dennis. It died 5 days later at a rehabilitation clinic.---P.D.H. {Procellariiformes, Procellariidae} {ROL #82}

{C318} Pulcinella, N. 1999. Ninth report of the Pennsylvania Ornithological Records Committee, June 1999. PA Birds 13: 20--23. (No address given.)---38 records were accepted including 1st state record of Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus).---P.D.H. {ROL #82}

{C318} Richards, J. 1999. OFO bird finding guide #7: A birder's guide to Second Marsh Wildlife Area, McLaughlin Bay Wildlife Reserve, and surroundings. Ontario Birds 17: 133--151. (14 Centre St., Box 442, Orono, ON L0B 1M0, Can.)---Detailed guide to several sites within an ornithologically significant area along the north shore of Lake Ontario, including the site of first North American breeding record of Larus minutus.---M.K.M. {ROL #82}

{C318} Ryff, A. J. 2000. Great White Heron at Metro Beach Metropark, Macomb Co. [Michigan]. Michigan Birds Nat. Hist. 7: 15--21. (20201 E. Ten Mile Rd., St. Clair Shores, MI 48080, USA.)---Probably northernmost record for subspecies Ardea herodias occidentalis in N. America, 17 July to 29 October 1999. Photos.---J.A.C. {ROL #82}

{C318} Seibel, D. (chair), P. Janzen, D. Rintoul, M. Rader, T. Flowers, R. Rucker, M. McHugh, S. Patti, & B. Gress. 2000 . 1999 Report of the Kansas Bird Records Committee. Bull. Kansas Ornithol. Soc. 51: 22--24. (1310 George Court, Lawrence, KS 66044, USA.)---Formal assessment of field records of bird occurrences adds one species, Egretta rufescens, the Reddish Egret, to the Kansas list. Records of 23 additional species document spatial or temporal distributional modifications. Including sight records, the State list now numbers 457 species.---R. F. J. {ROL #82}

{C318} Shelley, D., & B. Holmes. 1999. Limpkin documented in Craven County, North Carolina. Chat 63: 83--84. (1220 Petite Terre Ct., New Bern, NC 28560 USA.)---Published photograph of Aramus guarauna present at freshwater pond for 10 days. Fed on mussel Rangia cuneata. First documented record for state.---E.F.P. {ROL #82}

{C318} Slater, A. 1999. Second report of the Alberta Bird Record Committee. Alberta Nat. 29: 30--31. (152 Oakside Circle S.W., Calgary, AB T2V 4H2, Can.)---Extralimital records of 8 species were accepted, those of 3 species considered "insufficiently documented," and considered identified correctly, but of "questionable origin." Species considered documented in the province for the first time are Red-necked Stint (Calidris ruficollis), Spoonbill Sandpiper (Eurynorhynchus pygmeus ), White-winged Dove (Zenaida asiatica), White-throated Swift ( Aeronautes saxatalis), Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus ), Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe), and Cassin's Sparrow ( Aimophila cassinii).---M.K.M. {ROL #82}

{C318} Swanson, D. L., et al. 2000. A breeding population of Virginia's Warblers in the southwestern Black Hills of South Dakota. Southwest. Nat. 45: 39--44. (Dept. Biol., Univ. South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA.)---Vermivora virginiae; extends known breeding range >200 km northeast.---J.J.D. {ROL #82}

{C318} Weeks, R., & M. A. Patten. 2000. First Texas record of Yellow-footed Gull---July 9, 1998. Texas Birds 2(1): 25--33. (110 Indian Warrior, Lake Jackson, TX 77556, USA.)---Larus livens in Brazoria Co.---J.B.O. {ROL #82}

{C318} White, M. 1999. Black-headed Gull. Texas Birds 1(1): 29--33. (2518 Monroe, Commerce, TX 75428, USA.)---All occurrence records of Larus ridibundus in Texas are reviewed.---J.B.O. {ROL #82}

{C318} White, M. 1999. Inland occurrences of Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow. Texas Birds 1(1): 34--39. (2518 Monroe, Commerce, TX 75428, USA.)---All occurrence records of Ammodramus nelsoni at inland sites in Texas are reviewed.---J.B.O. {ROL #82}

{C318} White, M. 1999. Texas review species: Jabiru. Texas Birds 1(2): 34--37. (2518 Monroe, Commerce, TX 75428, USA.)---Jabiru mycteria status reviewed for Texas.---J.B.O. {ROL #82}

{C318} White, M. 2000. Range expansion of Fish Crow in northeast Texas. Bull. Texas Ornithol. Soc. 33(1): 6--9. (2518 Monroe, Commerce, TX 75428, USA.)---Documents recent range expansion of population of Corvus ossifragus into northeast Texas during the breeding season.---J.B.O. {ROL #82}

{C318} Wilson, W. H., Jr. 1999. The northward expansion of the Tufted Titmouse in Maine. Northeast. Nat. 6: 231--237. (Dept. Biol., Colby Coll., Waterville, ME 04901, USA; EM: Baeolophus bicolor was a vagrant in Maine until the 1970s. CBC and BBS data used to examine species' increase in state through 1996.---J.S.G. {ROL #82}

{C318} Winter, S. L., R. E. Charlton, & J. F. Culley, Jr. 2000. A new county breeding record for Black-billed Magpies: Symptom of habitat changes in a grassland landscape. Bull. Kansas Ornithol. Soc. 51: 25--28. (U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Santa Ana NWR, Tr. 2, Box 202A, Alamo, TX 78516, USA.)---Increase in woody vegetation in grassland areas over the past 40 years owing to fire suppression has led to expansion in the range of Pica pica, which now breeds in Saline County, Kansas, near its current eastern distributional edge in North America.---R.F.J. {B500, B716} {ROL #82}

{C318} Woodin, M. C., et al. 1999. Discovery of a second population of White-collared Seedeaters, Sporophila torqueola (Passeriformes: Emberizidae) along the Rio Grande of Texas. Southwest. Nat. 44: 535--538. (Columbia Environ. Res. Ctr., Texas A&M Univ., Box 339, Corpus Christi, TX 78412, USA.)---Galvan Ranch near Laredo, Webb Co.---J.J.D. {ROL #82}

{C318} Wormington, A. 1999. Cave Swallow---second record for Ontario [Can.] and the Great Lakes Region. Birders Journal 8: 35--37. (RR 1, Leamington, ON N8H 3V4, Can.)---Photo and description of Petrochelidon fulva on 07 Dec 1998 at Pt. Pelee National Park.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{C318} Wright, K. G. 1998. Autumn occurrence of a Boreal Owl (Aegolius funereus) in the Coast Mountains. Brit. Columbia Birds 8: 21--22. (6090 Blink Bonnie Rd., West Vancouver, BC V7W 1V8, Can.)---Extralimital occurrence within province and apparently first documentation of fall singing in this species.---M.K.M. {B320} {ROL #82}

{C320} Carey, G. J., & C. Y. Lam. 1996. Monthly summaries. Hong Kong Bird Report 1995: 6--12. (Hong Kong Birdwatching Soc., GPO Box 12460, Hong Kong.)---Brief reports of birds sighted each month in Hong Kong during 1995.---W.K.S. {ROL #82}

{C320} Carey, G. J. 1996. Winter waterfowl counts 1994--95. Hong Kong Bird Report 1995: 92--97. (Hong Kong Birdwatching Soc., GPO Box 12460, Hong Kong.)---Results of five monthly winter waterfowl counts (Nov--Mar) at 12 sites around Hong Kong.---W.K.S. {ROL #82}

{C320} Carey, G. J. et al. 1996. Systematic list. Hong Kong Bird Report 1995: 13--91. (Hong Kong Birdwatching Soc., GPO Box 12460, Hong Kong.)---Species by species accounts of bird sightings/numbers in Hong Kong during 1995.---W.K.S. {ROL #82}

{C320} Oh, H.-S., & H. Y. Chae. 1999. [Wintering flock of the Mandarin Duck in Cheju Island, Republic of Korea.] Japanese Journal of Ornithology 48: 161--163. (Inst. Sci. Edu., Cheju Natl. Univ., 1-Ara-dong, Cheju, Cheju-do 690-756, Republic of Korea.)---Aix galericulata (Japanese, Engl. summ.) {ROL #82}

{C320} Yoshida, M. 2000. [The record of the second observation in Japan of the Dusky Warbler.] Japanese Journal of Ornithology 48: 285--286. (No address given.)---Phylloscopus fuscatus . (Japanese, Engl. summ.) {ROL #82}

{C324} Marr, N. 2000. Birds reported in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands, June 1999. Queensland Naturalist 38: 12--15. (259 Bunneys Ln., Kin Kin, Qld. 4571, Australia.)---68 species in annotated list.---J.M.P. {ROL #82}

{C324} Steadman, D. W., & J. Franklin. 2000. A preliminary study of landbirds on Lakeba, Lau Group, Fiji. Emu 100: 227--235. (Florida Mus. Nat. Hist., Univ. Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.)---Variations in relative abundance and species richness across five habitat types are reported.---W.K.S. {C908} {ROL #82}

{C328} Gonzalez, J. C. T. 1993. An avifaunal survey of Puerto Galera, Oriental Mindoro Province, Philippines. Asia Life Sci. 2(2): 163--176. (No address available.) {ROL #82}

{C328} Peterson, A. T., L. G. Ball, & K. W. Brady. 2000. Distribution of the birds of the Philippines: biogeography and conservation priorities. Bird Conservation International 10: 149--167. (Nat. Hist. Mus. and Dept. Eco. Evol. Biol., Univ. Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA.)---Biogeographic patterns of Philippine avifauna analyzed, and data used to prioritize areas of archipelago for conservation. With two additions, analysis indicates archipelago's existing reserve system would be a "near-optimal design."---K.J.E. {Integrated Protected Areas System, heuristic complementarity algorithms; B900} {ROL #82}

{C330} Aleixo, A., B. M. Whitney, & D. C. Oren. 2000. Range expansion of birds in southeastern Amazonia. Wilson Bull. 112: 137--142. (Mus. Nat. Sci. Dept. Biol. Sci., Louisiana State Univ., 119 Foster Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-3216, USA; EM: Caprimulgus sericocaudatus, Automolus ochrolaemus, Dichrozona cincta, Poecilotriccus andrei, Ramphotrigon fuscicauda , Ramphotrigon megacephala, Turdus lawrencii, Euphonia chrysopasta, Nonnula ruficapilla, Synallaxis cherriei , Simoxenops ucayalae. Abstracts in Spanish and English. {E506} {ROL #82}

{C330} Anjos, L. Dos, & R. Bocon. 1999. Bird communities in natural forest patches in southern Brazil. Wilson Bull. 111: 397--414. (Univ. Estadual de Londrina, Depto. Biol. Anim. Vegetal, Caixa Postal 6001, Londrina 86051-970, Paraná, Brazil; EM: of leaf insectivore species decreased most with decrease in area. Increased relative abundance of trunk insectivores could be explained by "habitat appropriation" hypothesis, expansion of niches to include slightly different habitats.---J.J.Dos. {C908, C922} {ROL #82}

{C330} Bauer, C., J. F. Pacheco, A. C. Venturini, & B. M. Whitney. 2000. Rediscovery of the Cherry-throated Tanager Nemosia rourei in southern Espírito Santo, Brazil. Bird Conservation International 10: 97--108. (UFRJ, Lab. Ornithol., Depto. Zool., Inst. Biol.-CCS, Cidade Univ., Rio de Janeiro, 21944-970, Brazil.)---From type description in late 1800's to rediscovery in 1998, this rare species has been reported by scientists as likely extinct, a hybrid, and, referencing the type specimen, an artifact composed of the parts of other species. Authors report "first substantive observations of its behaviour, vocalizations (incl. sonogram), and other aspects of its natural history."---K.J.E. {B300} {ROL #82}

{C330} de Vries, T., & C. Melo. 2000. First nesting record of the nest of a Slaty-backed Forest-falcon (Micrastur mirandollei) in Acini National Park, Ecuadorian Amazon. J. Raptor Res. 34: 148--150. (Depto. Biol., Pontificia Universidad Católica Ecuador, Apdo. 17-01-2184, Quito, Ecuador.)---Reports observations of a stick nest and breeding behavior by a pair of adult birds, but productivity was unconfirmed.---P.A.G. {ROL #82}

{C330} Hayes, F. E., P. A. Scharf, & R. S. Ridgely. 1994. Austral bird migrants in Paraguay. ÊCondor 96: 83--97. (Fac. Nat. Sci./Tech., Caribbean Union Coll., P.O. Box 175, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad.)---Notes 35 species presumably nesting there but absent or rare in winter and another 45 that winter in Paraguay but breed further north. Austral migrants primarily flycatchers (40%) or insectivorous; new distribution records and extreme dates of occurrence given for many.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{C330} Jahn, O., M. E. J. Viteri, & K. Schuchmann. 1999. Connecticut Warbler, a North American migrant new in Ecuador. Wilson Bull. 111: 281--282. (KS: Alexander Koenig Res. Inst. Mus. Zool., Res. Group "Biol. Phylogeny of Trop. Birds," Adenauerallee 160, D-53113 Bonn, Germany.)---Oporornis agilis. {ROL #82}

{C330} Robbins, M. B., R. C. Faucett, & N. H. Rice. 1999. Avifauna of a Paraguayan Cerrado locality: Parque Nacional Serranía San Luis, Depto. Concepción. Wilson Bull. 111: 216--228. (Div. Ornithol., Nat. Hist. Mus., Univ. Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA; EM: species with relative abundance, habitat, and status recorded including first record of Catharus fuscescens in Paraguay and evidence of Basileuterus hypoleucus x Basileuterus culicivorus hybrid---J.J.Dos. {C922, D508} {ROL #82}

{C330} Schiavini, A. 2000. The unrevealed Southern Rockhopper Penguins at Staten Island, Tierra del Fuego: their largest breeding ground? Australasian Seabird Bulletin 36: 7. (CONICET, Ctr. Austral de Investigaciones Cientificas (CADIC) Malvinas Argentinas s/rno., 9410 Ushuaia, Argentina; EM: during November and December 1998 estimated breeding colonies of Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome to have 255,577 nests at a density of 138 nests per 100 m. sq. Bahia Franklin colony estimated to hold 33.3% of global population of this subspecies; it is of major importance for conservation.---P.S.L. {ROL #82}

{C330} Silva, J. L. 1999. Notes about the distribution of Pauxi pauxi and Aburria aburri in Venezuela. Wilson Bull. 111: 564--569. (Univ. Florida, Wildl. Ecol. Conserv. Dept., P.O. Box 110430, 303 Newins-Ziegler Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611-0430, USA; EM: Helmeted Curassow and Wattled Guan found mostly in national parks.---J.J.Dos. {B904, B908} {ROL #82}

{C702} Kopij, G. 1998. Polish ornithological bibliography from the earliest times to 1944. Acta Ornith. 33: 1--84. (Dept. Biology, Natl. Univ. Lesotho, P. O. Roma 180, Lesotho, South Africa)---Cover also part of Belarus, Ukraine and Lithuania. Full text of introduction and titles are in Polish and English.---J.K.P. {ROL #82}

{C704} Anon. 1999. Obituary. Richard Kendall Brooke 1930--1996. Ostrich 70: 153--156. (No address.) {ROL #82}

{C704} Brown, J. L. 1994. Historical patterns in the study of avian social behavior. Condor 96: 232--243. (Dept. Biol. Sci., State Univ. New York, Albany, NY 12222, USA; EM: {B314} {ROL #82}

{C704} Csuti, B., & M. R. Brittan. 1999. In memoriam: Miklós D. F. Udvardy, 1919--1998. Auk 116: 223--225. (Oregon Zoo, 4001 SW Canyon Rd., Portland OR 97221, USA.) {ROL #82}

{C704} Fidler, D., & R. A. Davis. 1999. Memories of Gerry Bennett (1921-1999). Ontario Birds 17: 53--55. (R.R. 5, Owen Sound, ON N4K 1K4, Can.)---Biographical notes on editor of Birdfinding in Canada, including his role in ensuring the preservation of the ornithological diaries of James L. Baillie, Jr.---M.K.M. {ROL #82}

{C704} Grove, G. 1999. The adventures of George Sutton. PA Birds 13: 166--168. (RR 1, Box 483, Petersburg, PA 16669, USA.)---Anecdotes about the travel and experiences of a prominent American ornithologist.---P.D.H. {ROL #82}

{C704} Hebb, M. E. 1999. In memoriam: Peter Whelan (1934--1999). Ontario Birds 17: 152--156. (Bird Studies Canada, Box 160, Port Rowan, ON N0E 1M0, Can.)---Brief biography of author of only Canada-wide newspaper bird column.---M.K.M. {ROL #82}

{C704} Isler, M. L., & C. Rodner. 1998. In memoriam: Betsy Trent Thomas, 1923--1998. Auk 115: 1052. (Div. Birds, Natl. Mus. Nat. Hist., Smithsonian Inst., Washington D.C. 20560, USA.) {ROL #82}

{C704} James, R. D. 1999. In memoriam: John L. Cranmer-Byng (1919--1999). Ontario Birds 17: 100--101. (R.R. 3, Sunderland, ON L0C 1H0, Can.)---Brief biography of historical ornithologist, best known for his comprehensive biography of Percy A. Taverner and as junior editor of book, Ornithology in Ontario.---M.K.M. {ROL #82}

{C704} Kilsdonk, R. 1999. Myrtle Agnes Biggs (1912--1998). Alberta Nat. 29: 71. (23 Oriole Cresc., Sherwood Park, AB T8A 0B2, Can.)---Brief biography of prominent amateur Alberta ornithologist.---M.K.M. {ROL #82}

{C704} Navarro S., A. G., & J. E. Morales-Pérez. 1999. In memoriam: Miguel Álvarez Del Toro, 1917--1996. Auk 116: 226--227. (Mus. Zoología, Fac. Cienc., Univ., Nac., Autónoma México, Apdo., Postal 70-399, Mexico D.F. 04510, Mexico.) {ROL #82}

{C704} Parker I. 1998. Obituary: John George Williams. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 5: 94--95. (P.O. Box 30678, Nairobi, Kenya.) {ROL #82}

{C704} Parkes, K. C. 1998. On the role of the referee. Auk 115: 1079--1080. (Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist., 4400 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; EM: 10 questions for referees to consider when reviewing manuscripts and suggests authors carefully consider comments of referees.---A.D.F. {ROL #82}

{C704} Pittaway, R. 1999. Henri Roger Ouellet (1938--1999). Ontario Birds 17: 56--58. (Box 619, Minden, ON K0M 2K0, Can.)---Highlights of career of last Curator of Birds of Canadian Museum of Nature.---M.K.M. {ROL #82}

{C704} Scott, J. M. 1994. Harry R. Painton Award: Thirty-two years of excellence, 1961--1993. Condor 96: 831--832. (USGS/BRD, Dept. Fish Wildl., Univ. Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-1141, USA; EM: of award for paper in Condor presenting the most significant and original research.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{C704} Scovell, R. 1999. In memoriam: The Gerry Bennett I knew: a eulogy. Ontario Birds 17: 50--52. (3 Sim's Crescent, Rexdale, ON M9V 2S9, Can.)---Biographical notes on editor of Canada's first "bird-finding" newsletter.---M.K.M. {ROL #82}

{C706} Collar, N. J. 1999. The type locality and conservation status of Monticola bensoni. Ostrich 70: 151. (BirdLife Int., Wellbrook Court, Girton Rd., Cambridge CB3 0NA, UK; EM: {B900} {ROL #82}

{C706} Gichuki, C. M., & N. N. Gichuki. 1999. The role of museums and ornithological societies in the documentation of indigenous knowledge of birds. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 1358--1362. (Centre for Biodiversity, National Museums of Kenya, PO Box 40658, Nairobi, Kenya; EM: is still a lot of knowledge among indigenous people that has not surfaced in the scientific literature. Museums are ideal places to document and store this.---P.C.L., R.J.D. {B500} {ROL #82}

{C900} Dmoch, A., & A. Dombrowski. 1998. The Roller (Coracias garrulus) in the Biala Forest. Kulon 3: 57--66. (Lomzyñska 22/3, Lubiejewo, PL 07 300 Ostrów Mazowiecka, Poland.)---Central Poland. Decrease: only 4 breeding pairs. Nesting habitat selection.---J.K.P. (Polish, English summ.) {B716} {ROL #82}

{C900} Fernandez-Juricic, E. 2000. Avifaunal use of weeded streets in an urban landscape. Conserv. Biol. 14: 513--521. (Dept. Biol. Animal I, Fac. Biol., Univ. Complutense Madrid, Madrid E-28040, Spain; EM: {ROL #82}

{C900} Lesiñski, G. 1998. Population increase of Magpie Pica pica in outskirts and suburban built-up area of Warsaw in 1983--1998. Kulon 3: 185--194. (Dept. Vertebrate Ecology, Inst. Ecology PAS, Dziekanów Lesny, PL 05 092 Lomianki, Poland; EM: vertecol @poczta.onet. pl; (Polish, English summ.) {nest habitat selection, food} {ROL #82}

{C900} Sæther, B.-E., et al. 2000. Population dynamical consequences of climate change for a small temperate songbird. Science 287: 854--856. (Dept. Zool., Norwegian Univ. Sci. Tech., N-7491 Trondheim, Norway; EM: and density dependence both influenced population growth rate of Cinclus cinclus.---M.J.J. {C906, C914} {ROL #82}

{C900} Sillett, T. S., R. T. Holmes, & T. W. Sherry. 2000. Impacts of a global climate cycle on population dynamics of a migratory songbird. Science 288: 2040--2042. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA; EM: and fecundity of adult Dendroica caerulescens were lower in El Niño years compared to La Niña years.---M.J.J. {ROL #82}

{C902} Brotons, L., et al. 1998. Direct and indirect effects of pollution on the foraging behaviour of forest passerines during the breeding season. Can. J. Zool. 76: 556--565. (Dept. Biol. Anim. (Vert.), Univ. Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.)---Pollution from a coal-fired power station had a negative impact on Parus cristatus, Aegithalos caudatus, & Parus ater during the breeding season.---D.E.F. {D306} {ROL #82}

{C902} Dann, P., & R. Jessop. 2000. Vulnerability of seabirds to oil pollution in southern Australia. Australasian Seabird Bulletin 36: 5. (PO Box 97, Cowes, Phillip Island, Vic. 3922, Australia; EM: divers (penguins, cormorants) are most at risk. Little penguins (Eudyptula minor) comprise more than 90% of oiled seabirds reported from 1980 to 1999. Rehabilitation of oiled penguins has been successful; oil pollution is potential threat but not immediate threat to penguin populations.---P.S.L. {ROL #82}

{C902} Iwata, H., et al. 2000. Contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons and lead in Steller's Sea Eagle and White-tailed Sea Eagle from Hokkaido, Japan. In: Ueta, M., & McGrady, M. J. (eds). First Symposium on Steller's and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia: 91--106. Tokyo: Wild Bird Soc. Japan. (Dept. Environ. Vet. Sci., Grad. Sch. Vet. Med., Hokkaido Univ., N18 W9 North Ward, Sapporo, Japan; EM:, DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, chlordane-related compounds, hexachlorobenzene and lead contamination were detected in Haliaeetus pelagicus and Haliaeetus albicilla.---M.J.U. {ROL #82}

{C902} Kurosawa, N. 2000. Lead poisoning in Steller's Sea Eagles and White-tailed Sea Eagles. In: Ueta, M., & McGrady, M. J. (eds). First Symposium on Steller's and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia: 107--109. Tokyo: Wild Bird Soc. Japan. (Hokkaido Vet. Med. Assoc., 3-10-11 Sakuraoka, Tesikaga-cho, Hokkaido 088-3213, Japan; EM: Haliaeetus pelagicus and three Haliaeetus albicilla were found to have died of lead poisoning during the 1997/98 winter, and 16 H. pelagicus and nine H. albicilla were found dead during the 1998/99 winter.---M.J.U. {ROL #82}

{C902} McCarty, J. P., & A. L. Secord. 1999. Nest-building behavior in PCB-contaminated Tree Swallows. Auk 116: 55--63. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA; EM: Tachycineta bicolor in contaminated areas built small, low quality nests.---A.A.W. {B716} {ROL #82}

{C904} Bibby, C. J. 1999. Making the most of birds as environmental indicators. Ostrich 70: 81--88. (Birdlife Int., Welbrook Court, Girton Rd., Cambridge CB3 0NA, UK; EM: of the role of ornithology in providing data for the analysis of biodiversity.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{C904} Canterbury, G., et al. 2000. Bird communities and habitat as ecological indicators of forest condition in regional monitoring. Conserv. Biol. 14: 544--558. (USFWS, 2800 Cottage Way, Suite W2605, Sacramento, CA 95825, USA.) {ROL #82}

{C904} Dmowski, K. 1999. Birds as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution: review and examples concerning European species. Acta Ornith. 34: 1--25. (Dept. Ecology, Fac. Biol., Univ. Warsaw, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 26/28 PL 00 325 Warszawa, Poland; EM: Pica pica as one of the most suitable species for bioindication purposes, and very detailed discussion about using feather as biomarker.---J.K.P. {ROL #82}

{C904} Part, T., & B. Soderstrom. 1999. Conservation value of semi-natural pastures in Sweden: Contrasting botanical and avian measures. Conserv. Biol. 13: 755--765. (Dept. Conserv. Biol., Swedish Univ. Agric. Sci., Box 7002, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden; EM: {ROL #82}

{C906} Bock, C., & J. Bock. 1999. Response of winter birds to drought and short-duration grazing in southeastern Arizona. Conserv. Biol. 13: 1117--1123. (Dept. Environ. Popul. & Organismic Biol., Univ. Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0334, USA; EM: {C926} {ROL #82}

{C906} Duyck, B., & D. B. McNair. 1991. Late-season high-elevation breeding record of Cedar Waxwings in the North Carolina mountains. Chat 55: 7--8. (53 Merion Dr., Asheville, NC 28806 USA.)--- Cold nighttime temperatures in mid-September cause failure of some late-season Bombycilla cedrorum nests.---E.F.P. {ROL #82}

{C906} Emslie, S. D. 2000. Abandoned penguin colonies and climate change in Antarctica. Australasian Seabird Bulletin 36: 5. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. N. Carolina, Wilmington, NC 28403, USA; EM: in Marguerite Bay area, Antarctic Peninsula, determined occupation history and diet of former Adelie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) colonies. Dietary shift has tracked climate change in last 600 years; squid, especially Psychroteuthis glacialis was important food then and now.---P.S.L. {E308, E509} {ROL #82}

{C906} Gaston, A. J., & M. Hipfner. 1998. The effect of ice conditions in northern Hudson Bay on breeding by Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia). Can. J. Zool. 76: 480--492. (Can. Wildl. Serv., Natl. Wildl. Res. Ctr., 100 Gamelin Blvd., Hull, QC K1A 0H3, Can.)---Extent of ice near breeding colony in May and June affects the birds positively and negatively in a variety of ways.---D.E.F. {B702} {ROL #82}

{C906} Jaksic, F. M., & I. Lazo. 1999. Response of a bird assemblage in semiarid Chile to the 1997--1998 El Niño. Wilson Bull. 111: 527--535. (Dept. Ecol., Pontifica Univ. Católica Chile, Casilla 114-D, Santiago, Chile; EM: species richness and density closely follow precipitation patterns. They increased in wet years.---J.J.Dos. {C922} {ROL #82}

{C906} Jessop, R., & P. Collins. 2000. The effects of cyclonic weather conditions on the bird life around Broome, Western Australia. Stilt 36: 11--15. (RMB 4009, Cowes, Vic. 3922, Australia.)---Shorebirds commenced moving away from usual high tide roosts 12 days before severe weather but recovered to previous numbers in a relatively short time.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{C906} McDaniel, J., & S. D. Emslie. 2000. Adelie Penguin diet and climate change in the Antarctic Peninsula. Australasian Seabird Bulletin 36: 6. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. N. Carolina, Wilmington, NC 28403, USA; EM: remains from abandoned colonies of Pygoscelis adeliae from Marguerite Bay and Anvers Island were analysed and compared. Evidence showed dietary shift from sites occupied before Little Ice Age, AD 1500--1850, compared to sites occupied after that time.---P.S.L. {E308} {ROL #82}

{C906} Price, J. 2000. Modeling the potential impacts of climate change on summer distributions of Michigan's nongame birds. Michigan Birds Nat. Hist. 7: 1--13. (Amer. Bird Cons., PMB 146, 6525 Gunpark Dr., Ste. 370, Boulder, CO 80301, USA.) {ROL #82}

{C906} Puigcerver, J., D. Rodriguez-Teijeiro, & S. Gallego. 1999. The effects of rainfall on wild populations of Common Quail (Coturnix coturnix). J. Ornithol. 140: 335--340. (Depto. de Didàctica de les Ciències Experimentals i la Matemàtica, E.U. de Formaciò del Professorat, Univ. deBarcelona, Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron 171, E-08035 Barcelona, Spain.) {ROL #82}

{C906} Simmons, R. E., P. Barnard, & I. G. Jamieson. 1999. What precipitates influxes of wetland birds to ephemeral pans in arid landscapes? Observations from Namibia. Ostrich 70: 145--148. (Ornithology Prog., Min. Env. & tourism, Private Bag 13306, Windhoek, Namibia; EM: of birds at isolated pans during the first rains indicates that wetland birds follow rain fronts.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{C906} Stapanian, M. A., C. C. Smith, & E. J. Finck. 1999. The response of a Kansas winter bird community to weather, photoperiod, and year. Wilson Bull. 111: 550--558. (CCS: Div. Biol., Ackert Hall, Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS 66506, USA; EM: censuses showed significant species richness differences among 14 winters. Species richness was negatively associated with the number of days after 1 Nov and positively related to photoperiod. Wind speed and temperature had negative and positive relationships with species richness, respectively.---J.J.Dos. {C914, C922, C926} {ROL #82}

{C906} Wauer, R. H. 1999. Climate stress on West Texas birds. Texas Birds 1(2): 46--49. (315 Padre Ln., Victoria, TX 77905, USA.)---Drought from 1994--1999 effect on birds is discussed.---J.B.O. {ROL #82}

{C908} Abbott, I. 1999. The avifauna of the forests of south-west Western Australia: changes in species composition, distribution, and abundance following anthropogenic disturbance. CALMScience Supplement 5: 1--176. (Dept. Conserv. Land Manage., Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Ctr., WA 6983, Australia.)---Land and waterbirds of the forests of southwest Western Australia are discussed with reference to information recorded in the period 1840 to 1998.---M.G.B. {B908, C914} {ROL #82}

{C908} Anderson, J. T., & T. C. Tacha. 1999. Habitat use by Masked Ducks along the Gulf Coast of Texas. Wilson Bull. 111: 119--121. (Wildl. Fish. Prog., Div. For., West Virginia Univ., P.O. Box 6125, Morgantown, WV 26505-6125, USA.)---Nomonyx dominicus densities were highest on lacustrine littoral aquatic-bed rooted vascular and lacustrine littoral aquatic-bed floating vascular wetlands.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{C908} Anderson, J. T., T. C. Tacha, & G. T. Muehl. 2000. Use of wetland and deepwater habitat by wintering Sandhill Cranes in coastal Texas. Southwest. Nat. 45: 76--79. (Wildl. & Fish. Resour. Prog., West Virginia Univ., P.O. Box 6125, Morgantown, WV 26506-6125, USA; EM: canadensis. {ROL #82}

{C908} Andrianarimisa, A., L. Bachmann, J.U. Ganzhorn, S.M. Goodman, & J. Tomiuk. 2000. Effects of forest fragmentation on genetic variation in endemic understory forest birds in central Madagascar. J. Ornithol. 141: 152--159. (Peregrine Fund, BP 4113, Antananarivo (101), Madagascar.) {B908, D502} {ROL #82}

{C908} Barko, V. A., J. H. Shaw, & D. M. Leslie. 1999. Birds associated with black-tailed prairie dog colonies in southern shortgrass prairie. Southwest. Nat. 44: 484--489. (Dept. Zool., Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL 62901, USA.)---31 species found on Cynomys ludovicianus colonies in western Oklahoma.---J.J.D. {ROL #82}

{C908} Baumann. S. 2000. [Habitat structure and habitat use of European Golden Orioles (Oriolus o. oriolus, L. 1758) during breeding and wintering.] J. Ornithol. 141: 142--151. (Univ. Osnabrück, FB Biologie/Chemie, AG Oeko-Ethologie, Barbarastr. 11, D-49069 Osnabrück, FRG.) (German, English summary.) {ROL #82}

{C908} Blanco, G., & J. Marchamalo. 1999. Post-breeding inland movements and use of refuse dumps by Audouin's Gulls in Spain. Waterbirds 22: 307--309. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2, Can.; EM audouinii young of the year at two dumps kleptoparasized Larus ridibundus .---R.B.C. {D308, C920} {ROL #82}

{C908} Brooker, B. 2000. The range and habitat characteristics of the Thick-billed Grasswren (Amytornis textilis ) in the Shark Bay region, Western Australia. Wildlife Research 27: 245--256. (Sch. Biol. Environ. Sci., Murdoch Univ., Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia.)---The Thick-billed Grasswren has a disjunct distribution in the Shark Bay region, with one population confined to Peron Peninsula and the other confined to two sheep stations further inland. Grasswrens were found in several vegetation types, including Acacia shrublands, Triodia spinifex and dense vegetation in drainage depressions. Vegetation characteristics that appeared important determinants of grasswren presence were recumbent acacias and low shrubs within the 0--1 m height category, and shrub clumps with high foliage density. Habitats with this shrub structure may be needed for nesting. The possible effects of grazing and fire on this shrub structure are discussed.---M.G.B. {ROL #82}

{C908} Burton, A. M., & P. Olsen. 2000. Niche partitioning by two sympatric goshawks in the Australian wet tropics: ranging behaviour. Emu 100: 216--226. (Dept. Zool., James Cook Univ., Townsville, Qld. 4811, Australia.)---Grey Goshawk (Accipiter novaehollandiae ) and Brown Goshawk (Accipiter fasciatus). {B316} {ROL #82}

{C908} Chavez-Ramirez, F., et al. 1994. Effect of habitat structure on patch use by Loggerhead Shrikes wintering in a natural grassland. Condor 96: 228--231. (Dept. Wildl. Fish. Sci., Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77843, USA; EM: Lanius ludovicianus patch use in Calhoun County, Texas not changed by reduction in fence posts and no differences in use of mowed and non-mowed areas. Results, not consistent with habitat use in agricultural systems, possibly due to differences in patch-size and complexity in two systems.---R.B.C. {B904, B908} {ROL #82}

{C908} Davies, A. A., & G. L. Maclean. 1997. Avian responses to landscape elements (tesserae) in an upland grassland habitat. Ostrich 68: 1--7. (Dept. Zoo. Ent., Univ. Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, S. Africa.)---Occupancy highest in least disturbed habitats, but abundance and diversity varied independently of whether tesserae natural, disturbed, or exotic.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{C908} Desrochers, A., L. Rochefort, & J. P. L. Savard. 1998. Avian recolonization of eastern Canadian bogs after peat mining. Can. J. Zool. 76: 989--997. (Ctr. Rech. Biol. For., Fac. For. geomatique, Univ. Laval, Sainte-Foy, PQ G1K 7P4, Can.) {ROL #82}

{C908} Erwin, R. M., et al. 1998. Modeling colony-size dynamics: a case study of Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica). Auk 115: 970--978. (USGS Patuxent Wildl. Res. Ctr., Dept. Environ. Sci., Univ. Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA; EM: of a general probabilistic model of colony-site dynamics found that site use is stochastic and does not depend on habitat type or previous experience on the site the previous year.---A.A.W. {B314, B716, C920, E514} {ROL #82}

{C908} Evans, T. J., and S. W. Harris. 1994. Status and habitat use by American Avocets wintering at Humboldt Bay, California. Condor 96: 178--189. (USFWS, Mar. Mamm. Manage., 4230 Univ. Dr., Anchorage, AK 99508, USA.)---Recurvirostra americana populations increased from 30--36 birds in 1960 to 500--800 in the 1990s due to construction of sewage oxidation ponds; main habitats used intertidal mud-flats, sewage pond, higher elevation mudflats and islands in brackish lake (latter two used as high-tide roosts,)---R.B.C. {C926} {ROL #82}

{C908} Everding, S., & R. Montgomerie. 2000. Movements and habitat use of the Torresian Crow in a subtropical suburban environment. Emu 100: 192--198. (Fac. Environ. Sci., Griffith Univ., Nathan, Qld. 4111, Australia.)---Radiotracking and wing-tagged Corvus orru used to study home range and habitat use.---W.K.S. {B908} {ROL #82}

{C908} Gahbauer, M. 2000. Birds of prey of the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. International Hawkwatcher 2: 18--24. (55 Rowatson Rd., Scarborough, ON M1E 1K2, Can.; EM: raptor species occur annually, and the city supports nearly 100 breeding pairs of 7 species.---P.D.H. {C318} {ROL #82}

{C908} Grant, T. A., & G. B. Berkey. 1999. Forest area and avian diversity in fragmented aspen woodland of North Dakota. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 904--914. (USFWS, J. Clark Salyer NWR, P.O. Box 66, Upham, ND 58789, USA.)---Populus spp. groves covering large areas supported the greatest number and diversity of avian species.---W.P.J. {B908} {ROL #82}

{C908} Gryzbowski, J. A., D. J. Tazik, & G. D. Schnell. 1994. Regional analysis of Black-capped Vireo breeding habitats. Condor 96: 512--544. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK 73034, USA.; EM: areas with much juniper with high densities and high variability in woody vegeation chosen by Vireo atricapillus, but details of habitats selected varied regional among 13 sites in Oklahoma and Texas. Age differences influenced territory selection by males and periodic habitat disturbance beneficial for this species. {ROL #82}

{C908} Haney, J. C. 1999. Hierarchical comparisons of breeding birds in old-growth conifer-hardwood forest on the Appalachian Plateau. Wilson Bull. 111: 89--99. (Ecol. Econ. Res. Dept., The Wilderness Soc., 900 17th St. NW, Washington, DC 20006, USA; EM: than one-third of species were more likely to occur in forest than in the broader landscape.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{C908} Hino, T. 2000. Breeding bird community and vegetation structure in a forest with a high density of Sika Deer. Japanese Journal of Ornithology 48: 197--204. (Kansai Res. Ctr., For. & For. Prod. Res. Inst., Momoyama, Fushimi, Kyoto 612-0855, Japan.)--- Parus ater, Parus major, Sitta europeaea, Troglodytes troglodytes, Tarsiger cyanurus. {ROL #82}

{C908} Hutto, R. L. 1994. The composition and social organization of mixed-species flocks in a tropical deciduous forest in western Mexico. ÊCondor 96: 105--118. (Div. Biol. Sci., Univ. Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 USA.)---All canopy foraging species found in mixed species flocks at least half of time determined largely by relative abundance; non-resident Vermivora ruficapilla and Polioptila caerulea were characteristic nuclear species, such migrants seldom reported as such. Data suggest foraging enhancement not principal gain to species in mixed flocks.---R.B.C. {B314} {ROL #82}

{C908} Jacksic, F. M., & J. C. Torres-Mura. 2000. The raptors of Santiago City, Chile. International Hawkwatcher 2: 3--7. (1 Depto. de Ecol., P. Univ. Catolica de Chile, Casilla 114'D, Santiago, Chile; EM Caracara (Milvago chimango), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Austral Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium nanum) thrive in the city, and Barn Owl ( Tyto alba) occurs less commonly.---P.D.H. {C330} {ROL #82}

{C908} Kopachena, J. G., & C. J. Crist. 2000. Macro-habitat features associated with Painted and Indigo buntings in northeast Texas. Wilson Bull. 112: 108--114. (Dept. Biol. Earth Sci., Texas A&M Univ.-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429, USA; EM: Passerina ciris and Passerina cyanea did not differ in proportions of open habitat or type and amounts of woodland. Indigo Buntings were mostly associated with lower elevations. Painted Buntings showed no elevation bias but were associated with smaller, more numerous, and more heterogeneous stands of trees.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{C908} Kosiñski, Z. 1999. Effects of lake morphometry, emergent vegetation and shore habitat on breeding bird communities. Acta Ornith. 34: 27--35. (Dept. Avian Biology & Ecology, A. Mickiewicz Univ., Fredry 10, PL 61 701 Poznañ, Poland; EM: {ROL #82}

{C908} Kozulin, A., et al. 1998. Waterfowl in Belarus---population estimates and habitat changes. Acta Ornith. 33: 113--126. (Inst. Zoology, Belarusian Acad. Sci. Akademichnaya 27, 220072 Minsk, Belarus EM: Aythya ferina, Aythya fuligula, Podiceps cristatus; stable:Gavia arctica, Bucephala clangula, Mergus albellus, Mergus serrator, Anas crecca. Decrease in other waterfowl species.---J.K.P. {B508} {ROL #82}

{C908} Kreisel, K. J., & S. J. Stein. 1999. Bird use of burned and unburned coniferous forests during winter. Wilson Bull. 111: 243--250. (2802 W. Depot Springs Rd., Spangle, WA 99031, USA; EM: of species were similar but community composition was distinctly different. Foraging observations of Picoides pubescens, Picoides villosus, Picoides tridactylus and Picoides arcticus in burned areas. Importance of fire in maintaining populations of trunk and branch foraging species.---J.J.Dos. {C922, C926, D306}

{C908} Krupa, A., A. Michalczyk, & M. Ruciñski. 2000. Liczebnosc populacji lêgowej oraz preferencje srodowiskowe labêdzia niemego Cygnus olor w Nadwarciañskim Parku Krajobrazowym [The breeding population and habitat preferences of the Cygnus olor in the Nadwarciañski Landscape Park (West-central Poland.)]. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 56(1): 124--129. ([no address]) (in Polish) {C914} {ROL #82}

{C908} Lee, S. D., & P. G. Jabloñski. 1999. Species composition and use of coniferous and deciduous trees in mixed-species flocks wintering near Seoul (Korea). Acta Ornith. 34: 81--84. (Korea Environment Inst., 1049-1 Sadang-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-090, South Korea; EM: {C926} {ROL #82}

{C908} Lewthwaite, R. W. 2000. Raptors of Hong Kong. International Hawkwatcher 2: 26--33. (2 Villa Paloma, Shuen Wan, Tai Po, Hong Kong; EM describes the status, habitat preferences, and population trends of 33 species.---P.D.H. {C320, C914} {ROL #82}

{C908} Loiselle, B. A., & J. G. Blake. 1994. Annual variation in birds and plants of a tropical second-growth woodland. Condor 96: 368--380. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Missouri, 8001 Natural Bridge Rd., St. Louis, MO 63121-4499, USA; EM: changes 1985--1988 in Costa Rica led to changes in bird species composition and diet.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{C908} Loyn, R.H. 1998. Birds in patches of old-growth ash forest, in a matrix of younger forest. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 111--121. (Arthur Rylah Inst., Dept. Nat. Resour. Environ., 123 Brown St., Heidelberg, Vic. 3084, Australia.)---Study of 49 patches of old-growth Euclayptus regnans woodland and eight patches of 57-year old regrowth. Total bird abundance was higher in old-growth than in regrowth patches, but not significantly so. Frugivorous birds were commonest in small patches whereas bark-foragers and 'uncommon' birds preferred larger patches. More variation was explained by habitat and context variables: aspect, altitude and forest structure. Concludes that both small and large old-growth patches within matrix of old-growth and regrowth patches have similar value to birds (unlike the situation for old-growth patches isolated in farmlands).---W.K.S. {ROL #82}

{C908} Martyka, A., & P. Skórka. 1999. The former carbide residue sedimentation basin of the Nitrogen Works in Tarnów as a refuge of waterfowl. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 55(6): 48--54. (Student in the Dept. Animal Ecology, Jagiellonian Univ., Ingardena 6, PL 30 060 Kraków, Poland.) (Polish, English summ.) {C902, B508} {ROL #82}

{C908} Matheson, J. D., & D. W. Larson. 1998. Influence of cliffs on bird community diversity. Can. J. Zool. 76: 278--287. (DWL: Dept. Botany, Univ. Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Can.)---Cliffs significantly increase number of avian species, even when the cliff is a very narrow component of the landscape.---D.E.F. {ROL #82}

{C908} Mazur, K. M., S. D. Firth, & P. C. James. 1998. Barred Owl home range and habitat selection in the boreal forest of central Saskatchewan. Auk 115: 746--754. (Partners in Flight-Manitoba, Box 24, 200 Saulteaux Crescent, Winnipeg, MB R3J 3W3, Can.; EM: varia had small breeding home ranges that expanded for non-breeding periods; old mixedwood was strongly selected for in both periods.---A.A.W. {B316} {ROL #82}

{C908} McClelland, B. R., & P. T. McClelland. 1999. Pileated Woodpecker nest and roost trees in Montana: links with old-growth and forest "health". Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 846--857. (Box 366, West Glacier, MT 59936, USA.)---Dryocopus pileatus. {ROL #82}

{C908} Menzel, C., E. Strauß, W. Meyer, & K. Pohlmeyer. 2000. [Significance of habitat structures as a regulatory mechnism for the breeding density of Carrion Crows (Corvus corone corone ).] J. Ornithol. 141: 127--141. (Inst. f. Wildtierforschung, Tieraerztl. Hochsch. Hannover, Bischofsholer Damm 15, D-30173 Hannover, FRG.) (German, English summary.) {C914} {ROL #82}

{C908} Meredino, M. T., & C. D. Ankney. 1994. Habitat use by Mallards and American Black Ducks breeding in central Ontario. Condor 96: 411--421. (Texas Parks Wildl. Dept., Matagorda County Courthouse, Bay City, TX 77414, USA.)---More fertile wetlands the choice of both Anas platyrhynchos and Anas rubripes, the former predominating; suggests competition for breeding sites involved in decline of rubripes in Ontario.---R.B.C. {B508, C914} {ROL #82}

{C908} Michaels, H. L., & J. F. Cully, Jr. 1998. Landscape and fine scale habitat associations of the Loggerhead Shrike. Wilson Bull. 110: 474--482. (JFC: Kansas Coop. Fish Wildl. Res. Unit, USGS/BRD, 204 Leasure Hall, Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS 66506, USA; EM: ludovicianus was associated with savannah habitat on a gross scale and in particular with sites characterized by tall, sparse, structurally heterogeneous herbaceous vegetation with high standing dead plant cover and low litter cover.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{C908} Miles, D. B., C. E. Corbin, & D. L. Pearson. 1999. The ecological morphology of community structure and foraging regime in three old world lowland forest passerine assemblages. B066. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 298--299. (Ohio Univ., Athens, Ohio 45701, USA.)---Borneo, New Guinea and Gabon forests studied. There is a strong role for phylogeny in affecting patterns among sites with ecology structuring local assemblages.---P.C.L., R.J.D. {E509} {ROL #82}

{C908} Myers, S. 2000. An observation of the Blue-billed Duck Oxyura australis using marine waters. Australian Bird Watcher 18: 247. (13 Ryan St., Brunswick E., Vic. 3057, Australia.)---Possible first recorded use of marine habitat for this species.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{C908} Reilly, P. 2000. Bird populations in a Victorian coastal habitat twelve years after a wildfire. Emu 100: 240--245. (P.O. Box 67, Airey's Inlet, Vic. 3231, Australia.)---Long-term bird counts in ironbark forest.---W.K.S. {C308} {ROL #82}

{C908} Rusticali, R., F. Scarton, & R. Valle. 1999. Habitat selection and hatching success of Eurasian Oystercatchers in relation to nesting Yellow-legged Gulls and human presence. Waterbirds 22: 367--375. (RV: Castello 618/E, I-30122, Venezia, Italy.; EM: success of Haematopus ostralegus breeding within colonies of Larus cachinnans in the Po Delta, Italy, was significantly less than those breeding without. Losses were greater later in the season and the presence of oystercatchers in gull colonies seems best explained by similar habitat preferences.---R.B.C. {C916, B710} {ROL #82}

{C908} Saffer, V. M., et al. 2000. Pollination and revegetation in the south-west of Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist 22: 221--279. (c/o W. Aust. Nat. Club, Perth, WA 6000, Australia.)---Bird occurrences were measured at 76 sites. No significant differences were found between revegetated and remnant areas in the numbers of honeyeaters seen per visit. An experiment involving an artificial understory is described.---M.G.B. {D106} {ROL #82}

{C908} Sodhi, N. S., C. A. Paszowski, & S. Keehn. 1999. Scale-dependent habitat selection by American Redstarts in aspen-dominated forest fragments. Wilson Bull. 111: 70--75. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Natl. Univ. Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore 119260; EM: mature forest fragments dominated by Populus tremuloides, Setophaga ruticilla select disturbed areas with higher densities of early successional plant species. Willow (Salix sp.) was most frequently used for nesting and foraging.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{C908} Sun, Y.-H., Y. Wang, & C.-F. Lee. 2000. Habitat selection by Tawny Fish-Owls (Ketupa flavipes) in Taiwan. J. Raptor Res. 34: 102--107. (Dept. Wildl. Conserv., Natl. Pingtung Univ. Sci. Technol., Pingtung, Taiwan 912) {E524}. {ROL #82}

{C908} Tryjanowski, P. 1999. Effect of habitat diversity on breeding birds: comparison of farmland bird community in the region of Wielkopolska (W. Poland.) with relevant data from other European studies. Pol. J. Ecol. 47: 153--174. (Dept. Avian Biology & Ecology, A. Mickiewicz Univ., Fredry 10, PL 61 701 Poznañ, Poland; EM: {ROL #82}

{C908} Vaassen, E. W. A. M. 2000. Some notes on urban raptors and their habitats in Turkey. International Hawkwatcher 2: 34--38. (Raptor Res. Rehabilitation Ctr. Turkey, Turkish Soc. Rehabilitation Diurnal & Nocturnal Birds of Prey, Gimat 2 Sitesi, 679. Sokak, Blok 10-10, 06530, Cayyolu/Ankara, Turkey; EM: nesting sites and frequency of occurrence of 16 species.---P.D.H. {C316} {ROL #82}

{C908} Whitt, M. B., H. H. Prince, & R. R. Cox, Jr. 1999. Avian use of purple loosestrife dominated habitat relative to other vegetation types in a Lake Huron wetland complex. Wilson Bull. 111: 105--114. (Svoboda Ecol. Resour., 2477 Shadywood Rd., Excelsior, MN 55331, USA; EM: breeding bird species were found in Lythrum salicaria dominated areas. Utilization of plant may be higher than commonly believed.---J.J.Dos. {B716} {ROL #82}

{C908} Wilson, M. D., & B. D. Watts. 1999. Response of Brown-headed Nuthatches to thinning of pine plantations. Wilson Bull. 111: 56--60. (Ctr. Conserv. Biol., College William Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795, USA; EM: pusilla distribution may be influenced by snag distribution and the density and height of understory vegetation.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{C908} Woinarski, J. C. Z., G. Connors, & D. C. Franklin. 2000. Thinking honeyeater: nectar maps for the Northern Territory, Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 61--80. (Pks & Wildl. Comm. NT, PO Box 496, Palmerston, NT 0831, Australia.)---Spatial and temporal patterns in nectar availability across Territory are discussed.---W.K.S. {D302} {ROL #82}

{C909} Belyea, G. Y., et al. 1999. Impact of Double-crested Cormorant predation on the yellow perch population in the Les Cheneaux Islands of Michigan. USDA Anim. Plant Health Inspection Serv. Tech. Bull. 1879: 47--59. (Michigan Dept. Nat. Resour., Rose Lake Wildl. Res. Ctr., 8562 E. Stoll Rd., East Lansing, MI 48823 USA.)---Minimal; Phalacrocorax auritus predation removed 2.3% of Perca flavescens biomass (cf 1.6% by anglers), accounted for 0.8% of mortality of legal-size fish (cf 2.5% by anglers), and represented 9% total annual mortality (cf 45% from all sources).---J.L.T. {fish consumption, predation, B504, D302} {ROL #82}

{C909} Hockey, P. A. R., & J. K. Turpie. 1999. Waders and their estuarine food supplies: Is predatory impact or predator behaviour the key to understanding carrying capacity? Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 2294--2308. (Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa; EM: techniques and pitfalls, with examples from South African research.---R.J.D. {D300} {ROL #82}

{C909} Jarvie, S., H. Blokpoel, & T. Chipperfield. 1999. A Geographic Information System to monitor nest distributions of Double-crested Cormorants and Black-crowned Night-Herons at shared colony sites near Toronto, Canada. USDA Anim. Plant Health Inspection Serv. Tech. Bull. 1879: 121--129. (Toronto Region Conserv. Authority, 5 Shoreham Dr., Downsview, ON M3N 1S4, Can.)---At an artificial site on Lake Erie, Phalacrocorax auritus sometimes nested in trees occupied by Nycticorax nycticorax in previous year: 6% (10 of 158 trees) in 1994, 10% (11 of 110) in 1995, and 15% (9 of 61) in 1997. An inverse relationship between nesting populations of the 2 species suggests competitive exclusion of night-herons by cormorants.---J.L.T. {B908, E508, breeding colonies, habitat degradation} {ROL #82}

{C909} Mumme, R., S. Schoech, G. Woolfenden, & J. Fitzpatrick. 2000. Life and death in the fast lane: Demographic consequences of road mortality in the Florida Scrub-Jay. Conserv. Biol. 14: 501--512. (Dept. Biol., Allegheny Coll., Meadville, PA 16335, USA; EM: coerulescens. {B502} {ROL #82}

{C909} Parrish, J. W., Jr. 2000. Possible prevention of European Starling nesting by Southeastern American Kestrels at a power substation in southern Georgia. J. Raptor Res. 34: 152. (Dept. Biol., P. O. Box 8042, Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA 30460-8042, USA.)---Presence of breeding Falco sparverius paulus deters nest-site occupation by Sturnus vulgaris, although no direct predation by kestrels on starlings was observed.---P.A.G. {C922}. {ROL #82}

{C909} Ritzi, C. M. 1999. Utilization of Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonata) nests in west Texas by cave myotis (Myotis velifer). Southwest. Nat. 44: 414--415. (Dept. Biol., Sul Ross State Univ., Alpine, TX 79832, USA.) {D106} {ROL #82}

{C910} Dranzoa, C. 1997. The survival of understorey birds in the tropical rainforest of Ziika, Uganda. Ostrich 68: 68--71. (Makerere Univ., PO Box 7298, Kampala, Uganda; EM: 12 ha forest, 186 birds of 27 species ringed. 5 years later, higher than expected survival rates of 7 species recaptured.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{C910} Dugger, K. M., B. D. Dugger, & L. H. Fredrickson. 1999. Annual survival rates of female Hooded Mergansers and Wood Ducks in southeastern Missouri. Wilson Bull. 111: 1--6. (Coop. Wildl. Res. Lab., South. Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL 62901, USA; EM: Lophodytes cucullatus survivorship varied annually from 0.42--1.0 (mean = 0.66±0.04). Aix sponsa survivorship was consistent over time and averaged 0.63±0.02.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{C910} Forsythe, B. 2000. Barred Owl No. 597-77884. Birders Journal 9: 77--79. (RR 2, Wolfville, NS B0P 1X0, Can.)---Strix varia banded sitting on eggs in NS was recaptured 17 years later in the same nest box.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{C910} Harris, M. P., et al. 1994. Year- and age-related variation in the survival of adult European Shags over a 24-year period. Condor 96: 600--605. (Inst. Terr. Ecol., Hill Brathens, Kincardineshire AB3 4BY, UK.)---Mean annual survival 1967--1992 for adult Phalacrocorax aristotelis in southeast Scotland was 0.878 with only birds older than 13 years showing reduced survival; other breeding parameters showed no significant relationship to survival.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{C910} Piper, S. E., & T. B. Oatley. 1999. Two-tier populations: Territory holders versus the rest. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 306--324. (Forest Biodiversity Programme, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Natal, Private Bag X01 Scottsville 3209 Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu--Natal, South Africa; EM: of Long-tailed Wagtail Motacilla clara and Starred Robin Pogonocichla stellata in forests of South Africa over 20 years showed territory holders survival 70--85% and higher than those failing to secure a territory.---P.C.L., R.J.D. {B316} {ROL #82}

{C910} Ralph, C. J., & S. G. Fancy. 1994. Demography and movements of the Omao (Myadestes obscurus). Condor 96: 503--511. (U.S. For. Serv., Redwood Sci. Lab., 1700 Bayview Dr., Arcata, CA 95521, USA.; EM: juvenile survival (0.40 ± 0.09) lower than adults (0.66 ± 0.08) on the island of Hawaii. Birds highly sedentary with mean home ranges of 2.20 ± 0.26 ha (n=39) and with peak breeding May--Jul and peak emigration and mortality Nov--May.---R.B.C. {B316, B702, C920} {ROL #82}

{C910} Woodworth, B. L., J. Faaborg, & W. J. Ardent. 1999. Survival and longevity of the Puerto Rican Vireo. Wilson Bull. 111: 376--380. (Pacific Island Ecosystems Res. Ctr., Biol. Resour. Div., USGS, Kilauea Field Stn., P.O. Box 44, Hawaii Natl. Park, HI 96718, USA; EM: nest predators and brood parasites harm Vireo latimeri. New longevity record. Juvenile survival rate estimated at 0.40 (±0.15).---J.J.Dos. {B509, B704, B904, C912, C916} {ROL #82}

{C912} Craves, J. A. 1998. Swainson's Thrush caught in enchanter's nightshade. Wilson Bull. 110: 569--570. (Rouge River Bird Obs., Nat. Areas Dept., Univ. Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128, USA; EM: ustalatus trapped by the wings in seed pods of Circaea quadrisulcata syn. luctetiana .---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{C912} Estes, W. A., S. R. Dewey, & P. L. Kennedy. 1999. Siblicide at Northern Goshawk nests: does food play a role? Wilson Bull. 111: 432--436. (PLK: Dept. Fish. Wildl. Biol. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA; EM: correlation between Accipiter gentilis aggression and food availability.---J.J.Dos. {B302, B700, C916, D302} {ROL #82}

{C912} Fox, V. E., P. M. Lindeque, R. E. Simmons, H. H. Berry, C. Brain, & R. Braby. 1997. Flamingo 'rescue' in Etosha National Park [Namibia], 1994: technical, conservation and economic considerations. Ostrich 68: 72--76. (Etosha Eco. Inst., Min. Env. & Tourism, PO Okaukuejo via Outjo, Namibia.)---Chicks of Phoenicopterus ruber aged 2 weeks to 2 months captured as shallow water dried up. Of 77 released at Walvis Bay, 20 recovered within 2 months, 1 after 3 years; 3 birds resighted after 3 years.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{C912} Robertson, G., & B. Wienecke. 2000. Mortality of seabirds in longline fisheries. Australasian Seabird Bulletin 36: 8--9. (Aust. Antarct. Div., Channel Hwy., Kingston, Tas. 7050, Australia; EM: how seabirds interact with fishing gear and presents methods to help reduce by-catch.---P.S.L. {B904} {ROL #82}

{C912} Shane, T. G. 2000. Chipping Sparrow trapped by Taraxacum. Bull. Kansas Ornithol. Soc. 51: 32. (1706 Belmont, Garden City, KS 67846 USA.)---Tarsus of Spizella passerina snared by involucral bract of dandelion.---R.F.J. {D302} {ROL #82}

{C912} Silva-Krott, I., M. K. Brock, & R. E. Junge. 1998. Determination of the presence of Mycobacterium avium on Guam as a precursor to reintroduction of indigenous bird species. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 227--231. (College Arts & Sci., Univ. Guam, Mangilao, Guam 96923.)---Endangered Guam bird taxa include Micronesian Kingfisher (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina), which is being bred in captivity in the USA. Captive birds proved to be highly susceptible to avian tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium, raising concerns that birds released back on Guam might carry this disease to other endangered bird populations, such as the Guam Rail (Gallirallus owstoni). However, this study found evidence that M. avium is already present on the island. Thus strict quarantine procedures together with rigorous animal husbandry protocols should minimize risk of repatriating infected kingfishers to Guam and prevent transmission of avian tuberculosis to other bird populations on the island.---W.K.S. {B902, B912, C102} {ROL #82}

{C912} Wada, T. 1994. Effects of height of neighboring nests on nest predation in the Rufous Turtle Dove (Streptopelia orientalis ). Condor 96: 812--816. (Dept. Zool., Fac. Sci., Kyoto Univ., Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-01, Japan.)---More active nests were within 70 m of focal nests preyed upon than those that were not with nests higher than these nests preyed upon more often than lower ones whose rate of predation was no greater than the focal nests.---R.B.C. {B716} {ROL #82}

{C912} Wienecke, B., & G. Robertson. 2000. Interactions between seabirds, seals and fishing vessels in the Patagonian Toothfish trawl fishery. Australasian Seabird Bulletin 36: 8. (Aust. Antarct. Div., Channel Hwy., Kingston, Tas. 7050, Australia; EM: 12 cruises to Heard and McDonald Islands (HIMI) and to Macquarie Island (MI), 1997--99, contact of seabirds or seals with fishing gear and fate of animal after contact were recorded. White-chinned Petrel (Procellaria aequinoctialis ) was most frequent species to contact fishing gear at HIMI, while at MI, Black-browed Albatrosses (Diomedea melaophris) and Giant-petrels (Macronectes) species mostly touched gear. Fatalities rare: at HIMI, two Cape Petrels (Daption capense) and two White-chinned Petrels died from 1,173 shots/hauls; at MI, no fatalities from 547 shots/hauls.---P.S.L. {B904, B502} {ROL #82}

{C914} Blake, J. G., et al. 1994. Annual variation in bird populations of mixed conifer-northern hardwood forests. Condor 96: 381--399. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Missouri, 8001 Nat. Br. Rd., St Louis, MO 63121-4499, USA.)---62% of common long-distance migrants, 81% of short-distance migrants, and 78% of permanent residents varied significantly among one or more sites in western Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan 1986--1992; suggests importance of comparing temporal variation at more than one spatial scale.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{C914} Bresiñski, W., & W. B. Jêdryczkowski. 1999. Situation of hunting game and some protected species in Dezydery Chlapowski Landscape Park and its surroundings. Biul. Park. Krajobraz. Wielkopolski 5(7): 81--101. (Pol. Hunting Ass., Res. Stn., Sokolnicza 12, PL 62 055 Czempiñ, Poland.)---Among others: game birds (Perdix perdix, Phasianus colchicus, waterfowl) and birds of prey, owls and Corvidae status in Dezydery Chlapowski Landscape Park, West-central Poland (Wielkopolska province). Strong decrease in Partridge numbers, caused by the intensification of farming.---J.K.P. (Polish, English summ.) {B508} {ROL #82}

{C914} Brewster, C. A. 1998. Whitethroats Sylvia communis in the Tswapong South area of eastern Botswana. Babbler 34: 34--35. (Private Bag 24, Bobonong, Botswana.)---Densities of up to 3 birds/ha.---N.J.S. {C304} {ROL #82}

{C914} Brewster, C. A. 1999. Two records of Indian Myna Acridotheres tristis from the Bobirwa area of eastern Botswana. Babbler 35: 25--26. (Private Bag 0024, Bobonong, Botswana.)---Flocks of up to 2000 birds in late November 1998.---N.J.S. {C304} {ROL #82}

{C914} Brewster, C. A. 1999. Large numbers of House Martins Delichon urbica at Bobonong, eastern Botswana. Babbler 35: 23. (Private Bag 0024, Bobonong, Botswana.)---Flocks of up to 2000 birds in late November 1998.---N.J.S. {C304} {ROL #82}

{C914} Brooke, R. K., D. G. Allan, J. Cooper, D. P. Cyrus, W. R. J. Dean, B. M. Dyer, A. P. Martin, & R. H. Taylor. 1999. Breeding distribution, population size and conservation of the Greyheaded Gull Larus cirrocephalus in southern Africa. Ostrich 70: 157--163. (J. Cooper: Avian Demography Unit, Univ. Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, S. Africa; EM: breeding population estimated at 2000 pairs, more than half at sites in formally conserved areas.---A.J.F.K.C. {B910} {ROL #82}

{C914} Cantle, B. 2000. Another large concentration of Wattled Cranes Bugeranus carunculatus in the Okavango delta. Babbler 36: 12. (c/o P.O. Box 202, Kasane, Botswana.)---Maximum count of 1026 cranes on 27 May 1999.---N.J.S. {ROL #82}

{C914} Chmielewski, S., J. Tabor, & L. Maksalon. 1998. Rozmieszczenie i zmiany liczebnosci bociana czarnego Ciconia nigra w województwie kieleckim [Distribution and changes in the Black Stork population in the region of Kielce]. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 54(2): 101--108. (Rynek 12, PL 05 640 Mogielnica, Poland.)---Ciconia nigra. (in Polish) {ROL #82}

{C914} Crawford, R. J. M., D. C. Nel, A. J. Williams, & A. Scott. 1997. Seasonal patterns of abundance of Kelp Gulls Larus dominicanus at breeding and non-breeding localities in southern Africa. Ostrich 68: 37--41. (Sea Fisheries Res. Inst., Private Bag X2, Rogge Bay 8012, S. Africa; EM: 3 breeding sites in W. Cape, S. Africa, and a non-breeding site in Namibia, counts indicate dispersal away from colonies after breeding.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{C914} Crawford, R. J. M. 1999. Seabird responses to long-term changes of prey resources off southern Africa. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 688--705. (Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Private Bag X2, Rogge Bay, 8012, South Africa; EM: vary from daily to over decades and birds must adapt. Migration and prey switching often used and particular reference is made to those in Benguela ecosystem.---P.C.L., R.J.D. {D302} {ROL #82}

{C914} Cresswell, W., M. Irwin, M. Jensen, A. Mee, R. Mellanby, M. McKean, & L. Milne. 1997. Population estimates and distribution changes of landbirds on Silhouette Island, Seychelles. Ostrich 68: 50--57. (Graham Kerr Building, Div. Env. & Evolutionary Bio., IBLS, Glasgow Univ., Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland; EM: juniper@beetle.u--net--com)---Densities calculated from point counts for Nectarinia dussumieri, Hypsipetes crassirostris, Acridotheres tristis, Alectroenas pulcherrima in August 1996, repeating a survey in January 1979. Distribution areas of introduced species smaller in 1996, whereas those of endemic H. crassirostris, N. dussumieri were larger.---A.J.F.K.C. {B509} {ROL #82}

{C914} Dhondt, A. A., & F. Adriaensen. 1999. Experiments on competition between Great and Blue Tit: Effects on Blue Tit reproductive success and population processes. Ostrich 70: 39--48. (Lab. Orn., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14850, USA; EM: densities manipulated used nest boxes with entrance holes to admit Parus caeruleus but exclude Parus major. Breeding success of Blue Tit adversely affected by increase in Blue Tit or Great Tit density.---A.J.F.K.C. {C922} {ROL #82}

{C914} Dombrowski, A., et al. 1998. On changes in numbers of Corn crake [sic] Crex crex in Eastern Poland. Kulon 3: 205--207. (Swierkowa 18, PL 08 110 Siedlce, Poland.) (Short note, Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C914} Dombrowski, A., et al. 1998. Roller Coracias garrulus in Mazowiecka Lowland. Kulon 3: 3--16. (Swierkowa 18, PL 08 110 Siedlce, Poland.)---Central Poland. Decrease in 1970s from 350--500 to 87--97 breeding pairs in 1995.---J.K.P. (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C914} Fijewski, Z. 1998. Birds of the Tarnowski City Park in Koñskie. Kulon 3: 89--93. (Brzozowa 1a/36, PL 26 200 Koñskie, Poland.) (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C914} Greenberg, R., & S. Droege. 1999. On the decline of the Rusty Blackbird and the use of ornithological literature to document lang-term population trends. Conserv. Biol. 13: 553--559. (Smithsonian Migratory Bird Ctr., Natl. Zool. Pk., Washington, DC 20008, USA; EM: carolensis. {C702} {ROL #82}

{C914} Haggerty, T. M., P. D. Kittle, & M. K. Hudson. 1999. Winter population trends and distribution of the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) on the Tennessee River, Alabama, 1976--1999. Alabama Birdlife 45(2): 21--26. (Dept. Bio., Univ. N. Ala., Florence, AL 35632, USA.)---Wintering eagle numbers surveyed by aircraft averaged 54 birds per year during the last 21 years with a general increase in population each year.---J.B.O. {ROL #82}

{C914} Horn, D. J. 1999. The species richness of birds visiting a yard is influenced by the feeders/seeds present. J. Iowa Acad. Sci. 106: 21--25. (Dept. Anim. Ecol., Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA 50011, USA.)---The addition of hulled sunflower, peanuts, millet, and nuts increased species richness and number of birds visiting a feeding station.---J.J.D. {ROL #82}

{C914} Horn, D. J., S. E. Fairbairn, & R. J. Hollis. 1999. Comparison of Iowa winter bird feeder survey and breeding bird survey population trends. Iowa Bird Life 69: 85--88. (Dept. Anim. Ecol., Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA 50011, USA.)---None of 9 species that had positive trends in abundance or occurrence on winter bird feeder surveys had positive trends on Breeding Bird Surveys. Three species ( Columba livia, Quiscalus quiscula, Passer domesticus ) had negative trends on both surveys.---J.J.D. {ROL #82}

{C914} Jakubas, D. 1999. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of avifauna existing in the proposed Dolina Mirachowskiej Strugi reserve. Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyr. 18(1): 29--35. (Hodowlana 13/21, PL 81 606 Gdynia, Poland.) (Polish, English summ.) {C310} {ROL #82}

{C914} Kasprzykowski, Z., & A. Golawski. 1998. Population of White Stork Ciconia ciconia in the Podlaski Przelom Bugu region in 1984--1985 and 1994. Kulon 3: 195--203. (Dept. Ecology & Environ. Protection, Agricultural & Pedagogical Univ. Siedlce, Prusa 12, PL 08 110 Siedlce, Poland.)---Increase from 163 breeding pairs in 1984-1985 to 181 in 1994, densities from 38. 8 to 43. 0 pairs / 10 sq. km.---J.K.P. (Polish, English summ.) {nest site} {ROL #82}

{C914} Kelsey, R., & C. T. Collins. 2000. Estimated population size of the Island Scrub-Jay Aphelocoma insularis . Bird Conservation International 10: 137--148. (CTC: Dept. Biol. Sci., California State Univ., Long Beach, CA 90840 USA.; EM: study of population size, habitat use and availability, and territory sizes of Santa Cruz Island, California, endemic yields first empirically-derived population estimate (7000 breeders and 5500 non-breeders, larger than earlier estimates), indicates a broader range of breeding habitats than previously thought, and suggests a viable population.---K.J.E. {C908} {ROL #82}

{C914} Kitowski, I. 1999. The current problems of Tyto alba conservation in Zamosc region [Poland]. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 55(6): 40--47. (Dept. Nature Conservation, Inst. Biology, Maria Curie-Sklodowska Univ., Lublin, Poland. [incomplete]) (Polish, English summ.) {B900} {ROL #82}

{C914} Kujawa, K. 1998. Differentiation of breeding bird communities in farmland: a comparison between Wielkopolska and Bavaria. Biul. Park. Krajobraz. Wielkopolski 3(5): 93--103. (Stacja Badawcza Zakladu Badañ Srodowiska Rolniczego i Lesnego PAN, Szkolna 4, PL 64 003 Turew, Poland.)---In Poland higher numbers of species, the total density similar.---J.K.P. (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C914} Lederle, P. E., J. M. Mueller, & E. A. Holt. 2000. Raptor surveys in southcentral Nevada, 1991--95. J. Raptor Res. 34: 133--136. (Sci. Applications Intl. Corp., 1180 Town Center Drive, Las Vegas, NV 89109, USA.)---Provides baseline seasonal abundance data for 12 species during roadside surveys at two locations.---P.A.G. {ROL #82}

{C914} Leishman, A. J. 2000. A long-term banding study of birds in a Spotted Gum forest near Campbelltown, New South Wales. Corella 24: 6--12. (7 Belford St., Ingleburn, NSW 2565, Australia.)---21-year survey demonstrates patterns of residency, migration and long-term change correlated with vegetation and climate fluctuations.---I.D.E. {C908} {ROL #82}

{C914} Matteson, S. W., et al. 1999. Changes in the status, distribution, and management of Double-crested Cormorants in Wisconsin. USDA Anim. Plant Health Inspection Serv. Tech. Bull. 1879: 27--45. (Wisconsin Dept. Nat. Resour., Bur. Endangered Species, 101 S. Webster, Box 7921, Madison, WI 53707 USA.)---Breeding population increased from 66 nesting pairs at 3 colonies in 1973 to 10,546 nesting pairs at 23 colonies in 1997, with 81% concentrated on 4 islands in Green Bay, Lake Michigan.---J.L.T. {B900, contaminants, fisheries, Great Lakes, productivity, wetlands} {ROL #82}

{C914} Mawhinney, K., et al. 1999. Status and productivity of Common Eiders in relation to Great Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls in the southern Bay of Fundy and the northern Gulf of Maine. Waterbirds 22: 253--262. (Atlantic Coop. WIldl. Ecol. Res. Network, Univ. New Brunswick, P.O. Box 45111, Fredericton, E3B 6E12, Can.; EM: of ca. 8-10,000 breeding pairs of Somateria mollissima, ca. 5400 pairs of Larus argentatus, and ca. 1775 pairs of Larus marinus ; varying production of eider fledglings may reflect lowered gull predation as a result of gull-control programs.---R.B.C. {C918, B508}} {ROL #82}

{C914} Minton, C. D. T., & R. Jessop. 2000. Tern banding by the Victorian Wader Study Group, 1999/2000. Australasian Seabird Bulletin 36: 10--11. (165 Dalgetty Rd., Beaumaris, Vic. 3193, Australia; EM: colonies of Crested Tern (Sterna bergii ) expanded to unprecedented levels: 2,600 pairs nested at Mud Island, and 1,300 pairs at The Nobbies, Phillip Island. Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia ) did well at Mud Island; 20 pairs fledged 15 chicks; higher than in recent years. Other colonies of the two species fared less well. Includes some information on recaptures and dispersal of tern chicks.---P.S.L. {B700, C918} {ROL #82}

{C914} Morse, S. F., & S. K. Robinson. 1999. Nesting success of a neotropical migrant in a miltiple-use, forested landscape. Conserv. Biol. 13: 327--337. (Illinois Nat. Hist. Survey, 607 E. Peabody Dr., Champaign, IL 61802, USA; EM: Warblers (Oporornis formosus). {ROL #82}

{C914} Murakami, S., et al. 2000. [Annual fluctuation of the Bean Goose population in Northern Shiga Prefecture.] Japanese Journal of Ornithology 48: 219--232. (Grad. Sch. Environ. Sci., Univ. Shiga Pref., Hassaka 2500, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533, Japan.)---Anser fabalis middendorffii. (Japanese, Engl. summ.) {ROL #82}

{C914} Profus, P. 1998. Numbers and territorial expansion of the breeding population of the Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus in Central Europe. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 54(3): 7--22. (Inst. Nature Conserv. PAS, Lubicz 46, PL 31 512 Kraków, Poland.) (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C914} Ptaszyk, J. 1998. What directions should investigations of the Polish White Stork Ciconia ciconia population follow? Przegl. Przyr. 9(3): 65--78. (Dept. Avian Biology & Ecology, A. Mickiewicz Univ., Fredry 10, PL 61 701 Poznañ, Poland.)---Breeding energetics, effects of breeding in colonies on feeding activity, intraspecies competition, fitness, age structure, causes of nestling mortality.---J.K.P. (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C914} Reddinger, W. T. 1999. Participating in the [Pennsylvania] Grassland Bird Survey. PA Birds 13: 17--19. (RD 1, Box 66A, New Bethlehem, PA 16242, USA.)---History, methods, and species found during annual breeding-season sampling by volunteers for the Pennsylvania Game Commission.---P.D.H. {population estimation, species identification, habitat selection, C908, D702} {ROL #82}

{C914} Rowiñski, P., J. K. Nowakowski, & M. Kowalski. 1998. Breeding birds community of the King Jan III Sobieski Natural Reserve in Warsaw [Poland]. Kulon 3: 75--87. (Dept. Forest Zoology & Hunting, Agricultural Univ. Warsaw, Rakowiecka 26/30, PL 02 528 Warszawa, Poland; EM: ) (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C914} Scharf, W. C., & G. W. Shugart. 1998. Distribution and abundance of gull, tern, and cormorant nesting colonies of the U.S. Great Lakes, 1989 and 1990. Gale Gleason Environ. Inst. Lake Superior State Univ. Publ. 1. (760 Kingston Ct., Traverse City, MI 49686 USA; copies available from Gale Gleason Environ. Inst., Lake Superior State Univ., 650 W. Easterday Ave., Sault Ste. Marie, MI 49782 USA.)--- Phalacrocorax auritus, Larus delawarensis, Larus argentatus , Larus marinus, Sterna caspia, Sterna hirundo . {census, population trends} {ROL #82}

{C914} Scharf, W. C. 1998. Distribution and abundance of tree-nesting heron and marsh-nesting tern colonies of the U.S. Great Lakes, 1991. Gale Gleason Environ. Inst. Lake Superior State Univ. Publ. 2. (760 Kingston Ct., Traverse City, MI 49686 USA; copies available from Gale Gleason Environ. Inst., Lake Superior State Univ., 650 W. Easterday Ave., Sault Ste. Marie, MI 49782 USA.)---Ardea herodius, Ardea alba, Bubulcus ibis, Egretta thula, Egretta caerulea , Nycticorax nycticorax, Sterna forsteri, Chlidonias niger. {census, population trends} {ROL #82}

{C914} Seamans, M. E., et al. 1999. Demography of two Mexican Spotted Owl populations. Conserv. Biol. 13: 744--754. (Dept. Wildl., Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA 95521, USA; EM: Strix occidentalis lucida. {ROL #82}

{C914} Sliwa, P. 1998. Wintering of waterfoul [sic] on the city strech [sic] of the Warta River in Poznañ [Poland]. Przegl. Przyr. 9(3): 77--84. (Os. Piastowskie 66/14, PL 61 157 Poznañ, Poland.) (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C914} Smith, G. C., B. J. Hamley, & N. Lees. 1998. An estimate of the Plumed Frogmouth Podargus ocellatus plumiferus population size in the Conondale Ranges [Queensland]. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 215--226. (Resour. Sci. Ctr., Dept. Nat. Resour., 80 Meiers Rd., Indooroopilly, Qld. 4068, Australia.)---Radio tracking and playback study to determine density and population estimates for subspecies of the rare Marbled Frogmouth.---W.K.S. {ROL #82}

{C914} Stapanian, M. A., C. C. Smith, & E. J. Finck. 1994. Population variabilities of bird guilds in Kansas during fall and winter: Weekly censuses versus Christmas Bird Counts. ÊCondor 96: 58--69. (USDI/BLM, 200 SW 35th St., Corvallis, OR 97333, USA; EM: population variability correlated well between weekly censuses and CBC with frugivores and granivores with the most and next-most variable populations, both between years and between consecutive years.---R.B.C. {E506} {ROL #82}

{C914} Stenhouse, I. J., & W. A. Montevecchi. 1999. Increasing and expanding populations of breeding Northern Fulmars in Atlantic Canada. Waterbirds 22: 382--391. (Biopsychol. Progr., Memorial Univ. Newfoundland, Saint John's, NF, A1B 3X9, Can.; EM: population summary for Fulmarus glacialis in Atlantic Canada including data from recent new breeding localities.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{C914} Tomialojc, L. 1998. Breeding densities in some urban versus non-urban habitats: the Dijon case. Acta Ornith. 33: 159--171. (Mus. Natural History, Wroclaw Univ., Sienkiewicza 21, PL 50 335 Wroclaw, Poland.)---The reduced predation pressure is responsible for the development of big local bird aggregations in urban parks in Poland and S. France.---J.K.P. {ROL #82}

{C914} Tyler, S. J. 1998. Black-shouldered Kites Elanus caeruleus in Botswana. Babbler 34: 23--25. (c/o Room 106, D.A.H.P., Private Bag 0032, Gaborone, Botswana.)---Results of road counts.---N.J.S. {ROL #82}

{C914} Tyler, S. J. 1999. Waterfowl counts 1998/99. Babbler 35: 15--22. (c/o Botswana Bird Club, P.O. Box 71, Gaborone, Botswana.)---Summary of nation-wide counts in Botswana.---N.J.S. {ROL #82}

{C914} Tyson, L. A., et al. 1999. Nesting populations of Double-crested Cormorants in the United States and Canada. USDA Anim. Plant Health Inspection Serv. Tech. Bull. 1879: 17--25. (USDA/APHIS/WS, Natl. Wildl. Res. Ctr, 6100 Columbus Ave., Sandusky, OH 44870 USA.)---Minimum of 372,000 pairs in 852 colonies as of 1994, with 68% of population in Interior region; increasing at rate of 2.6% annually in early 1990s.---J.L.T. {aquaculture} {ROL #82}

{C914} Ueta, M., & V. B. Masterov. 2000. Estimation by a computer simulation of population trend of Steller's Sea Eagles. In: Ueta, M., & McGrady, M. J. (eds). First Symposium on Steller's and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia: 111--116. Tokyo: Wild Bird Soc. Japan. (Res. Ctr., Wild Bird Soc. Japan, 2-35-2 Minamidaira, Hino, Tokyo 191-0041, Japan; EM: computer simulation model predicts that Haliaeetus pelagicus population will slowly decrease, and that adult mortality has the strongest affect on population trend. The result suggests that lead poisoning in Hokkaido is a major factor in the predicted population decrease.---M.J.U. {E514, C902} {ROL #82}

{C914} Uhlig, R., J. Mundt, & J. Kaliciuk. 1998. Population size of Little Tern Sterna albifrons on the lower Odra between Szczecin Bay and the Warta Estuary. Przegl. Przyr. 9(3): 85--94. (Sodener Strasse 26, D 14 197 Berlin, FR Germany)---The area currently holds 40--45 breeding pairs.---J.K.P. (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C914} Vernon, C. 1999. The Cape Vulture at Colleywobbles [Eastern Cape, South Africa] 1977--1997. Ostrich 70: 200--202. (E. London Mus., PO Box 11021, Southernwood 5214, S. Africa; EM: coprotheres colony held 180 breeding pairs in 1970's, 300 pairs in 1980's, 60 pairs in 1990's. Recent decline probably related to reduction in food supply.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{C914} Walker, J. S., & A. J. Cahill. 2000. Population size and status of the Yellow-breasted Racquet-tail Parrot Prioniturus flavicans. Bird Conservation International 10: 131--136. (Behav. and Environ. Biol. Group, Dept. Biol. Sci., Manchester Metropolitan Univ., Chester St., Manchester M1 5GD, UK.)---First systematic surveys of Sulawesi endemic, conducted over two years, indicate a population of 44,650--221,250 individuals, higher than previous estimates. However, range found limited to remaining c. 11,300 km2 of lowland rainforest of eastern two-thirds of island's north peninsula is more restricted than previous estimates and qualifies species for "vulnerable" status. Continued loss, degradation, and fragmentation of remaining habitat reaffirms need for greater protection of its lowland tropical forest home.---K.J.E. {B908} {ROL #82}

{C914} Wilson, U. W., A. McMillan, & F. C. Dobler. 2000. Nesting, population trend and breeding success of Peregrine Falcons on the Washington outer coast, 1980-98. J. Raptor Res. 34: 67--74. (U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Washington Maritime NWR, P.O. Box 450, Sequim, WA 98382, USA.)---Falco peregrinus. {C918} {ROL #82}

{C914} Wiltshire, A. J., & R. P. Scofield. 2000. Population estimate of breeding Northern Giant Petrels, Macronectes halli, on Campbell Island, New Zealand. Emu 100: 186--191. (183 Waterworks Rd., Dynnyrne, Tas. 7005, Australia.)---Survey during 1996/97 season estimated 234 breeding pairs.---W.K.S. {ROL #82}

{C914} Wuczyñski, A. 1997. The history and breeding of the White Stork population in the Sudetic Foreland. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 53(6): 28--44. (Inst. Nature Conserv. PAS, Lower Silesia Stn., Podwale 75, PL 50 449 Wroclaw, Poland.) (Polish, English summ.) {C918} {ROL #82}

{C916} Cavitt, J. F. 2000. Tallgrass prairie snake assemblage. Food habits. Herpetol. Rev. 31: 47--48. (Dept. Zool., Weber State Univ., 2505 University Circle, Ogden, UT 84408-2505, USA; EM: by several species of snakes on eggs of Dickcissel (Spiza americana), Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and a chick of the Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tynpanuchus cupido).---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{C916} De Carvalho E Silva, S. P., & J. D. De Barros Filho. 1999. Philodryas patagoniensis (NCN). Predation. Herpetol. Rev. 30: 170. (Lab. Anfibios e Repteis, Depto. Zool., Univ. Fed. Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68044, CEP 21944-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; EM: snake of this species was found preying on a nest of House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{C916} DeGraaf, R. M., T. J. Maier, & T. K. Fuller. 1999. Predation of small eggs in artificial nests: effects of nest position, edge, and potential predator abundance in extensive forest. Wilson Bull. 111: 236--242. (USDA For. Serv., Northeastern Res. Stn., Univ. Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA; EM: rates on Passer domesticus eggs in ground nests were higher than in shrub nests at both edge and interior.---J.J.Dos. {B716} {ROL #82}

{C916} Ettel, T. L., D. A. Buehler, & A. E. Houston. 1998. Egg size and cotton rat predation. Wilson Bull. 110: 575--578. (Dept. For., Wildl. Fish., Univ. Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37901-1071, USA.)---Colinus virginianus eggs were not consumed by captive Sigmodon hispidus but smaller Poephila guttata eggs were frequently eaten. These rats pose a significant threat to smaller birds nesting on or near the ground.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{C916} Farnsworth, G. L., & T. R. Simons. 2000. Observations of Wood Thrush nest predators in a large contiguous forest. Wilson Bull. 112: 82--87. (TRS: Coop. Fish Wildl. Res. Unit, Dept. Zool., North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695, USA; EM: mustelina by black rate snake ( Elaphe obsoleta), American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans), and black bears (Ursus americanus ) were photographed removing nest contents. Camera installation had no measurable effect on nest survival; however, artificial egg trigger may interfere with incubation and reduce hatching success.---J.J.Dos. {B708, E516} {ROL #82}

{C916} Filliater, T. S., R. Breitwisch, & P. M. Nealen. 1994. Predation on Northern Cardinal nests: Does choice of nest site matter? Condor 96: 761--768. (U.S. For. Serv., Klamath Nat. For., 37805 Hwy 97, Macdoel, CA 96058, USA.)---Estimates only 15% of 121 Cardinalis cardinalis nests in southwestern Ohio successful, 85% lost to predation but with no clear indication of effect of nest site.---R.B.C. {C908, C918, B716} {ROL #82}

{C916} Górski, W., & J. Antczak. 1999. Breeding losses in an urban population of the Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto in Slupsk, Poland. Acta Ornith. 34: 191--198. (Dept. Zoology, Pedagogical Univ., Arciszewskiego 22b, PL 76 200 Slupsk, Poland.)---The abundance of population was not found to depend on variations in the mean annual production of fledglins per breeding pair, but on summer losses of young that had fledged.---J.K.P. {ROL #82}

{C916} Horsley, B. D. 1991. Blue Jay captures bat. Chat 55: 30--31. (227 Woodland Dr., South. Shores, NC 27949 USA.)---Adult female Lasiurus borealis caught by Cyanocitta cristata.---E.F.P. {ROL #82}

{C916} James, R. D. 1999. Sharp-shinned Hawk-Eastern Kingbird interaction. Ontario Birds 17: 22--23. (R.R. 3, Sunderland, ON L0C 1H0, Can.)---Unsuccessful attempted predation by Accipiter striatus on Tyrannus tyrannus and subsequent attack by second kingbird on hawk.---M.K.M. {B302} {ROL #82}

{C916} Johnson, K., et al. 1999. Reproductive failure of endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatchers on the Rio Grande, New Mexico. Southwest. Nat. 44: 226--231. (Biol. Dept., Univ. New Mexico, 815 University SE, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA; EM: of 5 nests of Empidonax traillii extimus monitored in 1996 were successful; cowbird parasitism and/or predation at all nests.---J.J.D. {ROL #82}

{C916} Lizana, M., & J. Morales. 1998. Coronella girondica (Southern Smooth Snake). Diet. Herpetol. Rev. 29: 241. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Univ. Salamanca, E-37071 Salamanca, Spain; EM: snake of this species was observed swallowing a dunnock (Prunella modularis) chick in a nest constructed in the bottom of a shrub in Zamora Province, Spain.---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{C916} Lloyd, P., R. M. Little, & T. M. Crowe. 1999. The population dynamics of the Namaqua Sandgrouse: Implications for gamebird management in an arid, stochastic environment. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 2130--2143. (Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa; EM: species examined. Nest predation up to 95% and mainly random. Implications for managing Namaqua Sandgrouse Pterocles namaqua as sustainable resource discussed.---P.C.L., R.J.D. {C914, B508} {ROL #82}

{C916} Mabee, T. J., & V. B. Estelle. 2000. Assessing the effectiveness of predator exclosures for plovers. Wilson Bull. 112: 14--20. (ABR Inc., P.O. Box 249, Forest Grove, OR 97116, USA; EM: causes of nest failure for Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus), Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus ), and Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). Primary causes of failure were predation, weather, and nest abandonment. Authors found no significant difference in daily survival rates between nests with and without exclosures.---J.J.Dos. {B716, B904, B912, C912, C918, E520} {ROL #82}

{C916} Paruk, J. D., D. Seanfield, & T. Mack. 1999. Bald Eagle predation on Common Loon chick. Wilson Bull. 111: 115--116. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID 83209, USA; EM: leucocephalus, Gavia immer. {B904} {ROL #82}

{C916} Purcell, K. L., & J. Verner. 1999. Nest predators of open and cavity nesting birds in oak woodlands. Wilson Bull. 111: 251--256. (USDA For. Serv., Pacific Southwest Res. Stn., 2081 E. Sierra Ave., Fresno, CA 93710, USA; EM: kpurcell/ predator diversity including Icterus bullockii at open nests.---J.J.Dos. {E516} {ROL #82}

{C916} Rodriguez, M. C., & H. Drummond. 2000. Exploitation of avian nestlings and lizards by insular milksnakes, Lampropeltis triangulum. J. Herpetol. 34: 139--142. (Inst. Ecol., Univ. Nac. Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-275, C.P. 04510, D.F., Mexico; EM: of the foraging activities of snakes visiting nests in seabird breeding colonies, particularly Sula nebouxii and Sula leucogaster.---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{C916} Saracco, J. F., & J. A. Collazo. 1999. Predation on artificial nests along three edge types in a North Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Wilson Bull. 111: 541--549. (North Carolina Coop. Fish Wildl. Res. Unit, USGS/BRD, Dept. Zool., North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695-7617, USA; EM: highest predation rates along forest-farm edges with no differences between forest-river and transition zone edges. Results are important in assessing the conservation value of bottomland forests.---J.J.Dos. {B908, B910} {ROL #82}

{C916} Schmidt, K., & C. Whelan. 1999. Effects of exotic Lonicera and Rhamnus on songbird nest predation. Conserv. Biol. 13: 1502--1506. (Univ. Memphis, Dept. Biol., Ellington Hall, Memphis, TN 38152, USA.) {ROL #82}

{C916} Schmidt, K. A., & C. J. Whelan. 1999. The relative impacts of nest predation and brood parasitism on seasonal fecundity in songbirds. Conserv. Biol. 13: 46--57. (Inst. Ecosystem Stud., Box AB, Rt. 44A, Millbrook, NY 12545, USA; EM: {ROL #82}

{C916} Skagen, S. K., T. R. Stanley, & M. B. Dillon. 1999. Do mammalian nest predators follow human scent trails in the shortgrass prairie? Wilson Bull. 111: 415--420. (USGS/BRD, Midcontinent Ecol. Sci. Ctr., Fort Collins, CO 80525-3400, USA; EM: evidence of lower nesting success.---J.J.Dos. {B502, B708} {ROL #82}

{C916} Staus, N. L., & P. M. Mayer. 1999. Arthropods and predation of artificial nests in the Bahamas: implications for subtropical avifauna. Wilson Bull. 111: 561--564. (Conserv. Biol. Inst., 800 NW Starker Ave., Suite 31C, Corvallis, OR 97330, USA; EM: no relationship between predation rates and nest cover or distance to the road. Predation rate depended on distance to ocean. Giant white land crab (Cardisoma guanhumi) is a possible predator.---J.J.Dos. {B716} {ROL #82}

{C916} Trail, P. 1991. Nest predation by a Red-bellied Woodpecker. Chat 55: 6--7. (Rt. 4, Box 268-A, Edenton, NC 27932, USA.)---Melanerpes carolinus removed and ate young from Empidonax virescens nest.---E.F.P. {ROL #82}

{C916} Woodruff, C., & A. Woodruff. 1991. Predation by Rusty Blackbirds on songbirds at a winter feeder. Chat 55: 54--55. (111 NW 5th St., Long Beach, NC 28465, USA.)---Predation by Euphagus carolinus occurred after 40 cm snowfall.---E.F.P. {ROL #82}

{C916} Yahner, R. H., & C. G. Mahan. 1999. Potential for predator learning of artificial arboreal nest locations. Wilson Bull. 111: 536--540. (Sch. For. Resour., Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA 16802-4300, USA; EM: was conducted in managed forest landscape. Predators do not learn. Predation rates were higher on randomly placed nests than on those placed repeatedly in the same sites. Predation rates were highest in forested-patch habitat.---J.J.Dos. {B304, B716, B908} {ROL #82}

{C916} Zielinski, W. J., et al. 1999. Diet of fishers (Martes pennanti) at the southernmost extent of their range. J. Mammal. 80: 961--971. (USDA, For. Serv., Pacific Southwest Res. Stn., Redwood Sci. Lab., Arcata, CA 95521, USA.)---In California's Sierra Nevada mountains, less than half of the animals sampled showed remains of birds (no species given) in fecal samples.---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{C918} King, D. I. 1999. Mortality of an adult Veery incurred during the defense of nestlings. Wilson Bull. 111: 576--577. (Dept. For. Wildl. Manage., Univ. Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA; EM: of male Catharus fuscesens supports speculation that adults risk injury or death in nest defense. Implications for optimization of fitness and cost-benefit analysis in explanations of nest-defense behavior.---J.J.Dos. {B302, B718, C912} {ROL #82}

{C918} Kosiñski, Z. 1998. Numbers and breeding success of the White Stork Ciconia ciconia in the former administrative district of Krotoszyn [Poland] in 1993--1997. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 54(2): 53--64. (Dept. Avian Biology & Ecology, A. Mickiewicz Univ., Fredry 10, PL 61 701 Poznañ, Poland; EM: (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C918} Kuletz, K. J., & J. F. Piatt. 1999. Juvenile Marbled Murrelet nurseries and the productivity index. Wilson Bull. 111: 257--261. (USFWS, 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, AK 99503, USA; EM: surveys of distribution and habitat use by Brachyramphus marmoratus.---J.J.Dos. {C908} {ROL #82}

{C918} Lozano, G. A., & R. E. Lemon. 1999. Effects of prior residence and age on breeding performance in Yellow Warblers. Wilson Bull. 111: 381--388. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Can.; EM: differences in clutch size between new arrivals and returning Dendrioca petechia. Results consistent with constraint hypothesis (age-related ability to compete for breeding opportunities).---J.J.Dos. {B702, C922, E526} {ROL #82}

{C918} Marks, J. S., & A. E. H. Perkins. 1999. Double brooding in the Long-eared Owl. Wilson Bull. 111: 273--276. (Montana Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit, Univ. Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA; EM: unequivocal case in Asio otus . Likely influenced by early initiation date and high food availability.---J.J.Dos. {B702} {ROL #82}

{C918} Merino, S., E. Míbguez, & B. Belliure. 1999. Ectoparasite effects on nestling European Storm-Petrels. Waterbirds 22: 297--301. (Dept. Ecol. Evol., Mus. Nac. Cien. Nat., CSIC, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, E-28006 Madrid, Spain; EM: Hydrobates pelagicus on Benidorm Island off Spain gained mass most rapidly when fumigated, least rapidly when ectoparasite load experimentally increased.---R.B.C. {C104, E116} {ROL #82}

{C918} Millenbah, K. F., & S. R. Winterstein. 1999. Status of Common Terns nesting on the Saginaw Bay Confined Disposal Facility, MI. Michigan Birds Nat. Hist. 6: 177--183. (Mich. State Univ., Dept. Fish. Wildl., E. Lansing, MI 48824, USA.)---Numbers and productivity of Sterna hirundo on a Michigan dredge fill island 1995--1997 compared to use from early 1980s.---J.A.C. {ROL #82}

{C918} Pribil, S. 1998. Reproductive success is a misleading indicator of nest-site preferences in the Red-winged Blackbird. Can. J. Zool. 76: 2227--2234. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Miami, P.O. Box 249118, Coral Gables, FL 33124-0421, USA.)---Agelaius phoeniceus. {B716, E515} {ROL #82}

{C918} Salvati, L., et al. 1999. Population features of Kestrels Falco tinnunculus in urban, suburban and rural areas in Central Italy. Acta Ornith. 34: 53--58. (Piazza F. Morosini 12, I 00136 Roma, Italy, EM: in density, spacing, use and reoccupation of nest-sites. Fledglings per pair, numbers of successful pairs and fledging date did not differ.---J.K.P. {C908, B716} {ROL #82}

{C918} Wiggins, D. A., T. Pärt, & L. Gustafsson. 1998. Timing of breeding and reproductive costs in Collared Flycatchers. Auk 115: 1063--1067. (Dept. Zool., Uppsala Univ., Villavägen 9, S-752 36, Uppsala, Sweden; EM: of reproduction plays an important role in future survival and reproductive success of Ficedula albicollis.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{C920} Fredericksen, M., & A. Petersen. 1999. Philopatry and dispersal within a Black Guillemot colony. Waterbirds 22: 274--281. (Nat. Environ. Res. Inst., Kalø, Grenåvej 12, DK-8410 Ronde, Denmark; EM: grylle in western Iceland bred more commonly in the natal subcolony than could be expected by chance.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{C920} Ganter, B., & F. Cooke. 1998. Colonial nesters in a deteriorating habitat: site fidelity and colony dynamics of Lesser Snow Geese. Auk 115: 642--652. (Schlossgang 18, 25813 Husum, Germany; EM: fidelity of adult Chen caerulescens caerulescens did not change much despite deteriorating habitat; increase in mean age of breeding birds suggests young birds settled elsewhere.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{C920} Heinrich, B., et al. 1994. Dispersal and association among Common Ravens. Condor 96: 545--551. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA.; EM: of 10 Corvus corax in feeding flock near Weld, Maine, wandered widely; remaining one to several weeks in ranges 190-3,100 km² with birds roosting and dispersing independently of one another.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{C920} Hoffman, W., G. E. Woolfenden, & P. W. Smith. 1999. Antillean Short-eared Owls invade southern Florida. Wilson Bull. 111: 303--313. (GEW: Archbold Biol. Stn., Venus, FL 33960, USA; EM: Asio flammeus are post-fledging dispersers, likely from Cuba.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{C920} Hopp, S. L., A Kirby, & C. A. Boone. 1999. Banding returns, arrival pattern, and site-fidelity of White-eyed Vireos. Wilson Bull. 111: 46--55. (Dept. Ecol. Evol. Biol., Univ. Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA; EM: male Vireo griseus returned first and most remained faithful to previous territories.---J.J.Dos. {E526} {ROL #82}

{C920} Lens, L., F. Adriaensen, & E. Matthysen. 1999. Dispersal studies in recently and historically fragmented forests: A comparison between Kenya and Belgium. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 2480--2491. (University of Antwerp, U.I.A., Department of Biology, B--2610 Antwerp, Belgium; EM: patterns of 7 forest species of Taita Hills in SE Kenya show pronounced interspecific differences with the more restricted species less mobile between fragments. Species studied: Taita Thrush Turdus helleri, Taita White-eye Zosterops (senegalensis) silvanus, White-starred Robin Pogonocichla (stellata) helleri , Stripe-cheeked Greenbul Andropadus milanjensis, Cabanis's Greenbul Phyllastrephus cabanisi, Yellow-throated Woodland Warbler Phylloscopus ruficapilla and Olive Sunbird Nectarinia olivacea.---P.C.L., R.J.D. {ROL #82}

{C920} McIlveen, W. D., M. L. Wernaart, & A. D. Brewer. 1999. Post-breeding dispersal of Mallard and American Black Ducks banded at Mountsberg through 1997. Ontario Bird Banding 29/30: 50--60. (R.R. 1, Acton, ON L7J 2L7, Can.)---Recoveries to date of Anas platyrhynchos, Anas rubripes and their hybrids banded 1976-1997 at a site in southeastern Ontario north of Lake Erie have been primarily from Ontario/Quebec and U.S. states south of them, with Mallard recoveries extending farther west than those of black ducks. Extralimital recoveries, longevity and other recovery details are tabulated, mapped, graphed and discussed.)---M.K.M. {C910, C912} {ROL #82}

{C920} Melvin, S. L., D. E. Gawlik, & T. Scharff. 1999. Long-term movement patterns for seven species of wading birds. Waterbirds 22: 411--416. (Ecosyst. Restoration Dept., S. Florida Water Manage. Distr., 3301 Gun Club Rd., West Palm Beach, FL, 33406, USA.; EM: of banding data gave mean dispersal distances for Egretta caerulea (1148 km), Plegadis falcinellus (1142 km), Egretta tricolor (1019 km), Casmerodius albus (909 km), Egretta thula (837 km), Ardea herodias (758 km), and Eudocimus albus (545 km).)---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{C920} Mougin, J.-L., J. P. Granadeiro, C. Jouanin, & F. Roux. 1999. Philopatry and faithfulness to nest site in Cory's Shearwaters Calonectris diomedea at Selvagem Grande [in N. Atlantic]. Ostrich 70: 229--232. (Mus. national d'His. Nat., Lab. d'Zoo., 55 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France.)---Most chicks return to this island for first breeding attempt. Almost half the males return to natal colony, but > 90% of females recruit to other colonies. From second breeding attempt, most birds of both sexes are faithful to their nest site.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{C920} O'Toole, L. T., et al. 1999. Postfledging behavior of Golden Eagles. Wilson Bull. 111: 472--477. (P. L. Kennedy: Dept. Fish. Wildl. Biol., Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA; EM: of radio-tagged Aquila chrysaetos from natal nest increased with time since fledging. Sibling calling rate and distance between individuals did not change with time. No signs of aggression between siblings---J.J.Dos. {B320} {ROL #82}

{C920} Plissner, J. H., S. M. Haig, & L. W. Oring. 1999. Within- and between-year dispersal of American Avocets among multiple western Great Basin wetlands. Wilson Bull. 111: 314--320. (SMH: USGS, For. Range. Ecosystem Sci. Ctr., 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA; EM: 50% of post-breeding Recurvirostra americana adults observed at lakes other than breeding location. 70% of post-fledged young observed only at natal lake system.---J.J.Dos. {B910} {ROL #82}

{C920} Prevot-Julliard, A., et al. 1998. Evidence for birth site tenacity in breeding Common Black-headed Gulls, Larus ridibundus. Can. J. Zool. 76: 2295--2298. (Lab. Evol. Syst., URRES A 8079, Univ. Paris-Sud, batiment 362, F-91405 Orsay Cedex, France.) {ROL #82}

{C920} Reed, J. M., et al. 1998. Subadult movement patterns of the endangered Hawaiian Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni ). Auk 115: 791--797. (Dept. Biol., Tufts Univ., Medford, MA 02155, USA; EM: {ROL #82}

{C920} Wallace, R. S., et al. 1999. Movements of Humboldt Penguins from a breeding colony in Chile. Waterbirds 22: 441--444. (Milwaukee County Zoo, 10001 W. Blue Mound Rd., Milwaukee, WI, 53226, USA.; EM: adult Spheniscus humboldti banded at colony on Islote Pajaro Nino were recovered 3--592 km away suggesting visits to other breeding colonies. Data also revealed mortality from drowning in fish nets.---R.B.C. {C912} {ROL #82}

{C922} Bowman, R., et al. 1999. Interspecific interactions with foraging Red-cockaded Woodpeckers in south-central Florida. Wilson Bull. 111: 346--353. (Archbold Biol. Stn., P.O. Box 2057, Lake Placid, FL 33862, USA; EM: borealis lost 71% of non-foraging (mostly with passerines) and 85% of foraging interactions (most with Melanerpes carolinus).---J.J.Dos. {B904, C909} {ROL #82}

{C922} Chase, M., et al. 2000. Single species as indicators of species richness and composition in California coastal sage scrub birds and small mammals. Conserv. Biol. 14: 474--487. (Dept. Biol., Ctr. Conserv. Biol., Univ. California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA; EM: {ROL #82}

{C922} McKnight, S. K., & G. R. Hepp. 1998. Foraging-niche dynamics of Gadwalls and American Coots in winter. Auk 115: 670--683. (Dept. Zool. Wildl. Sci., Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL 36843, USA; EM: in foraging niches with declining food abundance related to behavioral differences of Anas strepera and Fulica americana.---S.C.L. {D306} {ROL #82}

{C922} Patten, M. A., & J. C. Burger. 1998. Spruce budworm outbreaks and the incidence of vagrancy in eastern North American wood-warblers. Can. J. Zool. 76: 433--439. (Dept. Biol., Univ. California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.)---Studies vagrant warbler occurrences in California as associated with spruce-budworm outbreaks in species that respond positively (Vermivora peregrina, Dendroica tigrina, Dendroica castanea, Wilsonia canadensis, & Seiurus aurocapillus) and negatively (Dendroica magnolia, Dendroica virens, & Dendroica fusca) to budworm outbreaks.---D.E.F. {ROL #82}

{C922} Quintana, F., & P. Yorio. 1998. Competition for nest sites between Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) and terns (Sterna maxima and S. eurygnatha) in Patagonia. Auk 115: 1068--1071. (Ctr. Nac. Patagónico, CONICET, Blvd. Brown s/n 9120, Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina; EM: no evidence that Sterna maxima and Sterna eurygnatha are affected by spatial competition with Kelp Gulls.---A.A.W. {B716} {ROL #82}

{C922} Surmacki, A. 1998. Breeding avifauna of small mid-field ponds in North-western Poland. Acta Ornith. 33: 149--157. (Dept. Avian Biology & Ecology, A. Mickiewicz Univ., Fredry 10, PL 61 710 Poznañ, Poland EM: breeding biotop for Anser anser, Podiceps grisegena, Gallinula chloropus, Rallus aquaticus. Water bodies and microhabitats numbers are important factor influencing numbers of species and pairs.---J.K.P. {ROL #82}

{C922} Tworek, S. 1998. The importance of habitat diversity for the breeding avifauna of agricultural land in the Rudawa River valley near Kraków [Poland]. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 54(2): 39--52. (Inst. Nature Conserv. PAS, Lubicz 46, PL 31 512 Kraków, Poland.) (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{C922} Vogrin, M., & N. Vogrin. 1998. Bird communities of intensively cultivated fields in North-eastern Slovenia. Acta Ornith. 33: 173--179. (Hotinjska cesta 108, SI-2312 Orehova vas, Slovenia EM: {ROL #82}

{C922} Young, B. E., D. DeRosier, & G. V. N. Powell. 1998. Diversity and conservation of understory birds in the Tilarán Mountains, Costa Rica. Auk 115: 998--1016. (Latin America Caribbean Div., Nat. Conservancy, 1815 N. Lynn St. Arlington, VA 22209, USA; EM: high alpha and beta diversity; suggest preservation of large areas with elevational diversity.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{C926} Alcorn, M., & R. Alcorn. 2000. Seasonal migration of the Banded Stilt Cladorhynchus leucocephalus to the Natimuk-Douglas Salt Pans in western Victoria. Stilt 36: 7--10. (17 Lawrence, St., Horsham, Vic. 3400, Australia; EM: survey identifies important seasonal habitat. Birds absent only when exceptional rainfall elsewhere in southeastern Australia.---I.D.E. {D904} {ROL #82}

{C926} Dodd, S. L., M. D. Spinks, & P. M. Wilkinson. 1999. Abundance and distribution of wintering Piping Plovers on the coast of South Carolina: Findings from the 1997, 1998, and 1999 mid-winter censuses. Chat 63: 155--166. (S.C. Dept. Nat. Resour., Wildl. Diversity Sec., 222 Alabama St., St. Simons Island, GA 31522 USA.)---Increase in recorded number of Charadrius melodus attributed to greater survey effort. Future censuses should cover all beaches, sand bars, and associated sand and mud flats in a particular state or region because such habitat changes dramatically in a short period of time, causing birds to change wintering sites.---E.F.P. {E506} {ROL #82}

{C926} Hill, N. P., & K. D. Bishop. 1999. Possible winter quarters of the Aleutian Tern? Wilson Bull. 111: 559--560. (KDB: 'Semioptera', P.O. Box 6068, Kincumber, NSW 2251, Australia; EM: aleutica observed in coastal waters around Hong Kong, Singapore, and Indonesian islands. First probable records from the waters around Java, Bali and Sulawesi. These areas may also be part of winter range.---J.J.Dos. {C328} {ROL #82}

{C926} Hutto, R. L. 1998. On the importance of stopover sites to migrating birds. Auk 115: 823--825. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA; EM: on Auk 115: 829--842.---A.A.W. {D904} {ROL #82}

{C926} Jabloñski, P. G., & S. D. Lee. 1999. Winter avifauna of three botanical gardens in the suburbs of Seoul (Korea). Acta Ornith. 34: 77--80. (Inst. Ecology PAS, Dziekanów Lesny, PL 05 092 Lomianki, Poland; EM: densities were in lower range of the densities in urban parks in Europe.---J.K.P. {ROL #82}

{C926} Oatley, T. B. 1999. Uneven recovery pattern of ringed European Swifts Apus apus in southern Africa. Ostrich 70: 236. (Avian Demography Unit, Univ. Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, S. Africa; EM: quarters of birds from Europe apparently lie mainly east of 30°E.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{C926} Plentovich, S., N. R. Holler, & G. E. Hill. 1999. Habitat requirements of Henslow's Sparrows wintering in silvicultural lands of the Gulf Coast Plain. Auk 116: 109--115. (USFWS, Rota Field Stn., P.O. Box 1251, Rota, MP 96951, USA; EM: Ammodramus henslowii. {ROL #82}

{C926} Restani, M. 2000. Age-specific stopover behavior of migrant Bald Eagles. Wilson Bull. 112: 28--34. (Div. Ecosystem Sci., Coll. For. Resour., Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195-2100, USA; EM: leucocephalus juveniles stayed at the stopover site longer than older birds. Body condition and consumption rates were similar for both age groups. Experience likely modified residence time.---J.J.Dos. {D306, E524} {ROL #82}

{C926} Robertson, G. J., & F. Cooke. 1999. Winter philopatry in migratory waterfowl. Auk 116: 20--34. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Can.; EM: of published information show homing rates of 49-98% to small study areas and 35-85% to large study areas.---S.C.L. {ROL #82}

{C926} Yong, W., et al. 1998. Stopover ecology and habitat use of migratory Wilson's Warblers. Auk 115: 829--842. (Dept. Nat. Resour., Univ. Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA; EM: in stopover patterns of Wilsonia pusilla are sex related in spring and age related in fall.---A.A.W. {D902} {ROL #82}

{D100} Craig, A. J. F. K. 1999. Weaving a story: The relationships of the endemic Ploceidae of Madagascar. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 3063--3070. (Department of Zoology & Entomology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa; EM: features, feather ultrastructure and feather pigmentation support that Euplectes, Foudia and Quelea are related and that there are at least 5 lines of Ploceus.---P.C.L., R.J.D. {ROL #82}

{D100} de Queiroz, K., & D. A. Good. 1997. Phenetic clustering in biology: a critique. Quart. Rev. Biol. 72: 3--30. (Dept. Vert. Zool., Natl. Mus. Nat. Hist., Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC 20560, USA.)---In all common biological applications, inappropriate assumptions underlying the phenetic clustering procedure compromise its usefulness.---J.S.G. {D103, E514} {ROL #82}

{D103} Baba, Y., et al. 1999. [Diversity and gene flow of the Hazel Grouse in Japan.] Japanese Journal of Ornithology 48: 47--60. (Grad. Sch. Soc. Cultural Studies, Kyushu Univ., Ropponmatu 4-2-1, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810-0044, Japan.)---The mitochondrial control region of Bonasa bonasia was analysed using 126 samples from Hokkaido, 11 from eastern Russia and two from Bohemia, and a phylogenetic tree constructed. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---H.N. {D502} {ROL #82}

{D103} Brown, D. M., & C. A. Toft. 1999. Molecular systematics and biogeography of the Cockatoos (Psittaciformes: Cacatuidae). Auk 116: 141--157. (CAT: Div. Biol. Sci., Univ. California, Davis, CA 95616, USA; EM: produced using mtDNA data and compared to published allozyme data.---S.C.L. {D504, C302} {ROL #82}

{D103} Craig, A. J. F. K. 1997. A phylogeny for the African starlings (Sturnidae). Ostrich 68: 114--116. (Dept. Zoo. Ent., Rhodes Univ., Grahamstown 6140, S. Africa; EM: based on morphological characters suggests some generic re-arrangement.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{D103} Emerson, S. B., & P. A. Hastings. 1998. Morphological correlations in evolution: consequences for phylogenetic analysis. Quart. Rev. Biol. 73: 141--162. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA; EM: the issue of interdependence of characters in morphological data, and suggests that methods of character weighting can be used to achieved useful insights. Examples are nonavian, but of general significance.---J.S.G. {ROL #82}

{D103} Espinosa de los Monteros, A. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships among the trogons. Auk 115: 937--954. (Depto. Ecol. Comportamiento Anim., Inst. Ecol. A.C., Carretera antigua Coatepec KM 2.5, Apdo. Postal 63, Xalapa, Veracruz 91000, Mexico; EM: Trogoniformes. {ROL #82}

{D103} Fjeldså, J., S. M. Goodman, T. S. Schulenberg, & B. Slikas. 1999. Molecular evidence for relationship of Malagasy birds. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 3084--3094. (Zoological Museum, Universitetsparken 15, DK--2100 Copenhagen, Denmark; EM: data demonstrate that the Malagasy 'Phyllastrephus' species are not Phyllastrephus and probably are not Pycnonotidae. Previous studies incorporating molecular data to resolve the phylogenetics of Malagasy birds are reviewed.---R.J.D. {D504} {ROL #82}

{D103} Griffiths, C. S. 1994. Syringeal morphology and the phylogeny of the Falconidae. ÊCondor 96: 127--140. (Dept. Ornithol., Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Central Park West at 79th St., New York, NY 10024, USA.)---Argument for three major clades (1) Polyborinae ( Daptrius, Polyborus, Milvago, Phalcoboenus ); (2) Falconinae (Falco, Polihierax, Spiziapteryx , Microhierax, Herpetotheres); (3) Micrastur. Daptrius and Polihierax thought to be polyphyletic.---R.B.C. {E104} {ROL #82}

{D103} Griffiths, C. S. 1999. Phylogeny of the Falconidae inferred from molecular and morphological data. Auk 116: 116--130. (Dept. Ornithol., Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Central Park W. 79 th St., New York, NY 10024, USA; EM: {ROL #82}

{D103} Isler, M. L., P. R. Isler, & B. M. Whitney. 1999. Species limits in antbirds (Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae): the Myrmotherula surinamensis complex. Auk 116: 83--96. (Div. Birds, Natl. Mus. Nat. Hist., Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D.C. 20560, USA; EM: methodology for using vocal and morphological characteristics in species and subspecies designations; recommend splitting Myrmotherula surinamensis complex into four distinct species.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{D103} McCracken, K. G., J. Harshman, D. A. McClellan, & A. D. Afton. 1999. Data set incongruence and correlated character evolution: An example of functional convergence in the hind-limbs of stifftail diving ducks. Syst. Biol. 48: 683--714. (Sch. For., Wildl. Fish., Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA; EM: based on morphological features of anseriforms indicate that the stifftail ducks (Oxyurini) are a sister-group to the sea ducks (Mergini), and in the same clade as the steamer ducks (and allies) (Merganettini) and pochards (Aythyini); however, genetic analysis based on mitochondrial cytochrome b places the stifftails far from other diving ducks, and suggests that they themselves are polyphletic. The incongruence between these arrangements is interpreted to be the result of adaptive specialization and functional convergence in the hind limbs.---J.D.R. {D114} {ROL #82}

{D103} Mooers, A. O., & S. B. Heard. 1997. Inferring evolutionary process from phylogenetic tree shape. Quart. Rev. Biol. 72: 31--54. (Dept. Zool., Univ. British Columbia, 6270 Univ. Blvd., Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Can.)---Of general interest.---J.S.G. {ROL #82}

{D103} Ohta, N., et al. 2000. A study on genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationships among east Asian titmice (Family Paridae) and relatives. Japanese Journal of Ornithology 48: 205--218. (Grad. Sch. Sci. & Tech., Niigata Univ., Ninomachi 8050, Igarashi, Niigata 950-2181, Japan.)---Panurus biarmicus, Aegithalos caudatus , Aegithalos concinnus, Parus montanus, Parus ater , Parus venustulus, Parus major, Parus monticolus , Parus spilonotus, Parus holsti, Parus varius , Sitta europaea. {ROL #82}

{D105} Bock, W. J. 1999. Functional and evolutionary morphology of woodpeckers. Ostrich 70: 23--31. (Dept. Bio. Sci., Columbia Univ., 1200 Amsterdam Ave., Mail Box 5521, New York, NY 10027--7004, USA; EM: analysis used to elucidate forces on climbing bird, and compressive shocks while drilling. Provides a better understanding of woodpecker adaptations and evolutionary history.---A.J.F.K.C. {E100} {ROL #82}

{D105} Burns, K. J. 1998. Molecular phylogenetics of the genus Piranga: implications for biogeography and the evolution of morphology and behavior. Auk 115: 621--634. (Dept. Biol., San Diego State Univ., San Diego, CA 92182, USA; EM: evolved once within genus, but morphology, song, and plumage data did not agree with cytochrome-b phylogeny.---S.K.W. {D504} {ROL #82}

{D105} Cook, G. M. 1999. Neo-Lamarckian experimentalism in America: origins and consequences. Quart. Rev. Biol. 74: 417--437. (Graduate Prog. History & Philosophy of Sci. & Tech., Univ. Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1K7, Can.; EM: part, examines Bumpus' "contribution to the experimental neo-Lamarckian program", including his concern with the elimination of the unfit in Passer domesticus .---J.S.G. {ROL #82}

{D105} Eguchi, K. 1999. [Adaptive sex ratio adjustment in birds.] Japanese Journal of Ecology 49: 105--122. (Dept. Biol., Fac. Sci., Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan.)---Review of the subject. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---H.N. {ROL #82}

{D105} Lovette, I. J., et al. 1998. Evolutionary differentiation in three endemic West Indian warblers. Auk 115: 890--903. (Smithsonian Trop. Res. Inst., Unit 0948, APO AA 34002, USA; EM: populations of Dendroica adelaidae have been evolutionarily independent for longer than populations of Dendroica plumbea and Dendroica pityophila.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{D105} Nishiumi, I. 1999. [Studies of sex allocation in birds and molecular tools for sex identification.] Japanese Journal of Ornithology 48: 83--100. (Dept. Zool., Natl. Sci. Mus., 3-23-1 Hyakunin-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-0073, Japan.)---General review of the subject. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---H.N. {ROL #82}

{D105} Ricklefs, R. E., & E. Bermingham. 1999. Taxon cycles in the Lesser Antillean avifauna. Ostrich 70: 49--59. (Dept. Bio., Univ. Missouri--St Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge Rd., St Louis, MO 63121--4499, USA; EM: data provide relative ages for taxa, suggest that phases of expansion not driven by extrinsic factors. Taxon cycles may be intrinsic, driven by lags in evolutionary responses.---A.J.F.K.C. {D504} {ROL #82}

{D105} Searcy, W. A., K. Yasukawa, & S. Lanyon. 1999. Evolution of polygyny in the ancestors of Red-winged Blackbirds. Auk 116: 5--19. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124, USA; EM: in Agelaius phoeniceus evolved from monogamy; closest non-polygynous ancestor was monogamous, territorial, and shared parental care.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{D105} Webster, M. S. 1999. Reconstructing the evolutionary origin of polygyny in Red-winged Blackbird. Auk 116: 1--4. (Dept. Biol. Sci., State Univ. New York Buffalo, 109 Cooke Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA; EM: phoeniceus ; comments on Auk 116: 5--19.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{D106} Higham, R. K., & P. B. Mcquillen. 2000. Cyanthodes divaricata (Epacridaceae)---the first record of a bird-pollinated dioecious plant in the Australian flora. Australian Journal of Botany 48: 93--99. (Sch. Geogr. Environ. Stud., Univ. Tasmania, GPO Box 252, Hobart, Tas. 7001, Australia.)---Melithreptus affinis, Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris, Phylidonyris pyrrhoptera . {D302} {ROL #82}

{D106} Neubig, J. P., & J. A. Smallwood. 1999. The "significant others" of American Kestrels: cohabitation with arthropods. Wilson Bull. 111: 269--271. (JAS: Dept. Biol., Montclair State Univ., Upper Montclair, NJ 07043, USA; EM: boxes with Falco sparverius chicks contained scavenging beetles (Silpha inaequalis, Atholus americanus, Phelister subrotundus , Dermestes caninus, Trox foveicollis) attracted to prey remains.---J.J.Dos. {B716, C909} {ROL #82}

{D106} Richardson, M. B. G., D. J. Ayre, & R. J. Whelan. 2000. Pollinator behaviour, mate choice and the realised mating systems of Grevillea mucronulata and Grevillea sphacelata . Australian Journal of Botany 48: 357--366. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2525, Australia.)--- Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris and Phylidonyris novaehollandiae visited G. mucronulata; introduced honeybees Apis mellifera visited G. sphacelata.---M.G.B. {ROL #82}

{D108} Gill, F. B., B. Slikas, & D. Agro. 1999. Speciation in North American chickadees: II. geography of mtDNA haplotypes in Poecile carolinensis. Auk 116: 274--277. (Natl. Audubon Soc., 700 Broadway, New York, NY 10003, USA; EM: mtDNA identities which define clinal transition from eastern to western haplotypes; suggest a need for molecular sampling of avian populations.---A.A.W. {D504} {ROL #82}

{D108} Greenberg, R., et al. 1998. Morphological adaptation with no mitochondrial DNA differentiation in the Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow. Auk 115: 706--712. (Smithsonian Migratory Bird Ctr., Natl. Zool. Park, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC 20008, USA; EM: rapid and recent geographic expansion and intense selection on divergent traits in tidal marsh populations.---S.K.W. {D504} {ROL #82}

{D108} Lovette, I., E. Bermingham, & R. Ricklefs. 1999. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography and the conservation of endangered Lesser Antillean Icterus orioles. Conserv. Biol. 13: 1088--1096. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; EM: {D504} {ROL #82}

{D108} Ryan, P. G., & P. Bloomer. 1997. Geographic variation in Red Lark Certhilauda burra plumage, morphology, song and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. Ostrich 68: 31--36. (FitzPatrick Inst., Univ. Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, S. Africa; EM: mDNA haplotypes have been described but conclude that genetic interchange occurs, and the Red Lark is a single species.---A.J.F.K.C. {D114, D504, B320} {ROL #82}

{D108} Spear, L. B., & D. G. Ainley. 1998. Morphological differences relative to ecological segregation in petrels (Family: Procellariidae) of the Southern Ocean and Tropical Pacific. Auk 115: 1017--1033. (H. T. Harvey Associates, P.O. Box 1180, Alviso, CA 95002, USA; EM: differences between tropical and polar avifaunas are related to adaptations to physical factors such as wind regimes and climate.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{D108} Temeles, E. J., et al. 2000. Evidence for ecological causation of sexual dimorphism in a hummingbird. Science 289: 441--443. (Dept. Biol., Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002, USA; EM: morphology of Eulampis jugularis corresponds to species of flower it pollinates.---M.J.J. {ROL #82}

{D110} Alviola, P. L., III. 1997. A new species of Frogmouth (Podargidae---Caprimulgiformes) from Busuanga Island, Palawan, Philippines. Asia Life Sci. 6(1 & 2): 51--55. (No address available.)---Batrachostomus pygmaeus, sp. nov., differs from Batrachostomus javensis chaseni by having a general plumage color of grey rufous as compared to the rufous brown color of most frogmouths found in the Philippines.---J.C.T.G. {ROL #82}

{D110} Herremans, M., D. Philogene, G. D. Underhill, J. M. H. Raijmakers, L. G. Underhill, D. Johnson, H. Bernitz, Z. Bernitz, M. B. Bowker, & S. J. De Beer. 1999. Description of a new taxon brookei of Levaillant's Cisticola Cisticola tinniens from the Western Cape, South Africa. Ostrich 70: 164--172. (Dept. Zoo., R. Mus. C. Africa, Leuvensesteenweg 13, B--3080 Tervuren, Belgium; EM: tinniens brookei ssp. nov., p. 169, Kommetjie, Cape Peninsula, S. Africa (SAM). Distributional data show discontinuity between birds of winter and summer rainfall regions. Differ in timing of breeding and moults, and new race lacks distinctive nuptial plumage.---A.J.F.K.C., R.J.D. {E114, E116} {ROL #82}

{D110} Krabbe, N., et al. 1999. A new species in the Myrmotherula haematonota superspecies (Aves; Thamnophilidae) from the western Amazonian lowlands of Ecuador and Peru. Wilson Bull. 111: 157--165. (Cas. 17-21-791, Quito, Ecuador; EM: Antwren (Myrmotherula fjeldsaai) differs from Myrmotherula haematonota haematonota in that it has brown back instead of red in both sexes.---J.J.Dos. {B112, B320, C706, D702, E114, E116} {ROL #82}

{D110} Olson, S. L., & D. B. Wingate. 2000. Two new species of flightless rails (Aves: Rallidae) from the Middle Pleistocene "crane fauna" of Bermuda. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 113: 356--368. (Dept. Vert. Zool., Nat. Mus. Nat. Hist., Washington, DC, 20560, USA.; EM: ibycus sp. nov. possibly derived from Rallus limicola but with longer bill, more robust legs and reduced wings and pectoral girdle; Porzana piercei sp. nov. very similar to Porzana flaviventer but with reduced wing and pectoral girdle.---R.B.C. {E308} {ROL #82}

{D110} Rasmussen, P. C. 1999. A new species of Hawk-Owl Ninox from North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Wilson Bull. 111: 457--464. (NHB 336 MRC 114, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC 20560, USA; EM: ios, Cinnabar Hawk-Owl, described from a single specimen previously identified as a rufous morph of Ninox ochracea, Ochre-bellied Hawk-Owl.---J.J.Dos. {D702, E116, B904} {ROL #82}

{D110} Whitney, B. M., & J. A. Alonso. 1998. A new Herpsilochmus antwren (Aves: Thamnophilidae) from northern Amazonian Peru and adjacent Ecuador: the role of edaphic heterogeneity of terra firme forest. Auk 115: 559--576. (Mus. Nat. Sci., 119 Foster Hall, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA; EM: gentryi utilizes rare, patchy habitats which lessen syntopy with Herpsilochmus sticturus due to higher habitat mosaicism than on Guianan Shield.---S.K.W. {ROL #82}

{D112} Crowe, T. M. 1999. Species as multifaceted entities. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 1490--1495. (Percy FitzPatrick Institute, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7701, South Africa; EM: that species be diagnosable from defensibly independent sources of evidence (e.g., morphology, molecules, behaviour), but not from just one apparently insignificant character. Examples from southern Africa: Eupodotis afra, Certhilauda albescens, Numida meleagris.---R.J.D. {D105} {ROL #82}

{D112} Peterson, A. T. 1998. New species and new species limits in birds. Auk 115: 555--558. (Nat. Hist. Mus., Univ. Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA; EM: on Auk 115: 559--576, 577--590.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{D114} Banks, R. C., & M. R. Browning. 1999. Questions about Thayer's Gull. Ontario Birds 17: 124--130. (USGS Patuxent Wildl. Res. Cent., Natl. Mus. Nat. Hist. MRC-111, Washington, DC 20560-0111, USA.)---Taxonomic history of Larus thayeri, Larus glaucoides kumlieni and their possible relationships to each other and to Larus argentatus and Larus glaucoides glaucoides, including discussion of research needed to sort taxonomy of this controversial group.---M.K.M. {ROL #82}

{D114} Courtney, J. 2000. Further comments on the taxonomic position of the Galah Cacatua roseicapilla. Australian Bird Watcher 18: 241--243. ('Ashgrove', Swan Vale, via Glen Innes, NSW 2370, Australia.)---Uses Mallophaga parasites to reinforce retention of Galah in Cacatua rather than monophyletic Eolophus.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{D114} Dean, W. R. J., & P. Steyn. 1999. On the generic and common names of Prinia robertsi. Ostrich 70: 237. (FitzPatrick Inst., Univ. Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, S. Africa; EM: recognition of the genus Oreophilus, and propose Robert's Warbler as common name.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{D114} Dove, C. J., & R. C. Banks. 1999. A taxonomic study of Crested Caracaras (Falconidae). Wilson Bull. 111: 330--339. (Dept. Vert. Zool., Natl. Mus. Nat. Hist., Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC 20560-0116, USA; EM: biological species identified: Guadalupe Caracara (Caracara lutosus), Northern Caracara (Caracara cheriway), Southern Caracara (Caracara plancus ).---J.J.Dos. {D702, C706, D103, E116} {ROL #82}

{D114} Gosselin, M. 2000. Taxonomy of the Cave Swallow Petrochelidon fulva. Birders Journal 9: 36. (Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa K1P 6P4, Can.)---A history of the genus, species and subspecies nomenclature; points out apparent errors in subspecies nomenclature of recent publications including the 1998 AOU check-list.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{D114} Graves, G. R. 1999. Taxonomic notes on hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae) 2. Popelairia letitiae (Bourcier & Mulsant, 1852) is a valid species. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 112: 804--812. (Dept. Vert. Zool., Nat. Mus. Nat. Hist., Washington, DC, 20560, USA.; EM: known from two specimens from Bolivia is neither an immature nor a geographic variant of Discosura longicauda.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{D114} James, D. 2000. Comments on albatross taxonomy and species concepts. Australasian Seabird Bulletin 36: 13--16. (PO Box 5225, Townsville Mail Ctr., Qld. 4810, Australia; EM: on proposed revision of species limits in family Diomedeidae.---P.S.L. {ROL #82}

{D114} Kajita, M. 1999. [Avian phylogeny using DNA analysis and taxonomy.] Japanese Journal of Ornithology 48: 5--45. (Yamashina Inst. Ornithol., 115 Konoyama, Abiko, Chiba 270-1145, Japan.)---A review of this subject. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---H.N. {D504} {ROL #82}

{D114} Maijer, S. 1998. Rediscovery of Hylopezus (macularius) auricularis: distinctive song and habitat indicate species rank. Auk 115: 1072--1073. (Ter Meulenplantsoen 20, 7524 CA Enschede, The Netherlands; EM: type locality in northern Bolivia; proposes Hylopezus auricularis and Masked Antpitta.---J.M.S. {B320, C908} {ROL #82}

{D114} Olson, S. L. 2000. Fossil Red-shouldered Hawk in the Bahamas: Calohierax quadratus Wetmore synonymized with Buteo lineatus (Gmelin). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 113(1): 298--301. (Dept. Vert. Zool., Nat. Mus. Nat. Hist., Washington, DC, 20560, USA.; EM: {E308} {ROL #82}

{D114} Pittaway, R. 1999. Taxonomic history of Thayer's Gull. Ontario Birds 17: 2--13. (Box 619, Minden, ON K0M 2K0, Can.)---Detailed chronological history of taxon currently considered as a distinct species, Larus thayeri, but variously classed as Larus argentatus thayeri and Larus glaucoides thayeri, with author's stated preference for the latter. Reasons for various treatments are given. Also includes much of the history of Kumlien's (Iceland) Gull, Larus glaucoides kumlieni, variously considered a full species, Larus kumlieni, a race of Iceland Gull and a hybrid between Iceland and Thayer's gulls.---M.K.M. {ROL #82}

{D114} Prum., R. O. 1994. Species status of the White-fronted Manakin, Lepidothrix serena (Pipridae), with comments on conservation biology. Condor 96: 692--702. (Mus. Nat. Hist., Univ. Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA.; EM: Lepidothrix serena suavissima (Tepui Manakin) is elevated to full species level because it is significantly different in plumage, syringeal morphology, and vocalizations from nominate serena with which there is no biological contact.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{D114} Ryan, P. G., & P. Bloomer. 1999. The Long-billed Lark complex: a species mosaic in southwestern Africa. Auk 116: 194--208. (Percy FitzPatrick Inst. African Ornithol., Univ. Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa; that the Certhilauda curvirostris complex be split into five distinct species.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{D300} Bryant, R., & I. L. Jones. 1999. Food resource use and diet overlap of Common and Thick-billed murres at the Gannet Islands, Labrador. Waterbirds 22: 392--400. (Biopsychol. Progr., Memorial Univ. Newfoundland, Saint John's, NF, A1B 3X9, Can.; EM: in diet and foraging habits between Uria aalge and Uria lomvia feeding young minimal, suggesting negligible resource partitioning between the two species.---R.B.C. {C922, D302, D306} {ROL #82}

{D300} Gloutney, M. L., et al. 1999. Use of supplemental food by breeding Ross's Geese and Lesser Snow Geese: evidence for variable anorexia. Auk 116: 97--108. (Ducks Unlimited Can., P.O. Box 430, #64 Hwy. 6, Amherst, NS B4H 3Z5, Can.; EM: that nutrition and reproduction in Chen rossii and Chen caerulescens are mediated by adaptations to long-term fluctuations in local population size and food resources.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{D300} Holroyd, G. L. 1999. Prairie Falcon scavenges a Gray Partridge. Alberta Nat. 29: 70. (Can. Wildl. Serv., Environ. Canada, Rm. 200, 4999-98 Ave., Edmonton, AB T6B 2X3, Can.)---Falco mexicanus lifted frozen carcass of Perdix perdix to fence post and ate part of it.---M.K.M. {ROL #82}

{D302} Anderson, P. C., O. B. Kok, & B. H. Erasmus. 1999. Diet, body mass and condition of Lesser Kestrels Falco naumanni in South Africa. Ostrich 70: 112--116. (McGregor Mus., PO Box 316, Kimberley 8300, S. Africa; EM: comprise 90% of diet; major groups by frequency are Solifugae, Orthoptera, Chilopoda, Isoptera. Females significantly heavier than males, but males maintain higher fat levels.---A.J.F.K.C. {E116} {ROL #82}

{D302} Avery, D. M. 1999. A preliminary assessment of the relationship between trophic variability in southern Africa Barn Owls Tyto alba and climate. Ostrich 70: 179--186. (S. African Mus., PO Box 61, Cape Town 8000, S. Africa; EM: in pellets analysed in relation to climatic variables. Gerbils Gerbillurus and mice Mastomys may provide information on past climates.---A.J.F.K.C. {C906, E308, E509} {ROL #82}

{D302} Avery, M. L., C. L. Schreiber, & D. G. Decker. 1999. Fruit sugar preferences of House Finches. Wilson Bull. 111: 84--88. (USDA, Anim. Plant Health Inspect. Serv., Natl. Wildl. Res. Ctr., Florida Field Stn., 2820 E Univ. Ave., Gainesville, FL 32641, USA; EM: may determine selection of hexose over sucrose by Carpodacus mexicanus.---J.J.Dos. {E118} {ROL #82}

{D302} Bellocq, M. I. 2000. A review of the trophic ecology of the Barn Owl in Argentina. J. Raptor Res. 34: 108--119. (Depto. Cienc. Biol., FCEN-Univ. Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab.2, Buenos Aires 1428, Argentina)---Tyto alba. {C924} {ROL #82}

{D302} Berkelman, J., J. D. Fraser, & R. T. Watson. 1999. Madagascar Fish-Eagle prey preference and foraging success. Wilson Bull. 111: 15--21. (Dept. Wildl. Ecol., Univ. Wisconsin, 226 Russell Labs, 1630 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 53706-1598, USA; EM: tilapia (Oreochromis spp., Tilapia spp.) accounted for the majority of Haliaeetus vociferoides diet and local fish abundance in similar proportion suggesting that the fish-eagle is an opportunistic predator and replacement of native prey by exotics has likely not been detrimental.---J.J.Dos. {D306} {ROL #82}

{D302} Bur, M. T., et al. 1999. Diet of the Double-crested Cormorant in western Lake Erie. USDA Anim. Plant Health Inspection Serv. Tech. Bull. 1879: 73--85. (USGS/BRD, Great Lakes Sci. Ctr., 6100 Columbus Ave., Sandusky, OH 44870 USA.)---Phalacrocorax auritus ate mostly small forage fish (e.g., gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides, and freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens), with no detrimental impacts to sport and commercial fishing.---J.L.T. {B504, selectivity} {ROL #82}

{D302} Bustnes, J. O. 1998. Selection of Blue Mussels, Mytilus edulis, by Common Eiders, Somateria mollissima , by size in relation to shell content. Can. J. Zool. 76: 1787--1790. (Found. Nat. Res. Cult. Heritage Res., Dept. Arctic Ecol., Polar Environ. Ctr., N-9005 Tromsø, Norway.)---Eiders evaluate mussel food content by shell size and morphology.---D.E.F. {ROL #82}

{D302} Bustnes, J. O., et al. 2000. The diet of Steller's Eiders wintering in Varangerfjord, northern Norway. Wilson Bull. 112: 8--13. (Norwegian Inst. Nat. Res., Dept. Arctic Ecol., Polar Environ. Ctr., N-9296 Tromsø, Norway; EM: Polysticta stelleri diet primarily consisted of gastropods (most common food category by number) and crustaceans (most common by mass). Adults ate more gastropods and juveniles consumed more crustaceans.---J.J.Dos. {C926} {ROL #82}

{D302} Capizzi, D., L. Caroli, & P. Varuzza. 1998. Feeding habits of sympatric Long-eared Owl Asio otus, Tawny Owl Strix aluco and Barn Owl Tyto alba in Mediterranean coastal woodland. Acta Ornith. 33: 85--92. (Instituto Nazionale per la Fauna Selvatica, Via Ca'Fornacetta 9, I-40064 Ozzano Emilia (Bologna) Italy.) {ROL #82}

{D302} Crins, B., & D. Strickland. 1999. More observations of White-winged Crossbills foraging on wood. Ontario Birds 17: 26. (170 Middlefield Rd., Peterborough, ON K9J 8G1, Can.)---Two instances of Loxia leucoptera foraging on rotting portions of trees or tree stumps.---M.K.M. {ROL #82}

{D302} Cuthbert, F. J., et al. 1999. Gizzard contents of Piping Plover chicks in northern Michigan. Wilson Bull. 111: 121--123. (Dept. Fish. Wildl., Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA; EM: and freshwater insects were the only prey identified in Charadrius melodus samples.---J.J.Dos. {B904} {ROL #82}

{D302} Duncan, R. B. 1999. Ambystoma tigrinum stebbinsi (Sonoran Tiger Salamander). Predation. Herpetol. Rev. 30: 159. (7441 Calle Maicoba, Tucson, AZ 85710, USA.)---Two adult turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) fed on larval or adult salamanders at the edge of a small drying pool.---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{D302} Edwards, C. E. 2000. Peregrine Falcons eat their relatives. Texas Birds 2(1): 21--22. (9500 McGregor Ln., Dripping Springs, TX 78620, USA.)---Falco peregrinus killed Falco sparverius.---J.B.O. {C912} {ROL #82}

{D302} Frick, M. G. 1998. Caretta caretta (Loggerhead Sea Turtle). Predation. Herpetol. Rev. 29: 234--235. (Caretta Res. Proj., P.O. Box 661, Tybee Island, GA 31328, USA; EM: sea turtles were fed upon by a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) at a coastal refuge in Georgia, USA. The predation occurred on two different days by presumably/possibly the same owl between 2100 and 2300 h.---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{D302} Goodman, S. M., & P. Parrillo. 1997. A study of the diets of Malagasy birds based on stomach contents. Ostrich 68: 104--113. (World Wide Fund for Nature, B.P. 738, Antananarivo (101), Madagascar; EM: stomachs of 20 non-passerine, 38 passerine species of primarily insectivorous birds. Coleoptera, Araneae, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera and Homoptera found in more than 50% of samples.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{D302} Goszczyñski, J. 1997. From hostility to cooperation---the interaction among predators. Wiad. Ekol. 43: 117--138. (Mus. Inst. Zoology PAS, Wilcza 64, PL 06 697 Warszawa, Poland.)---Mammal predators are the main object of the paper; about birds: predation of Buteo buteo on Mustela nivalis (up 68%), and use of nests of birds of prey by Martes martes.---J.K.P. (Polish, English summ.) {D106, B302} {ROL #82}

{D302} Grieco, F. 1999. Prey selection in the Blue Tits Parus caeruleus as a response to food levels. Acta Ornith. 34: 199--203. (Netherlands Inst. Ecol., Ctr. Terrestrial Ecol., POB 40, NL 6666 ZG Heteren, The Netherlands; EM: selectivity is related to time (or energy) budgets. Overfed males could deliver larger prey at late chick ages.---J.K.P. {ROL #82}

{D302} Harder, M. 2000. Diet and breeding biology of the Wedge-tailed Eagle Aquila audax at three nests in north-eastern New South Wales. Corella 24: 1--5. (3 Mellis Circuit, Alstonville, NSW 2477, Australia.)---Gives nesting period, growth rates, parental and foraging behaviour, and diet of 29 vertebrates; approximately one half mammals and a quarter each birds and reptiles by number.---I.D.E. {B702, B706, B720} {ROL #82}

{D302} Harrington, G. N., & S. J. S. Debus. 2000. Dietary items of the Rufous Owl Ninox rufa on the Atherton Tableland, North Queensland. Australian Bird Watcher 18: 251--252. (PO Box 680, Malanda, Qld. 4885, Australia.)---Adds three arboreal mammals to known food list.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{D302} Heinsohn, T. 2000. Predation by the White-breasted Sea Eagle, Haliaeetus leucogaster, on phalangerid possums in New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. Emu 100: 245--246. (People and the Environ. Sec., Natl. Mus. Aust., GPO Box 1901, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.) {ROL #82}

{D302} Hodder, K. H. 2000. Foraging behaviour of Eastern Curlews Numenius madagascariensis remaining in Roebuck Bay [Australia] after the breeding migration. Australian Bird Watcher 18: 183--191. (Inst. Terrestrial Ecol., Furzebrook Res. Stn., Wareham, Dorset, BH20 5AS, UK.)---Analysis of feeding methods, preferred habitat, foraging rate, diet, and inter- and intraspecific interactions for juvenile birds.---I.D.E. {D306, C908} {ROL #82}

{D302} Hunt, G. R. 2000. Tool use by the New Caledonian Crow Corvus moneduloides to obtain Cerambycidae from dead wood. Emu 100: 109--114. (Dept. Psychol., Univ. Auckland, Auckland 92019, New Zealand.)---First detailed description of tool-use by this species.---W.K.S. {B304, D306} {ROL #82}

{D302} Huyser, O. 1999. Predation upon a Lesser Sheathbill by a Southern Giant Petrel. Ostrich 70: 238. (FitzPatrick Inst., Univ. Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, S. Africa.)---Macronectes giganteus catching and eating Chionis minor.---A.J.F.K.C. {C912} {ROL #82}

{D302} Jones, M. S., J. P. Goettl, & L. J. Livo. 1999. Bufo boreas (Boreal Toad). Predation. Herpetol. Rev. 30: 91. (Colo. Div. Wildl., 317 W. Prospect, Fort Collins, CO 80526, USA.)---Toad tadpoles were consumed (200 in < 1 minute) by four captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos); observations of American Robins (Turdus migratorius) feeding on tadpoles were also reported.---I.L.B. {amphibians} {ROL #82}

{D302} Joy, S. M., R. T. Reynolds, & R. L. Knight. 1994. Feeding ecology of Sharp-shinned Hawks nesting in deciduous and coniferous forests in Colorado. Condor 96: 455--467. (Rocky Mountain For. Range Exp. Stn., 240 W. Prospect Rd., Fort Collins, CO 80526, USA.)---Accipiter striatus fed on small birds (91.1% frequency) and mammals with 60% of birds nestlings or fledglings during hawk nesting and fledging. Weight of birds taken decreased and proportion of mammals taken increased during those stages.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{D302} Korb, J., & V. Salewski. 2000. Predation on swarming termites by birds. Afr. J. Ecol. 38: 173--174. (CSIRO, Division of Entomol., GPO Box 1700, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia.)---Nearly 20 bird species took day-flying alates of Pseudacanthotermes cf. militaris in Côte d'Ivoire.---D.E.P. {D306, E509} {ROL #82}

{D302} Kyle, R. 1997. Reptiles as prey of the Brownhooded Kingfisher Halcyon albiventris at Kosi Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Ostrich 68: 122. (KwaZulu Dept. Nat. Conservation, PO Box 43, KwaNgwanase 3973, S. Africa.)---In garden, caught 2 snake, 7 lizard, and 2 amphibian species.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{D302} Master, T. L. 1999. Predation by Rufous Motmot on black-and-green poison dart frog. Wilson Bull. 111: 439--440. (Dept. Biol. Sci., East Stroudsburg Univ., East Stroudsburg, PA 18301, USA; EM: courtship feeding of Dendrobates auratus by male Baryphthengus martii to female (sexes presumed).---J.J.Dos. {B312} {ROL #82}

{D302} McCoid, M. J., et al. 1999. Scaphiopus holbrooki hurterii (Hurter's Spadefoot). Predation. Herpetol. Rev. 30: 94. (Dept. Biol., Campus Box 158, Texas A&M Univ., Kingsville, TX 78363, USA.)---Recently metamorphosed spadefoot toads were found in 25/1767 crops of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus ).---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{D302} McConnell, P. J., & N. G. Millikan. 1999. Vertebrates found in Cattle Egret chick regurgitates. Corella 23: 83--84. (Dept. Biol. Physical Sci., Univ. S. Qld., Toowoomba, Qld. 4350, Australia.)---One House Mouse (Mus musculus), 16 species of reptile and nine species of amphibian, including Cane Toad (Bufo marinus ), from Ardeola ibis coromanda.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{D302} Mikusek, R. 1999. Ryjówka górska Sorex alpinus w zrzutkach ptaków drapieznych i sów na Ziemi Klodzkiej (SudetySrodkowe) [Sorex alpinus in pellets of raptorial birds and owls in the Klodzko region (Central Sudetes [SW Poland])]. Chroñmy Przyrodê Ojczysta 55(5): 94--97. (Park Narodowy Gór Stolowych, Sloneczna 31, PL 57 350 Kudowa Zdrój, Poland; EM: (in Polish) {ROL #82}

{D302} Murza, G. L., G. R. Bortolotti, & R. D. Dawson. 2000. Handicapped American Kestrels: needy or prudent foragers? J. Raptor Res. 34: 137--142. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Saskatchewan, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon SK, Canada S7N 5E2)---Studies the effect of morphological abnormalities of wild Falco sparverius to determine the role that individual predator attributes may play in prey selection. Latency to attack tended to be longer for handicapped than for control males; there was no difference for females.---P.A.G. {ROL #82}

{D302} Norconk, M. A., C. Wertis, & W. G. Kinzey. 1997. Seed predation by monkeys and macaws in Eastern Venezuela: Preliminary findings. Primates 38: 177--184. (Dept. Anthropol., Kent State Univ., Kent, OH 44242-0001, USA.)---Ara chloropterus. {ROL #82}

{D302} Palis, J. G. 2000. Scaphiopus holbrookii (Eastern Spadefoot). Predation. Herpetol. Rev. 31: 42--43. (P.O. Box 387, Jonesboro, IL 62952, USA.)---Predation by a Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula).---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{D302} Peter, J. M. 2000. Birds and Boxthorn. Victorian Naturalist 117: 63--66. (Birds Australia, 415 Riversdale Rd., Hawthorn E., Vic. 3123, Australia.)---Six species, including Dicaeum hirundinaceum eating Lycium ferocissimum fruit and three species using bushes for shelter and refuge.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{D302} Pope, R. 2000. Strange behaviour of a Great Horned Owl. Birders Journal 9: 98--99. (41 Melrose Ave., Toronto, ON M5M 1Y6, Can.)---Bubo virginianus broke through ice to capture submerged muskrat (Odantra zibethicus), passing up nearby Anas platyrhynchos; owl remained in the water seven to eight minutes with prey submerged, after which it flew to shore with prey and began feeding.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{D302} Poulin, B, G. Lefebvre, & R. McNeil. 1994. Diets of land birds from northeastern Venezuela. Condor 96: 354--367. (Dept. Sci. Biol., Univ. Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, PQ H3C 3J7, Can.)---Estimates diets of 68 species based on 3,419 forced regurgitations. Most species generalists feeding most frequently on beetles, ants, insect larvae.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{D302} Rail, J. F., & G. Chapdelaine. 1998. Food of Double-crested Cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus, in the Gulf and Estuary of the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada. Can. J. Zool. 76: 635--643. (Can. Wildl. Serv., Quebec Region, P.O. Box 10 100, Ste-Foy, QC G1V 4H5, Can.) {ROL #82}

{D302} Recher, H. F., & R. T. Holmes. 2000. The foraging ecology of birds of eucalypt forest and woodland. I. Differences between males and females. Emu 100: 205--215. (Sch. Nat. Sci., Edith Cowan Univ., Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia.)---Intersexual differences in foraging behaviour of eucalypt forest bird species appears to be general and are most easily achieved by the sexes foraging at different heights.---W.K.S. {D306, B314} {ROL #82}

{D302} Riga, F., & D. Capizzi. 1999. Dietary habits of the Long-eared Owl Asio otus in the Italian peninsula. Acta Ornith. 34: 45--51. (Instituto Nazionale per la Fauna Selvatica, Via Ca'Fornacetta 9, I-40064 Ozzano Emilia (Bologna) Italy.)---The dietary diversity was positively correlated with the proportion of murids and negatively with arvicolis.---J.K.P. {ROL #82}

{D302} Rivas, J. A., C. R. Molina, & T. M. Avila. 1998. Iguana iguana (Green Iguana). Juvenile Predation. Herpetol. Rev. 29: 238--239. (Dept. Ecol. Evol. Biol., Univ. Tenn., Knoxville, TN 37996-0900, USA.)---Juveniles produced by communally-nesting iguanas suffer heavy predation from a number of species of birds. Predation by 22 bird species representing seven families is reported.---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{D302} Rose, A. B. 2000. Supplementary records of the diet of aquatic birds and waders in New South Wales. I: Seabirds. Australian Bird Watcher 18: 209--219. (Aust. Mus., 6 College St., Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia.)---Stomach contents, regurgitated pellets and observations for 17 species of Spheniscidae, Procellariidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Pelecanidae, Ardeidae, Scolopacidae, Haematopodidae, and Laridae.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{D302} Rose, A. B. 2000. Supplementary records of the diet of aquatic birds and waders in New South Wales. II: Waterbirds. Australian Bird Watcher 18: 220--228. (Aust. Mus., 6 College St., Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia.)---Stomach contents, regurgitated pellets and observations for 29 species of Anatidae, Podicipedidae, Ardeidae, Threskiornithidae, Ciconiidae, Rallidae, Scolopacidae, Recurvirostridae, Charadriidae and Laridae.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{D302} Ross, R. M., & J. H. Johnson. 1999. Fish losses to Double-crested Cormorant predation in eastern Lake Ontario, 1992--97. USDA Anim. Plant Health Inspection Serv. Tech. Bull. 1879: 61--70. (USGS/BRD, Res. Dev. Lab., R.R. #4, Box 63, Wellsboro, PA 16901 USA.)---Phalacrocorax auritus consumed 37--128 million individuals (equivalent to biomass of 1--3 million kg) annually; forage fish represented 65% of total, panfish 34%, and gamefish 1%. Major prey: introduced alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus 42%) and native yellow perch (Perca flavescens 18%). An initial 11% loss of stocked lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush ) was reduced to near zero by altering stocking practices.---J.L.T. {B504, C909, diet composition, digestive pellets, Little Galloo Island} {ROL #82}

{D302} Ruprecht, A. L., A. Szwagrzak, & R. Kosciów. 1998. Analysis of owl pellets from the Puszcza Nadnotecka forest complex (W Poland). Badan. Fizjogr. nad Polska Zach. ser. C Zool. 45: 81--103. (Polna 12 A m.27, PL 87 720 Ciechocinek, Poland.) (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{D302} Salata-Pilaciñska, B., & P. Tryjanowski. 1998. Diet composition of the Kestrel Falco tinnunculus L. and the Long-eared Owl Asio otus (L.) coexisting in farmland of the Mazowiecka Lowland (Poland). Przegl. Przyr. 9(3): 95--100. (Dept. Systematic Zoology, A. Mickiewicz Univ., Fredry 10, PL 61 701 Poznañ, Poland.) (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{D302} Schowalter, D. (T.), & R. Digby. 1999. New distribution records of small mammals from Alberta from Great Horned Owl pellets. Alberta Nat. 29: 82--83. (Box 202, Delia, AB T0J 0W0, Can.)---Data on 2 shrew, 2 lagomorph and 5 rodent species as prey of Bubo virginianus.---M.K.M. {ROL #82}

{D302} Tarburton, M. K. 2000. Whistling Kite (Haliastur sphenurus) kills and eats Green Pygmy Goose (Nettapus pulchellus). Muruk 8: 90. (Pac. Adventist Univ., PMB Boroko, Papua New Guinea.)---Detailed description of the dismembering and eating of prey.---I.R. {C912} {ROL #82}

{D302} Todd, M. K. 2000. Feeding ecology of Latham's Snipe Gallinago hardwickii in the lower Hunter Valley [New South Wales]. Emu 100: 133--138. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Newcastle, University Dr., Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.)---Feeding rates, feeding success and diet determined for various sites and microhabitats.---W.K.S. {D306, C908} {ROL #82}

{D302} Tozer, R. 1999. White-winged Crossbills eating wood ash. Ontario Birds 17: 27--29. (1017 Spring Lake Rd., R.R. 1, Dwight, ON P0A 1H0, Can.)---One male and 2 female Loxia leucoptera foraging on wood ash, with review of wood ash consumption by other bird species.---M.K.M. {ROL #82}

{D302} Utekhina, I., E. Potapov, & M. J. McGrady. 2000. Diet of the Steller's Sea Eagle in the Northern Sea of Okhotsk. In: Ueta, M., & McGrady, M. J. (eds). First Symposium on Steller's and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia: 71--82. Tokyo: Wild Bird Soc. Japan. (Magadan State Reserve, Portovaya str. 9, Magadan 685000, Russia; EM: of Haliaeetus pelagicus .---M.J.U. {ROL #82}

{D302} Vandermast, D. B. 1999. Elaphe obsoleta (black rat snake). Antipredator behavior. Herpetol. Rev. 30: 169. (Dept. For. Res., Clemson Univ., 261 Lehotsky Hall, Clemson, SC 29634, USA; EM: description of the snake's defense against an attack by Buteo jamaicensis in central South Carolina, USA.---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{D302} Verbeek, N. A. M. 1998. Food of nestling Northwestern Crows. Wilson Bull. 110: 483--488. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Can.)---Corvus caurinus diet consisted of marine and terrestrial invertebrates and vertebrates, and fruit. During low tide 67% of the diet by dry weight was from terrestrial sources.---J.J.Dos. {B720, B718} {ROL #82}

{D302} Vogeley, W. 1998. The availability, requirements and usage of carcasses by Cape Vultures Gyps coprotheres in southeastern Botswana. Babbler 33: 17--21. (Galgenberg 63, D--34346 Hann. Muenden, Germany.)---Quantitative estimates made.---N.J.S. {ROL #82}

{D302} Wienecke, B., et al. 2000. Winter diet of Emperor Penguins. Australasian Seabird Bulletin 36: 8. (Aust. Antarct. Div., Channel Hwy., Kingston, Tas. 7050, Australia; EM: of Aptenodytes forsteri includes squid; samples of squid beaks and otoliths collected from birds at sea were compared to those from colony at Dumont Durville, Antarctica.---P.S.L. {ROL #82}

{D302} Willson, M. F. 1994. Fruit choices by captive American Robins. Condor 96: 494--502. (The Nat. Conservancy, 8 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60603, USA.; EM: Turdus migratorius often favored blue, sometimes red over yellow or green but there was considerable individual variation and mixed evidence for selection on macronutrient level.---R.B.C. {C924, E118} {ROL #82}

{D302} Wong, L. C., et al. 1999. Foraging flights of nesting egrets and herons at a Hong Kong egretry, South China. Waterbirds 22: 424--434. (Dept. Ecol. Biodiversity, Univ. Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China.; EM: coastal waters primary feeding habitat of Casmerodius albus and Egretta garzetta ; Nycticorax nycticorax preferred mangroves and fishponds and Bubulcus ibis preferred freshwater marsh and abandoned paddies. Longest flights by Bubulcus, shortest by Nycticorax at low tide.---R.B.C. {C908} {ROL #82}

{D302} Zawadzka, D. 1999. Feeding habits of the Black Kite Milvus migrans, Red Kite Milvus milvus, White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla and Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina in Wigry National Park (NE Poland). Acta Ornith. 34: 65--75. (25 czerwca 68 b / 15, PL 26 600 Radom, Poland.) {ROL #82}

{D306} Collins, M., J. M. Cullen, & P. Dann. 1999. Seasonal and annual foraging movements of Little Penguins from Phillip Island, Victoria. Wildlife Research 26: 705--721. (Sch. Ecol. Environ., Deakin Univ., Clayton, Vic. 3168, Australia.)---Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) were radio-tracked at sea during incubation, chick-rearing and non-breeding periods from 1991 to 1993.---M.G.B. {D302, B316} {ROL #82}

{D306} Cook, B., & R. Lamb. 2000. Square-tailed Kite eating snake on roadside. Australian Bird Watcher 18: 249--251. (34 Sutton Grange Rd., Elphinstone, Vic. 3448, Australia.)---Unusual sighting of Lophoictinia isura eating on ground.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{D306} Cooper, C. 2000. Food manipulation by southwest Australian Cockatoos. Eclectus 8: 3--9. (Zool. Dept., Univ. WA, Nedlands, WA 6907, Australia.)---Describes feeding trials with five species of captive cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii samueli, Calyptorhynchus banksii naso, Calyptorhynchus latirostris, Calyptorhynchus baudinii and Cacatua pastinator) offered four different seeds contained in tough protective casings (Corymbia calophylla, Eucalyptus marginata , Allocasuarina fraseriana and Prunus dulcis). All four Calyptorhynchus species managed to remove seeds from the four foods offered; Cacatua pastinator could only cope with the almonds ( Prunus dulcis). The techniques used by the different species are described and illustrated.---I.R. {ROL #82}

{D306} Dann, P. 1999. Foraging behaviour and diets of Red-necked Stints and Curlew Sandpipers in south-eastern Australia. Wildlife Research 27: 61--68. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3052, Australia.)---Diet and feeding behaviour of Calidris ruficollis and Calidris ferruginea feeding in mixed flocks during the non-breeding season were investigated. Curlew Sandpipers took a wider variety of taxa than Red-necked Stints.---M.G.B. {ROL #82}

{D306} Endo, N., & Y. Sawara. 2000. [Diel rhythmic activity and foraging site utilization of the Black-crowned Night Heron in its breeding season.] Japanese Journal of Ornithology 48: 183--196. (Dept. Bioproduction, Fac. Agric. & Life Sci., Hirosaki Univ., 3 Bunkyo-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8561, Japan.)---Foraging sites of Nycticorax nycticorax during breeding season switched between paddy fields in daytime to rivers at night. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---H.N. {B308, C908} {ROL #82}

{D306} Green, A. J. 1998. Comparative feeding behaviour and niche organization in a Mediterranean duck community. Can. J. Zool. 76: 500--507. (Estacion Biol. Doñana, Ave. Maria Luisa s/n, Pabellon del Peru, 41013 Sevilla, Spain.)---Studies feeding behaviour of Marmaronetta angustirostris, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas querquedula , & Aythya nyroca in Turkey.---D.E.F. {ROL #82}

{D306} Heinrich, B. 1999. Planning to facilitate caching: possible suet cutting by a Common Raven. Wilson Bull. 111: 276--278. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA.)--- Corvus corax. {B304} {ROL #82}

{D306} Jones, J. 1999. Cooperative foraging in the Mountain Caracara in Peru. Wilson Bull. 111: 437--439. (Dept. Biol., Queen's Univ., Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Can.; EM: Phalcoboenus megalopterus individuals work together to turn over rocks to obtain prey from beneath.---J.J.Dos. {B314, C920} {ROL #82}

{D306} Kleintjes, P. J., & D. L. Dahlsten. 1994. Foraging behavior and nestling diet of Chestnut-backed Chickadees in Monterey pine. Condor 96: 647--653. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Wisconsin, Eau Claire, WI 54702, USA.; EM: rufescens foraged largely by perch-gleaning and hang-gleaning prey from outer needles of upper crown of Pinus radiata. Nestlings were fed mostly sawfly larvae (Acantholyda burkei: 43%) and tree camel crickets (Gammarotettix bilobatus: 17%).---R.B.C. {D302, B718} {ROL #82}

{D306} Levey, D. J. 1999. Foraging Ovenbird follows armadillo. Wilson Bull. 111: 443--444. (Dept. Zool., P.O. Box 118525, Univ. Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-8525, USA; EM: Seiurus aurocapillus followed nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus ), likely to catch flushed insects.---J.J.Dos. {C924} {ROL #82}

{D306} Lovett, R. 1998. Caching behaviour in Pied Crows Corvus albus. Babbler 34: 37. (P.O. Box 77, Shashe, Botswana.) {ROL #82}

{D306} McDonald, M. A., & M. H. Smith. 1994. Behavioral and morphological correlates of heterochrony in Hispaniolan Palm-tanagers. Condor 96: 433--446. (MHS: SREL, P.O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802, USA.; EM: Phaenicophilus palmarum varied from adults in 5 of 8 foraging variables; Phaenicophilus poliocephalus juveniles in 4 of 8 foraging variables, choice of substrate and average flight distance; gives reasons why poliocephalus thought to be a paedomorphic derivative of palmarum.---R.B.C. {D112} {ROL #82}

{D306} McKnight, S. K. 1998. Effect of food abundance and environmental parameters on foraging behavior of Gadwalls and American Coots in winter. Can. J. Zool. 76: 1993--1998. (Ducks Unlimited, Inc., One Waterfowl Way, Memphis, TN 38120-2351, USA.)---Anas strepera, Fulica americana. {ROL #82}

{D306} Oka, N., et al. 1999. Habitat selection by wintering Tufted Ducks with special reference to their digestive organ and to possible segregation between neighbouring populations. Ecological Research 14: 303--315. (Yamashina Inst. Ornithol., 115 Konoyama, Abiko, Chiba 270-1145, Japan.)---Two wintering populations of Aythya fuligula were estimated to consume 4,970 t of mussels and 4,770 t of clams during a wintering season.---H.N. {C908} {ROL #82}

{D306} Osiejuk, T. S. 1998. Study on the intersexual differentiation of foraging niche in relation to abundance of winter food in Great Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos major. Acta Ornith. 33: 135--141. (Dept. Animal Morphology, A. Mickiewicz Univ., Szamarzewskiego 91a PL 60 569 Poznañ, Poland EM: was a behavioural adaptation depending on food availability.---J.K.P. {ROL #82}

{D306} Ostrand, W. D. 1999. Marbled Murrelets as initiators of feeding flocks in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Waterbirds 22: 314--318. (USFWS, 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, AK 99503 USA; EM: marmoratus, the most abundant seabird in the area, began feeding flock activities 76% of the time.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{D306} Quintana, F. 1999. Diving behavior of Rock Shags at a Patagonian colony of Argentina. Waterbirds 22: 466--471. (Centro Nac. Patagónico, CONICET, (9120) Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina.; EM: efficiency (dive time/recovery time) higher in adult Phalacrocorax magellanicus than reported for any other foot-propelled diver. Data given on dive duration, surface intervals.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{D306} Rompre, G., & R. McNeil. 1994. Seasonal changes in day and night foraging of Willets in northeastern Venezuela. Condor 96: 734--738. (Dept. Sci. Biol., Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, PQ H3C 3J7, Can.)---Catoptrophorus semipalmatus fed at night as often as during the day, except in autumn when more fed at night. Proportion of birds feeding at night was greater in Oct-Nov than Dec-Jan, but more fed night and day in preparation for spring migration.---R.B.C. {C926} {ROL #82}

{D306} Schmutz, J. A. 1994. Age, habitat and tide effects on feeding activity of Emperor Geese during autumn migration. ÊCondor 96: 46--51. (Alaska Fish Wildl. Cent., USGS/BRD, 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, AK 99503, USA; EM: joel_ canagica on the Alaska Peninsula mostly fed during low tide, roosting during high tide but birds continued to feed during relatively high tides in Mytilus edulus beds or in vegetated habits. Juveniles fed more than adults with mussel habitats most preferred by both.---R.B.C. {C926} {ROL #82}

{D306} Spilling, E., H.-H. Bergmann, & M. Meier. 1999. [Flock sizes in foraging White-fronted and Bean Geese in the Elbe Valley and their effects on flight distance and time budget.] J. Ornithol. 140: 325--334. (AG Gänseforschung, Abt. Ethologie, FB Biologie/Chemie, Univ. Osnabrück, D-49069 Osnabrück, FRG.)--- Anser fabalis, Anser albifrons. (German, English summary.) {B308} {ROL #82}

{D306} Van Balen, S., & W. N. Rombang. 1999. Foraging of Royal Spoonbills. Waterbirds 22: 472--473. (Trop. Nat. Conserv. Vertebr. Ecol. Group, Wageningen Agric. Univ., Bornsesteeg 69, 6708 PD, Wageningen, Netherlands.; EM: Bas.vanBalen@STAF.TON.WAU.NL)---Previously unreported foraging behavior in Platalea regia in Indonesian New Guinea.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{D306} Warkentin, I. G., & E. S. Morton. 2000. Flocking and foraging behavior of wintering Prothonotary Warblers. Wilson Bull. 112: 88--98. (Environ. Sci., Sir Wilfred Grenfell Coll., Memorial Univ. Newfoundland, Corner Brook NF A2H 6P9, Can.; EM: of social context (solitary, single-species and mixed-species flocks) on Protonotaria citrea. Most individuals moved in flocks and most flocks were single-species. 27 different species were identified in mixed-species flocks. Foraging behavior was largely independent of flock type and size.---J.J.Dos. {C926} {ROL #82}

{D306} Watson, M. J., & J. J. Hatch. 1999. Differences in foraging performance between juvenile and adult Roseate Terns at a pre-migratory staging area. Waterbirds 22: 463--465. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Blvd., Dorchester, MA, 02125, USA.; EM: week-old Sterna dougallii at Nantucket Island, Massachusetts captured food less frequently (0.27 prey captures/min) and less often (0.15 prey captures/attempt) than adults (0.98 prey captures/min; 0.52 prey captures/attempt).---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{D306} Winkler, H., & M. Preleuthner. 1999. The ecomorphology of Neotropical frugivores. Acta Ornith. 34: 141--148. (Inst. f. Vergl. Verhaltensforsch. Österr. Akad. Wiss., Savoyenstr. 1a, A 1160 Wien, Austria; EM: {E116} {ROL #82}

{D306} Zieliñski, P., & Z. Wojciechowski. 1999. Feeding frequency in the Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica in relation to time of the day. Acta Ornith. 34: 85--88. (Dept. Ecology & Vertebrate Zoology, Univ. LódZ, Banacha 12/16 PL 90 237 LódZ, Poland; EM: {ROL #82}

{D308} McNair, D. B. 1991. Inland records of Brant in the Carolinas and observation of kleptoparasitic behavior. Chat 55: 55--57. (303 Robinson St., Rockingham, NC 28379 USA.)---A lone Branta bernicla hrota usually stole only a portion of submerged green algae brought to surface by Fulica americana.---E.F.P. {C318} {ROL #82}

{D308} Squires, J. R. 1998. Attempted kleptoparasitism of Ospreys by Great Blue Herons. Wilson Bull. 110: 560. (Univ. Montana, For. Sci. Lab., P.O. Box 8089, Missoula, MN 59807, USA; EM: Pandion haliaetus, Ardea herodias. {ROL #82}

{D308} Vickery, J. A., & M. de L. Brooke. 1994. The kleptoparasitic interactions between Great Frigatebirds and Masked Boobies on Henderson Island, South Pacific. Condor 96: 331--340. (Div. Biol. Sci., Univ. Edinburgh, Ashworth Lab., West Mains Rd., Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK.)---Fregata minor attacked Sula dactylatra mostly at dusk, when boobies returned singly and low over water from at-sea. 16% of chases successful; they lasted longer when chases of distant or high targets; suggests Fregata may be getting >5% of daily energy demands from kleptoparasitism.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{D502} Kuznetsov, S. B., V. V. Baranyuk, & J. Y. Takekawa. 1998. Genetic differentiation between wintering populations of Lesser Snow Geese nesting on Wrangel Island. Auk 115: 1053--1057. (JYT: USGS, West. Ecol. Res. Ctr., San Francisco Bay Estuary Field Stn., 1408 Mesa Rd., Vallejo, CA 94592, USA; EM: that some genetic differentiation exists in Chen caerulescens caerulescens .---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{D502} Phillips, R. A., & R. W. Furness. 1998. Measurement of heritability of hatching date and chick condition in Parasitic Jaegers. Can. J. Zool. 76: 2290--2294. (Wildfowl Wetlands Trust Caerlaverock, Caerlaverock, Dumfries, DG1 4RS, United Kingdom.)---Stercorarius parasiticus. {ROL #82}

{D502} Takagi, M. 1999. [Inbreeding in wild avian populations.] Japanese Journal of Ornithology 48: 61--81. (Dept. Biol., Fac. Sci., Osaka City Univ., Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585, Japan.)---Review of the subject. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---H.N. {ROL #82}

{D502} Zajac, T. 1997. Measurement of directional selection on quantitative traits in the wild. Wiad. Ekol. 43: 3--21. (Instytut Ochrony Przyrody PAN, Lubicz 46, PL 31 512 Kraków, Poland; EM: major (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{D502} Zajac, T. 1999. Phenotypic selection. Wiad. Ekol. 45: 301--319. (Instytut Ochrony Przyrody PAN, Lubicz 46, PL 31 512 Kraków, Poland; EM: (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{D502} Zajac, T. 1999. Phenotypic selection on body size in the Great Tit Parus major (Niepolomice Forest, Poland). Acta Ornith. 34: 219--226. (Instytut Ochrony Przyrody PAN, Lubicz 46, PL 31 512 Kraków, Poland; EM: {ROL #82}

{D504} Glenn, T., W. Stephan, & M. Braun. 1999. Effects of a population bottleneck on Whooping Crane mitochondrial DNA variation. Conserv. Biol. 13: 1097--1107. (Savannah River Ecol. Lab., Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802, USA; EM: americana. {ROL #82}

{D504} Van Kaam, J. B. C. H. M., et al. 1999. Whole genome scan in chickens for quantitative trait loci affecting growth and feed efficiency. Poult. Sci. 78: 15--23. (Anim. Breed. Genetics Group, Wageningen Inst. Anim. Sci., Wageningen Agric. Univ., P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH, Wageningen, The Netherlands; EM: domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus) a quantitative trait locus having an effect on feed intake traits was found on Chromosome 4 at 147 cM. An additional locus affecting feed intake adjusted for body weight, was located on Chromosome 2 at 41 cM.---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{D504} Van Kaam, J. B. C. H. M., et al. 1999. Whole genome scan in chickens for quantitative trait loci affecting carcass traits. Poult. Sci. 78: 1091--1099. (Anim. Breed. Genetics Group, Wageningen Inst. Anim. Sci., Wageningen Agric. Univ., P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH, Wageningen, The Netherlands; EM: most significant quantitative trait locus affecting carcass traits (and by inference body composition) of domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus ) was located on Chromosome 1 at 466 cM.---I.L.B. {three generation design, regression} {ROL #82}

{D508} Dowsett-Lemaire, F. 1999. Hybridization in paradise flycatchers (Terpsiphone rufiventer, T. batesi and T. viridis) in Ondzala National Park, Northern Congo. Ostrich 70: 123--126. (Rue des Lavandes 12, F--34190 Ganges, France; EM: of 23 birds in swamp forest considered hybrids between Terpsiphone batesi and Terpsiphone rufiventer. Interspecific territorial defence occurs. One hybrid sang like Terpsiphone viridis , and may have been multiple hybrid.---A.J.F.K.C. {B320, B316} {ROL #82}

{D508} Graves, G. R. 1999. Diagnoses of hybrid hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae). 8. A provisional hypothesis for the hybrid origin of Zodalia glyceria (Gould, 1858). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 112: 491--502. (Dept. Vert. Zool., Nat. Mus. Nat. Hist., Washington, DC, 20560, USA.; EM: victoriae × Chalcostigma herrani.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{D508} Hoag, D. J. 1999. Hybridization between Clay-colored Sparrow and Field Sparrow in northern Vermont. Wilson Bull. 111: 581--584. (173 W Shore Rd., Grand Isle, VT 05458, USA; EM: male Spizella pallida x Spizella pusilla hybrid defended a territory and mated with female Spizella pusilla, producing one fledgling.---J.J.Dos. {B320} {ROL #82}

{D508} Lloyd, P., A. J. F. K. Craig, P. E. Hulley, M. Faadiel Essop, P. Bloomer, & T. M. Crowe. 1997. Ecology and genetics of hybrid zones in the southern African Pycnonotus bulbul species complex. Ostrich 68: 90--96. (FitzPatrick Inst., Univ. Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, S. Africa.)---Pycnonotus barbatus, Pycnonotus capensis, and Pycnonotus nigricans hybridise extensively along narrow zones of sympatry. In E. Cape, S. Africa, zones coincide with ecotones between different vegetation types.---A.J.F.K.C. {C908, D112} {ROL #82}

{D508} Lockwood, M. W., & T. W. Cooper. 1999. A Texas hybrid: Cinnamon X Green-winged Teal. Texas Birds 1(2): 38--40. (Texas Parks & Wildl. Dept., 4200 Smith School Rd., Austin, TX 78744, USA.)---Anas cyanoptera X Anas crecca was photographed in Cameron Co., TX during April 1998.---J.B.O. {ROL #82}

{D508} McKearnan, J., et al. 1999. Possible hybrid gull in Delta Co. [Michigan]. Michigan Birds Nat. Hist. 6: 23--24. (Dept. Fish. Wildl., 200 Hodson Hall, Univ. Minn., St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.)---Larus delawarensis × Larus atricilla or Larus pipixcan. {ROL #82}

{D702} Buerkle, C. A. 2000. Morphological variation among migratory and non-migratory populations of Prairie Warblers. Wilson Bull. 112: 99--107. (200 W. Kawili St., Dept. Biol., Univ. Hawaii Hilo, Hilo, HI 96720, USA; EM: discolor morphological differences coincide with differences in behavior and mitochondrial DNA supporting the recognition of two subspecies and potentially independent evolutionary lineages.---J.J.Dos. {D502, D108, E114, E116} {ROL #82}

{D702} Dittmann, D. L., & S. W. Cardiff. 1999. Let's take another look---Ruby-throated Hummingbird & its lookalikes. Louisiana Ornithol. Soc. News 188: 11--19. (435 Pecan Dr., St. Gabriel, LA 70776, USA.)---Provides descriptions of Archilochus colubris, Archilochus alexandri, Stellula calliope, Calypte anna, Calypte costae.---J.B.O. {ROL #82}

{D702} Hawkins. F., R. Safford, W. Duckworth, & M. Evans. 1997. Field identification and status of the sunbird asities Neodrepanis of Madagascar. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 4: 36--41. (BP8511, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar.)---Includes sonograms, colour photographs and comments on distribution and status, general habits and conservation requirements of Neodrepanis coruscans and Neodrepanis hypoxantha.---G.M.K. {C304} {ROL #82}

{D702} Heindel, M., & P. Pyle. 1999. Identification of Yellow-bellied and "Western" Flycatchers. Birders Journal 8: 78--87. (4891 Royce Rd., Irvine, CA 92612, USA.)---Empidonax flaviventris, Empidonax difficilis and Empidonax occidentalis; eye ring, shape and flight feathers aid in identification, but field identification in the field is difficult.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{D702} Herremans, M. 1997. Shortclawed Lark Certhilauda chuana clutch from Belfast (Mpumalanga) [South Africa]---a correction. Ostrich 68: 121. (Dept. Zoo., R. Mus. C. Africa, Leeuvensesteenweg 13, B--3080, Tervuren, Belgium; EM: on egg size, markings, and habitat preferences, this record is assigned to Certhilauda curvirostris.---A.J.F.K.C. {B710, C304} {ROL #82}

{D702} Howell, N. G., & C. Corben. 2000. Identification of Thayer's-like gulls: the Herring X Glaucous-winged Gull problem. Birders Journal 9: 25--33. (Point Reyes Bird Observatory, 4990 Shoreline Highway, Stinson Beach, CA 94970, USA.)---Descriptions and photographs of younger age-class gulls assumed to be Larus argentatus X Larus glaucescens but parentage unknown; comparison with Larus thayeri and apparent Larus occidentalis X Larus glaucescens .---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{D702} Hubbard, J. P. 1999. A critique of Wang Yong and Finch's field-identifications of Willow Flycatcher subspecies in New Mexico. Wilson Bull. 111: 585--588. (Rt. 5, Box 431, Española, NM 87532, USA.)---Empidonax traillii in Wilson Bull. 109: 253--268.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{D702} Jaramillo, A., & D. Beadle. 1999. Identification of female Cassin's and Purple Finches. Birders Journal 8: 289--295. (San Francisco Bay Bird Obs., P.O. Box 247, Alviso, CA 95002, USA.)---Carpodacus cassinii and Carpodacus purpureus can be differentiated by structure and flight calls; identification by plumage is complicated by differences between Carpodacus purpureus californicus and eastern subspecies of Carpodacus purpureus; with color photos and color plates.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{D702} King, J. R., & G. J. Carey. 1999. Slaty-backed Gull hybridization and variation in adult upperparts colour. Birders Journal 8: 88--93. (Point Reyes Bird Observatory, 4990 Shoreline Highway, Stinson Beach, CA 94970, USA.)---Variation in Larus schistisagus due to individual and seasonal variation, lighting conditions and known hybridization with Larus argentatus vegae and Larus glaucescens .---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{D702} Knapton, R. 2000. Identification of Bewick's Swans. Birders Journal 9: 130--133. (Dept. Behav. & Nat. Sci., Univ. Coll. Cape Breton, Sydney, NS B1P 6L2, Can.)---Summary of literature on separating Cygnus columbianus bewickii from Cygnus columbianus columbianus; yellow on upper bill occupies as little as 22% of area in bewickii and as much as 16% in columbianus; illustrated with photos and paintings.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{D702} Lane, B. A., & D. I. Rogers*. 2000. The Australian Painted Snipe Rostratula (benghalensis) australis: an endangered species? Stilt 36: 26--34. (*Johnstone Ctr., Charles Sturt Univ., PO Box 789, Albury, NSW 2640, Australia.)---Recommends treating Australian population as a full species Rostratula australis on morphological, plumage and call characteristics, and reclassifying it as "endangered" due to decline in reporting rate and habitat degradation.---I.D.E. {B904, B320, D114} {ROL #82}

{D702} Payne, R. B. 1997. Field identification of the brood-parasitic whydahs Vidua and Cuckoo Finch Anomalospiza imberbis. Bull. Afr. Bird Club 4: 18--28. (Mus. Zool. And Dept. of Biol., Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.)---Includes two colour plates.---G.M.K. {B704} {ROL #82}

{D702} Yong, W., & D. M. Finch. 1999. Response. Wilson Bull. 111: 589--592. (DMF: USDA For. Serv., Rocky Mtn. For. Res. Stn., 2205 Columbia SE, Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA; EM: Finch_Deborah_M/ to Hubbard's (Wilson Bull. 111: 585--588) critique of field-identifications of Empidonax traillii subspecies in New Mexico in Wilson Bull. 109: 253--268.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{D702} Zimmer, K. J., & A. Whittaker. 2000. Species limits in Pale-tipped Tyrannulets (Inezia: Tyrannidae). Wilson Bull. 112: 51--66. (1665 Garcia Rd., Atascadero, CA 93422, USA; EM: subflava consists of two species-level groups differing in vocal, plumage, and biometric characters. Vocal differences alone may be enough to produce reproductive isolation.---J.J.Dos. {B320, C330, E116, E522} {ROL #82}

{D704} Bertault, G., et al. 1999. Sex determination in Greater Flamingo chicks through DNA analysis. Waterbirds 22: 282--284. (Dept. Ornithol.; Stn. Biol. de la Tour du Valat, F-13200, Arles, France; EM: not only on Phoenicopterus ruber roseus, but also on Phoenicopterus chilensis.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{D704} Broughton, J. M. 1994. Size of the bursa of Fabricius in relation to gonad size and age in Laysan and Black-footed albatrosses. Condor 96: 203--207. (Burke Mus., DB 10, Univ. Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.)---Analysis of known-age (10 Diomedea immutabilis ; 8 Diomedea nigripes) salvaged from gill-nets 1990--91 and banded in Kauai, Midway Atoll and French Frigate Shoals, Hawaii. Bursa size good indicator of age, those > 600 mm² newly fledged birds, those <500 and >75 1.5--4.5 years; small (<50), vestigial or absent in breeding birds.---R.B.C. {E620} {ROL #82}

{D704} Carlsson, B. G., & B. Hornfeldt. 1994. Determination of nestling age and laying date in Tengmalm's Owl: Use of wing length and body mass. Condor 96: 555--559. (Dept. Anim. Ecol., Univ. Umea, S-901 87 Umea, Sweden.)---Wing length more reliable than mass with Age (days) = (-1.023+log(WL)/0.0444 for Aegolius funereus young with WL<27 mm and age = %(2887-(33.70+WL)/0.06855) for young with WL>27 mm.---R.B.C. {B720} {ROL #82}

{D704} Luck, G. W. 1999. Plumage and size variations in adult and juvenile Rufous Treecreepers Climacteris rufa. Corella 23: 77--82. (Ctr. Ecosystem Manage., Edith Cowan Univ., Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia.)---Full plumage descriptions with colour standards. Characteristics differed between sexes in adults and juveniles, and between adults and juveniles of the same sex.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{D704} Morioka, T. 2000. Aging by molt patterns of flight feathers of non-adult Steller's Sea Eagle. In : Ueta, M., & McGrady, M. J. (eds). First Symposium on Steller's and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia: 11--16. Tokyo: Wild Bird Soc. Japan. (1-41-17-103 Kamishakujii, Nerima-ku, Tokyo 177-0044, Japan.)---Moult patterns and aging of Haliaeetus pelagicus.---M.J.U. {E114} {ROL #82}

{D704} Niizuma, Y., et al. 1999. Sexing by external measurements of adult Rhinoceros Auklets breeding on Teuri Island. Japanese Journal of Ornithology 48: 145--150. (Lab. Appl. Zool., Fac. Agric., Hokkaido Univ., Kita-9, Nishi-9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8589, Japan.)--- Cerorhinca monocerata. {E116} {ROL #82}

{D900} Berthold, P. 1999. A comprehensive theory for the evolution, control and adaptability of avian migration. Ostrich 70: 1--11. (Res. Unit Ornithology Max Planck Society, Vogelwarte Radolfzell, Schlossallee 2, Schloss Moeggingen, D-78315 Radolfzell, Germany; EM: partial migration as the original condition for birds, from which migratory or sedentary behaviour has evolved; either can also be lost secondarily.---A.J.F.K.C. {D105} {ROL #82}

{D900} Swanson, D. L., E. T. Liknes, & K. L Dean. 1999. Differences in migratory timing and energetic condition among sex/age classes in migrant Ruby-crowned Kinglets. Wilson Bull. 111: 61--69. (Dept. Biol., Univ. South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069-2309, USA; EM: Regulus calendula migrated significantly earlier in the spring and later in the fall than females. Adults tended to be fatter than juveniles in autumn and had higher condition index values.---J.J.Dos. {D904, D906, E118} {ROL #82}

{D902} Scott, T. A. 1994. Irruptive dispersal of Black-shouldered Kites to a coastal island. Condor 96: 197--200. (Dept. Earth Sci., Univ. Calif., Riverside, CA 92521, USA.)---26 Elanus caeruleus moving from mainland California at least 80 km to offshore San Clemente Island.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{D902} Yarris, G. S., M. R. McLandress, & A. E. H. Perkins. 1994. Molt migration of postbreeding female Mallards from Suisun Marsh, California. ÊCondor 96: 36--45. (California Waterfowl Assoc., 4630 Northgate Blvd., Suite 150, Sacramento, CA 95834, USA.)---34 Anas platyrhynchos tracked in 1987 by radiotelemetry began leaving late May, 50% by mid-June; 25 of 27 migrated north, 9 of 20 molting in southern Oregon, 11 further north in California at distances of 12--536 km from nesting sites.---R.B.C. {E114} {ROL #82}

{D904} Adamczyk, Z., A. Dombrowski, & H. Kot. 1998. Water birds on fish ponds of Poludniowopodlaska Lowland during autumn migration. Kulon 3: 123--150. (A. D.: Swierkowa 18, PL 08 110 Siedlce, Poland.) (Polish, English summ.) {ROL #82}

{D904} Binford, L. C., et al. 1999. Timing of bird migration on the Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan. Michigan Birds Nat. Hist. 6: 121--152. (Mus. Nat. Sci., 119 Foster Hall, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA 70843, USA.)---28 years of migration dates for 189 species for this region in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.---J.A.C. {ROL #82}

{D904} Bishop, M. A., & N. Warnock. 1998. Migration of Western Sandpipers: Links between their Alaskan stopover areas and breeding grounds. Wilson Bull. 110: 457--462. (Copper River Delta Inst., Pacific NW Res. Stn., USDA For. Serv., P.O. Box 1460, Cordova, AK 99574, USA; EM: Delta is final breeding destination for many Calidris mauri migrating through San Francisco and other Pacific Coast areas.---J.J.Dos. {ROL #82}

{D904} Black, J. E. 2000. Ontario spring bird migration on weather radar: an update. Birders Journal 9: 37--39. (Physics Dept., Brock Univ., St. Catherines, ON L2S 3A1, Can.)---Most migration detected in spring 1999 by 3-cm radar at Brock Univ. was over by 17 May; good correspondence with observations from local banding stations and Ontario Spring Warbler Count.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{D904} Bruderer, B., & F. Liechti. 1999. Bird migration across the Mediterranean. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 1983--1999. (Swiss Ornithological Institute, CH--6204 Sempach, Switzerland; EM: and visual studies show that the recorded density of passerine spring migration at the Balearics is only half of that at Malaga, wader/waterfowl migration only about one fifth; this difference shows the importance of the flyway along the African Atlantic coast.---R.J.D. {ROL #82}

{D904} Catard, A., & H. Weimerskirch. 1999. Satellite tracking of White-chinned Petrel and comparison with other Procellariiformes. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 3008--3023. (CEBC--CNRS, 79360 Beauvoir, France; EM: aequinoctialis breeding in the sub-Antarctic forage in marine environments as diverse as the edge of pack-ice in Antarctica to the Benguela current off South Africa, respectively 2342 and 3495 km from their nests.---R.J.D. {E524} {ROL #82}

{D904} Cormier, C. 2000. Sounds in the night: the nocturnal flight calls of thrushes [Catharus]. Birders Journal 9: 144--148. (440 rue Verdun, Chicoutimi, PQ G7G 4S3, Can.)---Counted migrant birds by vocalization in 89 hours on 42 nights from 12 Aug--4 Oct 1999; most traveled from N--NE to W--WSW; total 25 spp. identified; total 4,488 Catharus and 709 Parulidae counted; bar chart depicts number of Catharus fuscescens, Catharus minimus, and Catharus ustulatus/hour by date.---A.L.L. {B320} {ROL #82}

{D904} Crossland, A. C. 2000. Notes on the waders wintering at three sites at the north-western tip of Sumatra, Indonesia. Stilt 36: 4--6. (46 Frensham Cres., Christchurch 8006, NZ.)---Annotated accounts of 12 species, the most common being Charadrius dubius, Calidris ruficollis, Pluvialis fulva.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{D904} Dinsmore, J. J., & W. R. Clark. 1999. A massive migration of waterbirds through Iowa in November 1998. Iowa Bird Life 69: 117--122. (Dept. Anim. Ecol., Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA 50011, USA; EM:, Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens ), and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) on 10 & 11 Nov 1998.---J.J.D. {ROL #82}

{D904} Gerasimov, Y., & N. N. Gerasimov. 2000. Information on the northward migration of Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris in Kamchatka, Russia. Stilt 36: 35--38. (Kamchatka Inst. Ecol., Far-East Br. Russian Acad. Sci., Rybakov 19A, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski 683024, Russia.)---35,000 to 40,000 birds move through area on northward migration, stopping to rest and feed but not remaining for more than two days.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{D904} Gerasimov, Y., & N. N. Gerasimov. 2000. The importance of the Moroshechnaya River Estuary [Russia] as a staging site for shorebirds. Stilt 36: 20--25. (Kamchatka Inst. Ecol., Far-East Br. Russian Acad. Sci., Rybakov 19A, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski 683024, Russia.)---Timing and count data for 23 species totaling 300,000 individuals on northward and 800,000 on southward migration.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{D904} Harris, K. 2000. Report on Population Monitoring Counts---Summer 1999. Stilt 36: 45--46. (59 Strickland Dr., Wheelers Hill, Vic. 3150, Australia.)---Tabulation of results for 46 species from 26 sites Australia-wide.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{D904} Heintzelman, D. S., & F. H. Brock. 2000. A three-site comparison of a large 1977 Sharp-shinned Hawk flight in eastern Pennsylvania USA. International Hawkwatcher 1: 8--11. (629 Green St., Allentown, PA 18102, USA; EM: observation sites along the same ridge recorded different counts of migrants/hr during the same period; to measure autumn migration rates comprehensively, hourly data should be gathered from at least 8 sites.---P.D.H. {Accipiter striatus , raptors, migration} {ROL #82}

{D904} Jehl, J. R., Jr., A. E. Henry, & S. I. Bond. 1999. Flying the gauntlet: population characteristics, sampling bias, and migration routes of Eared Grebes downed in the Utah Desert. Auk 116: 178--183. (Hubbs-Sea World Inst., San Diego, CA 92109, USA; EM: nigricollis. {C914, E506} {ROL #82}

{D904} Marks, J. S., & R. L. Redmond. 1994. Migration of Bristle-thighed Curlews on Laysan Island: Timing, behavior and estimated flight range. Condor 96: 316--330. (Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit, Univ. Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA; EM: Numenius tahitiensis leave early May, return Jul and Aug; juveniles arrive late Aug--early Sep mostly migrate unaccompanied by adults. Findings suggest curlews from South and Central Pacific overfly Hawaii undertaking non-stop flights of >6000 km.---R.B.C. {D902} {ROL #82}

{D904} McCarty, K. M., et al. 1999. Spring migration at Hawk Mountain Sanctuary [Pennsylvania], 1969--1998. PA Birds 13: 11--15. (Hawk Mtn. Sanct., 1700 Hawk Mtn. Rd., Kempton, PA 19529, USA.)---7433 raptors were observed during 1249 hours of spring counts, with six species accounting for 92% of the flight: Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Sharp-Shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus ), Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) and American Kestrel (Falco sparverius).---P.D.H. {ROL #82}

{D904} McCloskey, J. T., & J. E. Thompson. 2000. Sex-related differences in migration chronology and winter habitat use of Common Snipe. Wilson Bull. 112: 143--148. (West Virginia Univ., For. Div., P.O. Box 6125, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA; EM: Gallinago gallinago arrive on wintering areas ahead of males. On wintering areas females were more common in heavily vegetated habitats while males were more common in open habitats. Males leave ahead of females in spring.---J.J.Dos. {C926} {ROL #82}

{D904} McGrady, M. J., et al. 2000. Migration and wintering of juvenile and immature Steller's Sea Eagles. In: Ueta, M., & McGrady, M. J. (eds). First Symposium on Steller's and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia: 83--90. Tokyo: Wild Bird Soc. Japan. (Raptor Res. Ctr., Boise State Univ., 1910 Univ. Drive, Boise, ID 83725-1516, USA; EM: pelagicus breeding in the Magadan-Sakhalin area of Russia, wintered in Hokkaido, Japan, whereas those eagles breeding in Kamchatka, Russia, wintered in southern Kamchatka.---M.J.U. {ROL #82}

{D904} Meyburg, B.-U., & C. Meyburg. 1999. The study of raptor migration in the Old World using satellite telemetry. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 2992--3006. (World Working Group on Birds of Prey, Wangenheimstr. 32, 14193 Berlin, Germany; EM: birds of 11 species studied so far and revealed many unexpected and previously unknown routes and facts.---P.C.L., R.J.D. {E524} {ROL #82}

{D904} Miles, J, & P. Prior. 1999. Diurnal movement of Golden-crowned Kinglets. Ontario Bird Banding 29/30: 25--26. (Box 449, Jarvis, ON N0A 1J0, Can.)---Male Regulus satrapa banded at Long Point, Ontario recaptured 45 km away less than three hours later, after journey presumed by tendencies of kinglets to avoid flying over water and to fly from hedge to hedge rather than over open field of at least 70 km. Weights and fat scores at both captures are included. Of "thousands" of Golden-crowned Kinglets banded at Long Point in 37 years, only previous recovery was from Florida.---M.K.M. {D906} {ROL #82}

{D904} Minton, C. D. T., & R. Jessop. 2000. Corrections to sightings of waders leg-flagged in North-Western Australia Report No. 6. Stilt 36: 39--41. (165 Dalgetty Rd., Beaumaris, Vic. 3193, Australia.)---Amends date and time errors in Stilt 35: 52--58.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{D904} Ottinger, J., & K. L. Bildstein. 1999. Autumn raptor migration summary 1999 [Pennsylvania]. PA Birds 13: 190--196. (Hawk Mtn. Sanct., 1700 Hawk Mtn. Rd., Kempton, PA 19529, USA.)---Species and counts at 13 watch sites and one transect.---P.D.H. {ROL #82}

{D904} Pavez, E. F. 2000. Migratory movements of the White-throated Hawk (Buteo albigula) in Chile. J. Raptor Res. 34: 143--147. (Unión Ornitólogos Chile, Casilla 13,183, Santiago 21, Chile.)---Results indicate that White-throated Hawks used native austral forests for breeding and migrated to the northern Andes in austral winter. Proposes migration-monitoring counts to monitor population status relative to destruction of native forests.---P.A.G. {ROL #82}

{D904} Randall, R. D. 2000. A large influx of Lesser Blue-eared Starlings Lamprotornis chloropterus in the far north of Botswana. Babbler 36: 17. (P.O. Box 202, Kasane, Botswana.)---Unusual numbers of a scarce migrant on the edge of its range, in February/March 1999.---R.J.D., N.J.S. {ROL #82}

{D904} Rimmer, C. C., & K. P. McFarland. 2000. Migrant stopover and postfledging dispersal at a montane forest site in Vermont. Wilson Bull. 112: 124--136. (Vermont Inst. Nat. Sci., 27023 Church Hill Road, Woodstock, VT 05091, USA; EM: species of fall migrants were mist-netted in high elevation fir forests. This habitat may be preferentially selected by migrant species that use them for breeding.---J.J.Dos. {B910, C920, E526} {ROL #82}

{D904} Russell, R. W., & P. E. Lehman. 1994. Spring migration of Pacific Loons through the Southern California Bight: Nearshore flights, seasonal timing and distribution at sea. Condor 96: 300--315. (Dept. Ecol. Evol. Biol., Univ. Calif., Irvine, CA 92717, USA; diverts Gavia pacifica to west with apparently no effect of onshore winds other than decrease of flights with increasing winds; peaks varies mid-April--mid-May with migrants at sea concentrating in the northern bight where there were high densities of zooplankton.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{D904} Tiedemann, R. 1999. Seasonal changes in the breeding origin of migrating Dunlins (Calidris alpina) as revealed by mitochondrial DNA sequencing. J. Ornithol. 140: 319--323. (Inst. f. Haustierkunde, Chr.-Albrechts-Univ. zu Kiel, Olshausenstr. 40, D-24118 Kiel, FRG.) {ROL #82}

{D904} Tyler, S. J., & L. Tyler. 1997. Observations on the seasonal presence and moult of European Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus at a site in southeast Botswana. Ostrich 68: 117--118. (c/o Room 106, Dept. Animal Health, Private Bag 0032, Gaborone, Botswana; EM: November--April, moult duration estimated at 65--75 days between December and March.---A.J.F.K.C. {E114} {ROL #82}

{D904} Tyler, S. J. 1998. Migrants---some early dates. Babbler 34: 54--57. (Botswana Bird Club, P.O. Box 71, Gaborone, Botswana.)---Both Palearctic and intra-African migrants.---N.J.S. {ROL #82}

{D904} Tyler, S. J. 1998. An influx of Dusky Larks Pinarocorys nigricans in the Gaborone area [Botswana] in early 1998. Babbler 33: 32--33. (c/o Room 106, D.A.H.P., Private Bag 0032, Gaborone, Botswana.) {ROL #82}

{D904} Tyler, S. J. 2000. A large influx of Fairy Flycatchers Stenostira scita into southeast Botswana in 1999. Babbler 36: 9--10. (c/o Room 106, D.A.H.P., Private Bag 0032, Gaborone, Botswana.) {ROL #82}

{D904} Vaassen, E. W. A. M., & M. A. Aykurt. 2000. An alternative spring migration route of Lesser Spotted Eagles ( Aquila pomarina) in southern Turkey. International Hawkwatcher 1: 4--7. (Raptor Res. Group Turkey, Gimat II Koop., 679 Sok., Blok 4/10 Cayyolu Ankara, Turkey; EM: clear weather conditions in spring, the migration front is far broader than determined in previous studies; soaring species cross mountain ranges of 7,000 ft and higher.---P.D.H. {raptors, C316} {ROL #82}

{D904} Van den Bossche, W., M. Kaatz, & U. Querner. 1999. Satellite tracking of White Storks Ciconia ciconia . Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 3024--3040. (Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B--2610 Wilrijk, Belgium; EM: birds from Germany, Poland and Israel mostly went to Sudan for the winter.---P.C.L., R.J.D. {E524} {ROL #82}

{D904} Wilson, J. R. 2000. The northward movement of immature Eastern Curlews in the austral winter as demonstrated by the Population Monitoring Project. Stilt 36: 16--19. (13/27 Giles St., Kingston, ACT 2604, Australia.)---Immature Numenius madagascariensis overwinter in Australia. There is a strong inverse relationship between % of immature birds and latitude.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{D906} Fransson, T., & S. Jakobsson. 1998. Fat storage in male Willow Warblers in spring: do residents arrive lean or fat? Auk 115: 759--763. (Dept. Zool., Stockholm Univ., S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; EM: Phylloscopus trochilus arrive at spring breeding sites with appreciable fat reserves.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{D906} Goldstein, M. I., et al. 1999. Post-migration weight gain of Swainson's Hawks in Argentina. Wilson Bull. 111: 428--432. (Texas A&M Univ., Dept. Wildl. Fish. Sci., 210 Nagle Hall, College Station, TX 77843-2258, USA; EM: swainsoni juveniles increased mass significantly, adults marginally.---J.J.Dos. {E116} {ROL #82}

{D906} Pfister, C., M. J. Kasprzyk, & B. A. Harrington. 1998. Body-fat levels and annual return in migrating Semipalmated Sandpipers. Auk 115: 904--915. (Manomet Ctr. for Conserv. Sci., PO Box 1170, Manomet, MA, 02345, USA; EM: fat levels at migratory departure were positively associated with return rates in Calidris pusilla.---M.A.L. {ROL #82}

{D906} Piersma, T., G. A. Gudmundsson, & K. Lilliendahl. 1999. Rapid changes in the size of different functional organ and muscle groups during refueling in a long-distance migrating shorebird. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 405--415. (Netherlands Inst. Sea Res. (N10Z), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands; EM: Calidris canutus in Iceland. {E126} {ROL #82}

{D908} Baccetti, N., L. Serra, G. Cherubini, & A. Magnani. 1999. Timing of attachment to wintering site as revealed by experimental displacements of Dunlins (Calidris alpina). J. Ornithol. 140: 309--317. (Instituto Nazionale per la Fauna Selvatica, I-40064 Ozzano Emilia BO, Italy.) {ROL #82}

{D908} Wiltschko, R., & W. Wiltschko. 1999. [The orientation system of birds---III. Migratory orientation.] J. Ornithol. 140: 273--308. (FB Biol., Zool., d. Joh. W. Goethe-Univ., Siesmayerstr. 70, D-60054 Frankfurt a.M., FRG.) (German, English summary.) {ROL #82}

{E101} Bousfield, N. 2000. Ghost bird---a mystery bird in Francistown [Botswana]. Babbler 36: 19. (P.O. Box 173, Francistown, Botswana.)---Probably a pale Bleating Warbler Camaroptera brachyura.---N.J.S. {ROL #82}

{E101} Buchan, T. 1999. A partially xanthistic [sic] Red-winged Starling Onychognathus morio. Babbler 35: 27. (P.O. Box 1009, Gaboronez, Botswana.)---With yellow throat patch.---N.J.S. {ROL #82}

{E101} Cassino, M. 1999. Leucistic Black-capped Chickadee in Kalamazoo Co. [Michigan]. Michigan Birds Nat. Hist. 6: 81--82. (145 S. Prairie Ave., Kalamazoo, MI 49006, USA.)---Poecile atricapillus, includes photo.---J.A.C. {ROL #82}

{E101} Faggan, J. E. 1999. Leucistic American Goldfinches in Oakland Co. [Michigan]. Michigan Birds Nat. Hist. 6: 155--156. (20232 Old Coach Rd., Beverly Hills, MI 48025, USA.)--- Carduelis tristis. {ROL #82}

{E101} King, J. R. 1999. Melanistic California Gull in Alberta [Can.]. Birders Journal 8: 252--256. (Point Reyes Bird Obs. 4990 Shoreline Hwy., Stinson Beach, CA 94970, USA.)---Description and photos of adult Larus californicus at Edmonton, AB, 26 Jul 1999; species identified by size, shape and bare part coloration; head, and body gray; mantle and scapulars darker than typical Larus californicus albertaensis Jehl 1987; apparently first report of melanism in the species.---A.L.L. {D108} {ROL #82}

{E101} King, J. R. 1999. Western Gulls with yellow legs. Birders Journal 8: 200--205. (Point Reyes Bird Observatory, c/o 2707 D St., Sacramento, CA 95816, USA.)---Description and photos of three Larus occidentalis, March 1999, Bolinas Lagoon, Marin Co.; other occurrences discussed; may lead to confusion with Yellow-footed Gull Larus livens.---A.L.L. {D702} {ROL #82}

{E101} Pritchard, D., & A. Haggett. 1998. Melanistic Ovambo Sparrowhawk Accipiter ovampensis at Shakawe Lodge. Babbler 33: 30. (Shakawe Lodge, P.O. Box 12, Shakawe, Botswana.) {ROL #82}

{E101} Ryan, P. G. 1997. Aberrant wing pattern in adult Hartlaub's Gull. Ostrich 68: 123. (FitzPatrick Inst., Univ. Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, S. Africa; EM: Larus hartlaubii lacking black outer primaries could be confused with other species.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{E101} Savard, G. 2000. A partial albino Semipalmated Plover at Saint-Fulgence, Quebec [Can.]. Birders Journal 9: 149. (440 rue Verdun, Chicoutimi, PQ G7G 4S3, Can.)---Photos and description of Charadrius semipalmatus; 19--20 May 2000.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{E101} White, M. 1999. An unusual plumage of Bonaparte's Gull. Birders Journal 8: 38--39. (2518 Monroe, Commerce, TX 75428, USA.)---Photos and description of first basic Larus philadelphia at Cooper Lake; TX. Extensive dark color on greater and median coverts.---A.L.L. {ROL #82}

{E102} Bounous, D. I., et al. 2000. Normal haematologic and serum biochemical reference intervals for juvenile Wild Turkeys. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 393--396. (Dept. Pathol., Univ. Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA; EM: gallopova silvestris packed cell volume, white cell counts, total protein, albumin, glucose, calcium, uric acid, and triglyceride concentrations, and aspartate transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase activities are similar to those reported from domestic turkeys.---J.R.P. {ROL #82}

{E102} Kirby, Y. K., et al. 1999. Electrocardiographic and genetic evaluation of Giant Jungle Fowl, broilers, and their reciprocal crosses following unilateral bronchus occlusion. Poult. Sci. 78: 125--134. (Wideman, R. F., Jr., Dept. Poult. Sci., Univ. Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA; EM: chickens (Gallus domesticus) representing both commercial broilers and a strain of "Giant Jungle Fowl" (almost certainly not genetically pure Gallus gallus ) show striking differences in right ventricular hypertrophy in birds developing pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary hypertension syndrome.---I.L.B. {E122} {ROL #82}

{E102} McPhail, L. T., & D. R. Jones. 1999. The autonomic nervous control of heart rate in ducks during voluntary diving. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 164--169. (Dept. Zool., Univ. British Columbia, 6270 Univ. Blvd., Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Can.; EM: Aythya affinis. {ROL #82}

{E102} Morton, M. L. 1994. Hematocrits in montane sparrows in relation to reproductive schedule. ÊCondor 96: 119--126. (Dept. Biol., Occidental Coll., Los Angeles, CA 90041-3392, USA.)---Highest in Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha in the central Sierra Nevada, California, on arrival on breeding grounds decreasing thereafter until the end of the postnuptial molt; suggests underlying causes for change.---R.B.C. {B702} {ROL #82}

{E102} Tella, J. L., et al. 1998. A comparison of spectrophotometry and color charts for evaluating total plasma carotenoids in wild birds. Physiol. Zool. 71: 708--711. (Dept. Appl. Biol., Estacion Biol. de Doñana, Consejo Superior de Invest. Cient., Avda. Ma Luisa s/n, E-41013 Sevilla, Spain; EM: {E518} {ROL #82}

{E102} Totzke, U., et al. 1999. The influence of fasting on blood and plasma composition of Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus ). Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 426--437. (Inst. f. Vogelforschung, Vogelwarte Helgoland, postf. 1220, D-27494, Helgoland, Germany; EM: {ROL #82}

{E104} Hilton, G. M., D. C. Houston, N. W. H. Barton, & R. W. Furness. 1999. Digestion strategies of meat- and fish-eating birds. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 2184--2197. (Ornithology Group, Institute of Biomedical & Life Sciences, Graham Kerr Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK; EM:"Some species adopt a strategy of rapid but inefficient digestion whilst others have slow and efficient digestion. Gut morphology and the response to digestive challenges appear to vary in association with these different strategies." Examples include many seabirds and Neophron percnopterus.---R.J.D. {D302, E509} {ROL #82}

{E104} Hughes, M. R., & L. Raveendran. 1994. Ion and luminal marker concentrations in the gut of saline-acclimated ducks. Condor 96: 295--299. (Dept. Zool., 6270 University Blvd., Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Can.; EM: domestic Anas platyrhynchos.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{E104} Lepczyk, C. A., E. Cavieder-Vidal, & W. H. Karasov. 1998. Digestive responses during food restriction and realimentation in nestling House Sparrows (Passer domesticus). Physiol. Zool. 71: 561--573. (Dept. Fish. & Wildl., Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824, USA; EM: food restriction, gut has little spare capacity to handle increased food intake during growth.---J.S.G. {ROL #82}

{E104} Levey, D. J., & C. M. del Rio. 1999. Test, rejection, and reformulation of a chemical reactor-based model of gut function in a fruit-eating bird. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 369--383. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; EM: relation of food retention time to variation in diet in gut of Bombycilla cedrorum.---J.S.G. {ROL #82}

{E104} Levey, D. J., et al. 1999. An experimental test of dietary enzyme modulation in Pine Warblers Dendroica pinus . Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 576--587. (Dept. Zool., P.O. Box 118525, Univ. Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; EM:, protease, and lipase activities in gut of warbler were highest in diets rich in carbohydrates (fruits), proteins (insects), or lipids, respectively. Omnivory in this species correlated with significant ability to modify activity of digestive enzymes in relation to changes in composition of diet.---J.S.G. {D302} {ROL #82}

{E104} Piersma, T., et al. 1999. Reversible size-changes in stomachs of shorebirds: when, to what extent, and why? Acta Ornith. 34: 175--181. (M. W. Dietz: Ctr. Ecological & Evolutionary Stud., Zoological Lab., Univ. Groningen, POB 14, NL 9750 AA Haren, The Netherlands; EM: in stomach size are correlated with prey and patch choice. A soft diet can induce 50% stomach reduction within a week.---J.K.P. {ROL #82}

{E104} Starck, J. M. 1999. Phenotypic flexibility of the avian gizzard. Acta Ornith. 34: 149--153. (Inst. Systematic Zoology & Evolutionary Biology, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Ebertstr. 1, D 07 743 Jena, Germany; EM: {ROL #82}

{E106} Lilja, C., & J. Blom. 1999. Comparative studies of early embryonic development in Quail Coturnix coturnix japonica with different patterns of postnatal growth. Acta Ornith. 34: 159--163. (Dept. Engineering & Natural Sci., Div. Biology, Växjö Univ., S 351 95 Växjö, Sweden; EM: {B720} {ROL #82}

{E106} Peebles, E. D., et al. 1999. Embryo and yolk compositional relationships in broiler hatching eggs during incubation. Poult. Sci. 78: 1435--1442. (Dept. Poult. Sci., Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA; EM: relationships are described between the compositions of embryo body, yolk and embryo liver during incubation of eggs from commercial broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus). There were differential accumulations of water and dry matter during incubation; differences between embryos and their livers were associated with various yolk fatty acids.---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{E106} Repa, J. J., L. A. Plum, P. K. Tadikonda, & M. Clagett-Dame. 1996. All-trans 3,4-didehydroretinoic acid equals all-trans retinoic acid in support of chick neuronal development. FASEB Journal 10: 1078--1084. (Interdepartmental Graduate Prog. in Nutritional Sci., Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.) {ROL #82}

{E106} Rogulska, T. 1997. Left-right asymmetry in chick embryo. Acta Biol. cracov. 39 suppl. 1: 28. (Dept. Embryology, Univ. Warsaw, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 26/28, PL 00 927 Warszawa, Poland.) {ROL #82}

{E108} Ishii, S. 1999. Application of modern endocrine methods to conservation biology. Ostrich 70: 33--38. (Dept. Bio., School Edu., Waseda Univ., Tokyo 169--8050, Japan; EM: hormone levels in excreta used to assess breeding condition in Coturnix japonica. Injection of gonadotropin then timed to stimulated ovulation in non-regressed ovary of female.---A.J.F.K.C. {B912, E518} {ROL #82}

{E108} Schoech, S. J., E. D. Ketterson, & V. Nolan, Jr. 1999. Exogenous testosterone and the adrenocortical response in Dark-eyed Juncos. Auk 116: 64--72. (Dept. Biol. Ctr. Integrative Study Anim. Behav., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN 47405, USA; EM: testosterone caused potentially costly changes in behavior and physiology of Junco hyemalis, possibly due to elevated corticosterone.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{E110} Tieleman, B. I., & J. B. Williams. 1999. The role of hyperthermia in the water economy of desert birds. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 87--100. (JBW: Dept. Zool., Ohio State Univ., Columbus OH 43210, USA; EM: save body water by hyperthermia, but the amount of savings depends on whether exposure to high ambient temperature is acute or chronic, and on body size during episodes of chronic exposure: no savings in large birds.---J.S.G. {ROL #82}

{E110} Tieleman, B. I., et al. 1999. The role of the nasal passages in the water economy of Crested Larks and Desert Larks. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 219--226. (Zool. Lab., Univ. Groningen, P.O. Box 14, 9750 AA Haren, The Netherlands; EM: to expectation, hypothesis rejected that countercurrent heat exchange in the nasal passages reduces total evaporative water loss in two desert passerines, Galerida cristata and Ammomanes deserti.---J.S.G. {ROL #82}

{E112} Graczyk, S. 1998. The lysosomal apparatus of peripherial blood lymphocytes reactivity in bursectomized or thymectomised chickens, after lipopolysaccharide E. coli (LPS) administration. Bull. Pol. Ac.-Biol. 46: 91--101. (Div. Physiopathology, Fac. Veterinary med. AR Wroclaw, Norwida 31, PL 50 375 Wroclaw, Poland; EM: Gallus domesticus. The role and mechanisms of Fabricius bursa and thymus influence on blood lymphocytes lysosomal apparatus in birds.---J.K.P. {ROL #82}

{E114} Akinpelu, A. I. 1997. Body mass and moult cycles in adult Orange-cheeked Waxbill Estrilda melpoda in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Ostrich 68: 119--120. (Dept. Zoo., Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile--Ife, Nigeria.)---Some moult-breeding overlap; mass declined during moult.---A.J.F.K.C. {E116} {ROL #82}

{E114} Craves, J. A. 1999. White-throated Sparrow with orange lores. Michigan Birds Nat. Hist. 6: 83--84. (Rouge River Bird Obs., Univ. Mich., Nat. Areas Dept., Dearborn, MI 48128, USA.)---Summarizes 5 orange-lored Zonotrichia albicollis and reviews literature.---J.A.C. {E101} {ROL #82}

{E114} Dyck, J. 1999. Feather morphology at the ultrastructural level. Acta Ornith. 34: 131--134. (Dept. Population Ecol. Universtetsparken 15, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark; EM: {ROL #82}

{E114} Franklin, D. C., & P. L. Dostine. 2000. A note on the frequency and genetics of head colour morphs in the Gouldian Finch. Emu 100: 236--239. (Pks. Wildl. Comm. NT, PO Box 496, Palmerston, NT 0831, Australia.)---Erythrura gouldiae. {D504} {ROL #82}

{E114} Fulgione, D., et al. 1998. Dynamics of weight, fat and moult in the Italian Sparrow Passer domesticus italiae . Acta Ornith. 33: 93--98. (Dipartimento di Zoologia Universita di Napoli Federico II, via Mezzocannone, 8-80134 Napoli, Italy EM: moult was observed.---J.K.P. {E116, E118} {ROL #82}

{E114} Grubb, T. C., Jr., & V. V. Pravosudov. 1994. Ptilochronology: follicle history fails to influence growth on an induced feather. Condor 96: 214--217. (Behav. Ecol. Res. Group, Dept. Zool., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH 43210, USA; EM: tail-feather regrowth in Passer domesticus unaffected by number of times feather had been replaced previously suggesting daily feather growth better index of nutritional condition than is body mass that apparently endogenously based changes during year.---R.B.C. {E509} {ROL #82}

{E114} Hill, G. E. 1994. Testis mass and subadult plumage in Black-headed Grosbeaks. Condor 96: 626--630. (Dept. Zool. Wildl. Sci. Alabama Agric. Exp. Stn., Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL 36849-5414, USA.; EM: positive correlation between testis mass and degree of plumage maturation in yearling Pheucticus melanocephalus in New Mexico but no relationship in adult males in definitive alternate plumage.---R.B.C. {E120} {ROL #82}

{E114} Homberger, D. G. 1999. The mechanism of feather movements and its implications for the evolution of birds and flight. Acta Ornith. 34: 135--140. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA 70803-1715 USA; EM: {D105} {ROL #82}

{E114} Kemp, A. C. 1999. Plumage development and visual communication in the Greater Kestrel Falco rupicoloides near Pretoria, South Africa. Ostrich 70: 220--224. (Dept. Birds, Transvaal Mus., PO Box 413, Pretoria 0001, S. Africa; EM: can be aged for three successive plumage and softpart stages. Changes in coloration and communication behaviour correlated with relevant stages of annual cycle.---A.J.F.K.C. {B318} {ROL #82}

{E114} Leiss, A., & D. Haag-Wackernagel. 1999. [Plumage polymorphism of the Feral Pigeon (Columba livia).] J. Ornithol. 140: 341--353. (Josef-Brenner-Str. 19, A-2400 Klosterneuburg, Austria.) (German, English summary.) {ROL #82}

{E114} Niecke, M., M. Heid, & A. Krüger. 1999. Correlations between melanin pigmentation and element concentration in feathers of White-tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla). J. Ornithol. 140: 355--362. (Inst. f. Experimentalphysik d. Univ. Hamburg-Umweltanalytik-, Jungiusstr. 9, D-20355 Hamburg, FRG.) {ROL #82}

{E114} Petrie, S. A. 1998. Molt patterns of nonbreeding White-faced Whistling-Ducks in South Africa. Auk 115: 774--780. (Long Point Waterfowl Wetlands Res. Fund, c/o Bird Stud. Can., P.O. Box 160, Port Rowan ON N0E 1M0, Can.; EM: Dendrocygna viduata. {ROL #82}

{E114} Thompson, C. W., & M. Leu. 1994. Determining homology of molts and plumages to address evolutionary questions: A rejoinder regarding emberizid Finches. Condor 96: 769--782. (Wildl. Res. Div., Washington Dept. Fish Wildl., 16018 Mill Creek Blvd., Mill Creek, WA 98012, USA; EM: that Humphrey-Parkes must be used to identify homologous molts and plumages with an example of incorrect use on Passerina buntings. Documents a previously unknown molt and plumage sequence in Phainopepla nitens, Icteria virens , Cardinalis cardinalis, and Passerina leclancherii homologous to other recently studied Passerina spp.---R.B.C. {D105} {ROL #82}

{E114} Thompson, C. W. et al. 1998. An unusual sequence of flight-feather molt in Common Murres and its evolutionary implications. Auk 115: 653--669. (Washington Dept. Fish Wildl., 16018 Mill Creek Blvd., Mill Creek, WA 98012, USA; EM: aalge . {D105} {ROL #82}

{E114} Underhill, L. G., & G. D. Underhill. 1997. Primary moult, mass and movements of the Rock Pigeon Columba guinea in the Western Cape, South Africa. Ostrich 68: 86--89. (Avian Demography Unit, Dept. Stat. Sci., Univ. Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, S. Africa; EM: of primary moult estimated at 7.2 months. Mass of Speckled Pigeon greatest in winter, lowest in spring and summer. Half of 48 recoveries more than 2 km (up to 115 km) from ringing site.---A.J.F.K.C. {E116, C920} {ROL #82}

{E114} Underhill, L. G., G. D. Underhill, & C. N. Spottiswoode. 1999. Primary moult and body-mass of the Cape Turtle Dove Streptopelia capicola, and its abundance relative to the Laughing Dove S. senegalensis, in the Western Cape. Ostrich 70: 196--199. (Avian Demography Unit, Dept. Stat. Sci., Univ. Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, S. Africa; EM: moult lasts about 192 days in Cape Turtle Doves; mean body mass of adults 148 g, of first-year birds 130 g. Streptopelia senegalensis predominates at localities where food provided on a long-term basis.---A.J.F.K.C. {C914, E116} {ROL #82}

{E116} Catry, P., R. A. Phillips, & R. W. Furness. 1999. Evolution of reversed sexual size dimorphism in skuas and jaegers. Auk 116: 158--168. (RAP: Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Durham, S. Rd., Durham DH1 3LE, UK; EM: not support previous hypotheses and theories about reversed sexual size dimorphism in Stercorariinae and suggests further research is needed.---A.A.W. {D105} {ROL #82}

{E116} Ladyguin, A. 2000. The morphology of the bill apparatus in the Steller's Sea Eagle. In: Ueta, M., & McGrady, M. J. (eds). First Symposium on Steller's and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia: 1--10. Tokyo: Wild Bird Soc. Japan. (Moscow State Univ., Sci. Pk., Educ. Res. Ctr. "Ecosoil", 119899, Moscow, Russia; EM: of Haliaeetus pelagicus.---M.J.U. {ROL #82}

{E116} Nestor, K. E., J. W. Anderson, & R. A. Patterson. 2000. Effects of selection for increased body weight, egg production, and shank width on developmental stability in turkeys. Poult. Sci. 79: 937--945. (Dept. Anim. Sci., Ohio Agric. Res. Dev. Ctr., Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH 44691, USA; EM: domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), body weight seemed to have a larger effect upon relative asymmetry than homozygosity.---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{E116} Ryan, P. G. 1999. Sexual dimorphism, moult and body condition of seabirds killed by longline vessels around the Prince Edward Islands [in Southern Oceans], 1996--97. Ostrich 70: 187--192. (FitzPatrick Inst., Univ. Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, S. Africa; EM: birds of 9 species. Measures of bill depth were most dimorphic character in Procellaria aequinoctialis, Thalassarche chrysostoma, Thalassarche bassi. Apart from two young birds, only the two Macronectes spp. had active primary moult. Other species: Diomedea exulans, Thalassarche (Diomedea) melanophris, Phoebetria fusca, Procellaria cinerea.---A.J.F.K.C. {E114} {ROL #82}

{E116} Voelker, G. 1999. Body mass and moult data for South African motacillids, with body mass data for 47 additional species. Ostrich 70: 233--235. (Barrick Mus. Nat. His., Univ. Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, USA; EM: and fat deposition data for >250 specimens of 59 species. 11 of 12 motacillid species showed some evidence of moult-breeding overlap, but usually involving only light body moult.---A.J.F.K.C., R.J.D. {E114} {ROL #82}

{E116} Yang, A., et al. 1999. Heterosis and developmental stability of body and organ weights at hatch for parental line broiler breeders and specific crosses among them. Poult. Sci. 78: 942--948. (Siegel, P. B., Anim. Poult. Sci. Dept., Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0306, USA; EM: relative asymmetry was lower in two of the sire parental lines of commercial broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus) than in their dam lines and F1 crosses.---I.L.B. {B710, B720} {ROL #82}

{E118} Andreev, A. V. 1999. Energetics and survival of birds in extreme environments. Ostrich 70: 13--22. (Inst. Bio. Problems North, Russian Acad. Sci., Portovaya 18, Magadan 685010, Russia; EM: Siberian arctic region, winter survival dependent on utilising autumn food, and individual energy stores, except in grouse which utilise predictable browse foods. In summer no evidence of direct energy limitation on reproduction; population regulated by social mechanisms.---A.J.F.K.C. {C914} {ROL #82}

{E118} Bakken, G. S., et al. 1999. Metabolic response to air temperature and wind in day-old Mallards and a standard operative temperature scale. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 656--665. (Dept. Life Sci., Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, IN 47809, USA; EM: Anas platyrhynchos. {ROL #82}

{E118} Bandman, E. 1999. Functional properties of myosin isoforms in avian muscle. Poult. Sci. 78: 729--734. (Dept. Food Sci. Technol., Univ. Calif. Davis, One Shields Way, Davis, CA 95616, USA; EM: review of myosin research with an emphasis on myosin isoform analyses in avian systems.---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{E118} Bosque, C., M. A. Pacheco, & R. B. Siegel. 1999. Maintenance energy costs of two partially folivorous tropical passerines. Auk 116: 246--252. (Univ. Simón Bolívar, Depto. Biol. Organismos, Apdo. 89000, Caracas 1080, Venezuela; EM: basal metabolic rates of Saltator coerulescens & Saltator orenocensis were lower than expected for their body size.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{E118} Brigham, R. M., & P. Trayhurn. 1994. Brown fat in birds? A test for the mammalian bat-specific mitochondrial uncoupling protein in Common Poorwills. Condor 96: 208--211. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Can.)---Not found in Phalaenoptilus nuttallii.---R.B.C. {D504} {ROL #82}

{E118} Bugden, S. C., & R. M. Evans. 1999. The development of a vocal thermoregulatory response to temperature in embryos of the domestic chicken. Wilson Bull. 111: 188--194. (Mowbray Res. Stn., McElroy House, 645 Thornhill St., Morden, MB R6m 1L4, Can.)---Suggest only weak incipient response of Gallus domesticus.---J.J.Dos. {B718, B320, E106} {ROL #82}

{E118} Burness, G. P., R. C. Ydenberg, & P. W. Hochachka. 1998. Interindividual variability in body composition and resting oxygen consumption rate in breeding Tree Swallows, Tachycineta bicolor . Physiol. Zool. 71: 247--256. (Dept. Zool., Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Can.)---No relation between among-year differences in organ or tissue masses and resting metabolic rates. Among-individual differences in masses of kidney and small intestine accounted for 21% of variance in oxygen consumption rates.---J.S.G. {ROL #82}

{E118} Chan, K. 1994. Migratory fattening in an Australian intracontinental migrant. Condor 96: 211--214. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Queensland, Qld. 4072, Australia.)---Body composition of Zosterops lateralis departing from Australia to Tasmania; fat reserves more than sufficient for crossing Bass Strait.---R.B.C. {D906} {ROL #82}

{E118} Conway, C. J., W. R. Eddleman, & K. L. Simpson. 1994. Seasonal changes in fatty acid composition of the Wood Thrush. Condor 96: 791--794. (Montana Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit, Univ. Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA.; EM: 18:1, a relatively high energy fatty acid, higher and four other fatty acids lower in autumn migrating Hylocichla mustelina than in breeding birds. Suggests regional abundance of Carbon 18:1 in local food sources may affect regional distribution and migratory survival.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{E118} Cooper, S. J., & D. L. Swanson. 1994. Seasonal acclimatization of thermoregulation in the Black-capped Chickadee. Condor 96: 638--646. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Wisconsin, Stevens Point, WI 54481, USA.; EM: Dakota Poecile atricapillus tolerated cold stress better and had higher standard metabolic rates in winter than in summer; it was seasonal acclimatization.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{E118} Dean, W. R. J., & J. B. Williams. 1999. Sunning behaviour and its possible influence on digestion in the Whitebacked Mousebird Colius colius. Ostrich 70: 239--241. (JBW: Dept. Zoo., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH 43210, USA.)---Propose that sunning raises body temperature to speed up enzymatic reactions which hydrolyze starches in diet of vegetable matter.---A.J.F.K.C. {B308} {ROL #82}

{E118} Du Plessis, M. A., W. W. Weathers, & W. D. Koenig. 1994. Energetic benefits of communal roosting by Acorn Woodpeckers during the nonbreeding season. Condor 96: 631--637. (WWW: Dept. Avian Sci., Univ. Calif., Davis, CA 95616-8532, USA.; EM: holes in Quercus averaged 4 EC higher than outside ambient temperatures with one and four Melanerpes formicivorus increasing cavity temperatures 1.2E and an additional 6.0E , respectively. Suggests an estimated reduction in energy loss of 9% and 17% for single and four birds/cavity, respectively.---R.B.C. {B308} {ROL #82}

{E118} Fekete, S., et al. 1999. Studies on the energy content of pigeon feeds. II. Determination of the incorporated energy. Poult. Sci. 78: 1763--1767. (Fekete, S., Dept. Anim. Breed., Nutr. Lab. Anim. Sci., Univ. of Vet. Sci., H-1400 Budapest, P.O. Box 2, Hungary; EM:; title of this paper may be somewhat misleading. It actually reports differences between four breeds and the two sexes of domestic pigeons (Columba livia) with respect to adult body composition, digestibility coefficients and metabolizable energy.---I.L.B. {pigeon breeds} {ROL #82}

{E118} Gavrilov, V. M. 1999. Ecological phenomena of Passeriformes as a derivative of their energetics. Acta Ornith. 34: 165--172. (Dept. Vertebrate Zoology, Moscow State Univ., 1198999 Moscow, Russia; EM: {C900} {ROL #82}

{E118} Geluso, K., & J. P. Hayes. 1999. Effects of dietary quality on basal metabolic rate and internal morphology of European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 189--197. (USGS-Biol. Res. Div., Mus. Southwestern Biol., Univ. New Mexico, Albuquerque NM 87131, USA; EM: {ROL #82}

{E118} Gous, R. M., et al. 1999. Evaluation of the parameters needed to describe the overall growth, the chemical growth, and the growth of feathers and breast muscles of broilers. Poult. Sci. 78: 812--821. (Dept. Anim. Sci. Poult. Sci., Univ. Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg 3209, South Africa; EM: commercial broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus), allometric relationships between the weights of body chemical components and body protein indicated that body water matured more slowly while lipid matured more rapidly than protein. The ratio of body protein to ash remained essentially constant. The relationships between body components were similar between the sexes up to an age of eight weeks. After this point, lipid growth became more rapid in females---probably in preparation for egg production. Changes in the weights of feathers and breast muscle with age were well-described by the Gompertz growth curve.---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{E118} Hullar, I., et al. 1999. Studies on the energy content of pigeon feeds. I. Determination of digestibility and metabolizable energy content. Poult. Sci. 78: 1757--1762. (Fekete, S., Dept. Anim. Breed., Nutr. Lab. Anim. Sci., Univ. of Vet. Sci., H-1400 Budapest, P.O. Box 2, Hungary; EM:; energy contents of pigeon (Columba livia) feed and their digestibility were best determined by experimental methods rather than by using standard metabolic equations.---I.L.B. {D302} {ROL #82}

{E118} Jackson, S. 1999. Avian nectarivores that breed in winter: Balancing energy and water. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 1427--1436. (Department of Human and Animal Physiology, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Stellenbosch 760, South Africa; EM: sunbird and sugarbird species breed in winter when most flowers are out but it is colder. Seems they are similar to the better studied hummingbirds. Species studied: African sunbirds (Nectarinia violacea and Nectarinia chalybea), sugarbirds (Promerops cafer), and Australian honeyeaters (e.g. Phylidonyris novaehollandiae).---P.C.L., R.J.D. {ROL #82}

{E118} Jurisevic, M. A., K. J. Sanderson, & R. V. Baudinette. 1999. Metabolic rates associated with distress and begging calls in birds. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 38--43. (RVB: Sch. Biol. Sci., Flinders Univ. South Australia, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001; EM: Australian birds sampled, distress calling (in adults of 8 species) and begging (in juveniles of 7 species) were associated with increases in oxygen consumption above resting levels. Begging in smaller birds is energetically more demanding than in larger birds, but the relative increase in oxygen consumption during distress calling was independent of body mass.---J.S.G. {B320, E116} {ROL #82}

{E118} Karasov, W. H., & B. Pinshow. 1998. Changes in lean mass and in organs of nutrient assimilation in a long-distance passerine migrant at a springtime stopover site. Physiol. Zool. 71: 435--448. (Dept. Wildl. Ecol., Univ. Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706, USA.)---Validated methods for measuring lean and fat masses, and examined relationships between lean mass and body or organ masses in Sylvia atricapilla at Negev (Israel) stopover.---J.S.G. {D906} {ROL #82}

{E118} Krijgsveld, K. L., et al. 1998. Energy requirements for growth in relation to sexual size dimorphism in Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus nestlings. Physiol. Zool. 71: 693--702. (Zool. Lab., Univ. Groningen, P.O. Box 14, 9750 AA Haren, The Netherlands)---Sex-specific ratios of energy required for growth is inversely proportional to offspring numbers in the harrier population, as predicted in Fisher's (1930) theory on sex ratio.---J.S.G. {B720, E116} {ROL #82}

{E118} Lewis, P. D., T. R. Morris, & G. C. Perry. 1999. Light intensity and age at first egg in pullets. Poult. Sci. 78: 1227--1231. (Div. Anim. Health Husb., Dept. Clin. Vet. Sci., Univ. of Bristol, Langford, Bristol, BS18 7DU, UK; EM: biological clock of young female domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus ) may shift with unexpected consequences as the result of very dim lighting below the threshold required for photoperiodic response stimulation. Thus, there seems to be no intensity of dim light which can unequivocally be equated with darkness for all purposes of studies of photoperiodic response.---I.L.B. {intensity threshold, sexual maturity, photosexual response} {ROL #82}

{E118} Lindström, Å., G. H. Visser, & S. Daan. 1998. The energetic cost of feather synthesis is proportional to basal metabolic rate (correction). Physiol. Zool. 71: 245. (No address available.)---Correction to Physiol. Zool. 66: 490--510, 1993.---J.S.G. {ROL #82}

{E118} Marjoniemi, K., & E. Hohtola. 1999. Shivering thermogenesis in leg and breast muscles of galliform chicks and nestlings of the domestic pigeon. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 484--492. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90401 Oulu, Finland; EM: Gallus gallus, Perdix perdix, Coturnix japonica, Columba livia . {ROL #82}

{E118} Mathiu, P. M., W. R. Dawson, & G. C. Whittow. 1994. Thermal responses of late embryos and hatchlings of the Sooty Tern. Condor 96: 280--294. (WRD: Mus. Zool., Univ. Mich., Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; EM: study based on Sterna fuscata eggs from Oahu measured oxygen consumption and body temperature from late incubation to 24 hours post-hatching and evaporative cooling of hatchlings; latter showed decline in temperature with ambient but were proficient at evaporative cooling.---R.B.C. {B710, B720} {ROL #82}

{E118} Merola-Zwartjes, M. 1998. Metabolic rate, temperature regulation, and the energetic implications of roost nests in the Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola). Auk 115: 780--786. (Dept. Wildl., Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA 95521, USA; EM: flaveola basal metabolic rate is what would be expected for its size; roost nests protect from exposure to low temperatures, frequent tropical rains and associated high potential energy costs.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{E118} Noy, Y., & D. Sklan. 1999. Energy utilization in newly hatched chicks. Poult. Sci. 78: 1750--1756. (Fac. Agric., Hebrew Univ., Rehovot, Israel 76-100; EM: uptake of carbohydrates and amino acids in newly hatched chicks (Gallus domesticus) may be dependent on suitable conditions developing in the small intestine. These include brush border enzymes for digestion, adequate sodium for function of the glucose-sodium cotransporters and sufficient pancreatic enzymes.---I.L.B. {chicken, yolk, absorption, growth, E104} {ROL #82}

{E118} Powers, D. R., & T. M. Conley. 1994. Field metabolic rate and food consumption of two sympatric hummingbird species in southeastern Arizona. ÊCondor 96: 141--150. (Biol. Dept., George Fox College, Newburg, OR 97132, USA.)---FMR 81.7 kJ/day (n=4) in territorial Lampornis clemenciae and 29.1 kJ/day (n=4) in non-territorial Archilochus alexandri in the Chiricahua Mountains. Figures also for mean mass-specific FMR and water influx indicating turnover rates of 185% and 245%, respectively.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{E118} Riedstra, B., C. Dijkstra, & S. Daan. 1998. Daily energy expenditure of male and female Marsh Harrier nestlings. Auk 115: 635--641. (CD: Zool. Lab, Univ. Groningen, P.O. Box 14, 9750 AA Haren, The Netherlands; EM: water used to show energy turnover is proportional to body mass in brother-sister pairs of Circus aeruginosus.---S.C.L. {ROL #82}

{E118} Swanson, D. L., & K. L. Olmstead. 1999. Evidence for a proximate influence of winter temperature on metabolism in passerine birds. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 566--575. (Dept. Biol., Univ. South Dakota, Vermillion, SD, 57069, USA; EM: negative relationship found between normalized metabolic rates (basal, maximum cold-induced) and mean winter temperatures in pooled species, Poecile atricapillus, Junco hyemalis, and Spizella arborea. Details of relationships suggested a proximate role for winter temperature in regulating metabolism in these birds.---J.S.G. {ROL #82}

{E118} Thouzeau, C., C. Duchamp, & Y. Handrich. 1999. Energy metabolism and body temperature of Barn Owls fasting in the cold. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 170--178. (Ctr. d' Ecol. et Physiol. Energétiques @ l'Univ. Louis Pasteur, Ctr. Natl. de la Rech. Scientifique, 23 r. Becquerel, F-67087, Strasbourg Cedex 02, France; EM: suggest diurnal hypothermia, triggered by a threshold of body lipid depletion, may be important in long-term fasting in Tyto alba.---J.S.G. {ROL #82}

{E118} Tieleman, B. I., & J. B. Wiliams. 1999. The evolution of rates of metabolism and water flux in desert birds. Acta Ornith. 34: 173--174. (Zoological Lab., Univ. Groningen, POB 14, NL 9750 AA Groningen, The Netherlands; EM: {ROL #82}

{E118} Van Der Wal, P. G., et Al. 1999. The effect of feed withdrawal on broiler blood glucose and nonesterified fatty acid levels, postmortem liver pH values, and carcass yield. Poult. Sci. 78: 569--573. (DLO-Inst. Anim. Sci. Health (ID-DLO), PO Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, The Netherlands; EM: domestic broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus) blood glucose and nonesterified fatty acids were not suitable blood metabolites for use as indicators of the duration of time which elapsed since a prior feed withdrawal.---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{E118} Wiersma, P., & T. Piersma. 1994. Effects of microhabitat, flocking, climate and migratory goal on energy expenditure in the annual cycle of Red Knots. Condor 96: 257--279. (TP: Netherlands Inst. Sea Res., P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, Netherlands; EM: study of Calidris canutus islandica based on use of taxonomic mounts; compares estimates of maintenance metabolism among the wintering ground in the Netherlands, staging grounds in Iceland and breeding grounds in Canada.---R.B.C. {C906, D908} {ROL #82}

{E118} Wilson, R. P., D. Adelung, & L. Latorre. 1998. Radiative heat loss in Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua ) adults and chicks and the importance of warm feet. Physiol. Zool. 71: 524--533. (Inst. f. Meereskunde, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, D-24105 Kiel, Germany; EM: the thermoneutral zone in this species, heat loss by radiation primarily occurs from the feet, through which blood circulates in pulses.---J.S.G. {ROL #82}

{E118} Witmer, M. C. 1998. Ecological and evolutionary implications of energy and protein requirements of avian frugivores eating sugary diets. Physiol. Zool. 71: 599--610. (Dept. Biol., Bryn Mawr Coll., Bryn Mawr, PA 19010, USA; EM: cedrorum, Turdus migratorius, Hylocichla mustelina. {D302} {ROL #82}

{E118} Zerba, E., A. N. Dana, & M. A. Lucia. 1999. The influence of wind and locomotor activity on surface temperature and energy expenditure of the eastern House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus ) during cold stress. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 265--276. (Dept. Biol., Colgate Univ., Hamilton, NY 13346, USA; EM: significant differences in heat production between resting and active birds exposed to similar convective conditions. Surface temperature is a direct function of ambient temperature.---J.S.G. {ROL #82}

{E120} Adkins-Regan, E. 1999. Foam produced by male Coturnix quail: what is its function? Auk 116: 184--193. (Dept. Psychol. Sec. Neurobiology Behav., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, USA; EM: the hypothesis that foam increases the probability of fertilization when a hard-shelled egg is in the uterus.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{E120} Alisaukas, R. T., & C. D. Ankney. 1994. Costs and rates of egg formation in Ruddy Ducks. ÊCondor 96: 11--18. (Prairie & Northern Res. Centr., Can. Wildl. Serv., 115 Perimeter Rd., Univ. Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7, Can.)---Maximum daily cost (584 kJ) among highest (280% BMR) among highest for waterfowl; Oxyura jamaicensis in southern Manitoba produce 1 egg per day with most ovulations between early evening and mid-morning.---R.B.C. {B710} {ROL #82}

{E120} Briskie, J. V. 1998. Avian genitalia. Auk 115: 826--828. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; EM: anatomy, function, and development; comments on change in attitude of avian researchers towards study of genitalia and related topics.---A.D.F. {ROL #82}

{E120} Christians, J. K., & T. D. Williams. 1999. Organ mass dynamics in relation to yolk precursor production and egg formation in European Starlings Sturnus vulgaris. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 455--461. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Can.; EM: {ROL #82}

{E120} Gill, S. P. S., A. M. Donoghue, & R. P. Amann. 2000. Exposure of turkey sperm to a synthetic peptide before insemination increases fertility. Poult. Sci. 79: 426--429. (BioPore, Inc., P.O. Box 10074, State College, PA 16805, USA; EM: of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) sperm to a synthetic peptide for 5 min, either 0 or 24 h before insemination, increased egg fertility from 90 to 94% and hatchability from 80 to 84%.---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{E120} Hermann, M., K. A. Lindstedt, R. Foisner, S. Mörwald, M. G. Mahon, R. Wandl, W. J. Schneider, & J. Nimpf. 1998. Apolipoprotein A-I production by chicken granulosa cells. FASEB Journal 12: 897--903. (Dept. Mol. Genetics, Biocenter and Univ. of Vienna, A-1030 Vienna, Austria.) {ROL #82}

{E120} Horak, P., et al. 1998. Health and reproduction: the sex-specific clinical profile of Great Tits (Parus major) in relation to breeding. Can. J. Zool. 76: 2235--2244. (Inst. Zool. Botany, Riia 181, 51014 Tartu, Estonia.) {ROL #82}

{E120} Kast, T. L., E. D. Ketterson, & V. Nolan Jr. 1998. Variation in ejaculate quality in Dark-eyed Juncos according to season, stage of reproduction, and testosterone treatment. Auk 115: 684--693. (Cornell Lab. Ornithol., 159 Sapsucker Woods Rd., Ithaca, NY 14850, USA; EM: hyemalis. {ROL #82}

{E120} Kawashima, M., et al. 1999. Identification of an androgen receptor within the uterus of the domestic fowl. Poult. Sci. 78: 107--113. (Dept. Biol. Div. Res., Gifu Univ., Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan; EM: binding of androgen may be related to certain events during the early stages of eggshell formation in the uterus of domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus).---I.L.B. {radioligand assay} {ROL #82}

{E120} Korn, N., et al. 2000. Ultrastructure of spermatozoa from Japanese quail. Poult. Sci. 79: 86--93. (Thurston, R. J., Dept. Anim. Vet. Sci., Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC 29634-0361, USA; EM: antibody to turkey (Meleagris gallopavo ) mitochondria showed differences in binding patterns between Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and turkey sperm. These were probably due to mitochondria in the exceptionally long mid-pieces of the sperm of the quail.---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{E120} Noirault, J., & J. P. Brillard. 1999. Effects of frequency of semen collection on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen in turkey breeder males. Poult. Sci. 78: 1034--1039. (Inst. Nat. Rech. Agron., Stn. Rech. Avicoles, Centre de Tours, 37380 Nouzilly, France; EM: domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) show optimal reproductive capacity when semen is collected at a high rather than a low frequency.---I.L.B. {viability, artificial insemination} {ROL #82}

{E120} Ogawa, H., et al. 2000. Parathyroid hormone receptor binding property in the shell gland of oviduct of the Guineafowl during an oviposition cycle. Poult. Sci. 79: 575--579. (Kawashima, M., Dept. Div. Res., Gifu Univ., Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan; EM: hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide are both present in the shell gland of domestic Guineafowl (Numida meleagris). The binding of these two substances may be related to eggshell formation in this species.---I.L.B. {B710, E108} {ROL #82}

{E120} Sax, A., & H. Hoi. 1998. Individual and temporal variation in cloacal protuberance size of male Bearded Tits (Panurus biarmicus). Auk 115: 964--969. (Konrad Lorenz Inst. Comp. Ethol., Savoysenstr. 1a, 1160 Vienna, Austria; EM: males had greater cloacal protuberance volume than unmated males and organ size changed in accordance with their mates' fertility cycles.---A.A.W. {ROL #82}

{E120} Williams, T. D., & S. P. Ternan. 1999. Food intake, locomotor activity, and egg laying in Zebra Finches: contributions to reproductive energy demand. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 19--27. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Can.; EM: Taeniopygia guttata reduced activity but did not increase food intake during the laying cycle when energy requirements of egg production were added to total energy budget.---J.S.G. {E118} {ROL #82}

{E126} Bock, W. J. 1999. Avian cranial kinesis revisited. Acta Ornith. 34: 115--122. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Columbia Univ. 1200 Amsterdam Ave. MB 5521, New York NY 10027-7004 USA; EM: {ROL #82}

{E126} Brown, R. E., & D. K. Saunders. 1998. Regulated changes in body mass and muscle mass in molting Blue-winged Teal for an early return to flight. Can. J. Zool. 76: 26--32. (DKS: Div. Biol. Sci., Emporia State Univ., Emporia, KS 66801, USA.)---Anas discors. {E116, E118} {ROL #82}

{E126} Pyornila, A. E. I., A. P. Putaala, & R. K. Hissa. 1998. Fibre types in breast and leg muscles of hand-reared and wild Grey Partridge (Perdix perdix). Can. J. Zool. 76: 236--242. (Univ. Oulu, Dept. Biol., Zool., P.O. Box 333, FIN 90571 Oulu, Finland.) {ROL #82}

{E126} Torrella, J. R., et al. 1998. Capillarity and fibre types in locomotory muscles of wild Yellow-legged Gulls (Larus cachinnans). Physiol. Zool. 71: 425--434. (G. Viscor: Dept. de Fisiologia, Fac. de Biol., Univ. de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 645, E-08071, Barcelona, Spain; EM: in distribution of muscle fiber types in different muscles of wings and legs related to activity profiles of locomotory appendages.---J.S.G. {ROL #82}

{E126} Van 'T Hof, R. J., M. Von Lindern, P. J. Nijweide, & H. Beug. 1997. Stem cell factor stimulates chicken osteoclast activity in vitro. FASEB Journal 11: 287--293. (Dept. Cell Biol., Univ. of Leiden, 2333 AL Leiden, The Netherlands.) {ROL #82}

{E300} Jones, T. D., et al. 2000. Nonavian feathers in a late Triassic archosaur. Science 288: 2202--2205. (Dept. Biol., Stephen F. Austin State Univ., Nacogdoches, TX 75962, USA; EM: series of paired, elongate, integumentary appendages on Longisquama insignis .---M.J.J. {ROL #82}

{E300} Miller, E. R., D. T. Rasmussen, & E. L. Simons. 1997. Fossil storks (Ciconiidae) from the Late Eocene and Early Miocene of Egypt. Ostrich 68: 23--26. (PO Box 2732, Ann Arbor, MI 48106--2732, USA.)---Two tibiotarsi, one identified as Leptoptilos sp.---A.J.F.K.C. {E304, E306} {ROL #82}

{E302} Elzanowski, A., & L. Pasko. 1999. A skeletal reconstruction of Archaeopteryx. Acta Ornith. 34: 123--129. (Dept. Bird Ecol., Wroclaw Univ., Sienkiewicza 21, PL 50 335 Wroclaw, Poland; EM: was more similar to modern birds than to the theropods.---J.K.P. {ROL #82}

{E304} Steadman, D. W., et al. 1994. New information on the late Pleistocene birds from San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Condor 96: 577--589. (Florida Mus. Nat. Hist., Univ. Florida, P.O. Box 117800, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; EM: species recorded, 10 new to site and largely extant species of temperate areas; the two extinct taxa were a stork and Geococcyx californianus conklingi .---R.B.C. {E310} {ROL #82}

{E306} Olson, S. L. 1999. A new species of pelican (Aves: Pelecanidae) from the Lower Pliocene of North Carolina and Florida. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 112: 503--509. (Dept. Vert. Zool., Nat. Mus. Nat. Hist., Washington, DC, 20560, USA.; EM: schreiberi sp. nov. larger than any existing New World pelican.---R.B.C. {D110} {ROL #82}

{E308} Burchak-Abramovich, N. I., & D. N. Burchak. 1998. The birds of the Late Quaternary of the Altai Mts. Acta zool. cracov. 41(1): 51--60. (D. N. B.: Inst. Palaeobiology, Georgian AS, Potochnaya 4, 380004 Tbilisi 4, Rep. of Georgia) {ROL #82}

{E308} Goodman, S. M. 1999. Holocene bird subfossils from the sites of Ampasambazimba, Antsirabe and Ampoza, Madagascar: Changes in the avifauna of south central Madagascar over the past few millennia. Proc. Int. Ornithol. Congr. 22: 3071--3083. (Department of Zoology, Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605, USA; EM: composition changed considerably over last 4000 years and man has been there for about 2000. Hypotheses associated with natural aridification and human degradation examined.---P.C.L., R.J.D. {ROL #82}

{E504} Neuman, J., J. W. Chardine, & J. M. Porter. 1999. Approaches to testing inter-observer reliability of field-collected behavioral data. Waterbirds 22: 348--357. (379 Glenholme Ave., Toronto, ON, M6E 3E6, Canada.; EM: showed high and systematic inter-observer error in test on Rissa tridactyla ; suggestions made for reducing problem.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{E506} Catry, P., et al. 1999. Are mist nets suitable for rapid habitat evaluations in the tropics? Results from a study in Guinea-Bissau. Ostrich 70: 134--137. (Rue de Campolide 215, 4°dto. 1070 Lisboa, Portugal.)---Capture rates and species diversity higher in disturbed habitats than in primary forest. Conclude that surveys based on mist-netting misleading when comparing different habitats.---A.J.F.K.C. {E526} {ROL #82}

{E506} Fraser, W. R., et al. 1999. Using kite-based aerial photography for conducting Adelie Penguin censuses in Antarctica. Waterbirds 22: 435--440. (Polar Oceans Res. Group, Dept. Biol., Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT, 59717, USA.; EM: results for Pygoscelis adeliae at Palmer Station may provide better data much less expensively than aerial surveys.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{E506} Gorney, E., W. S. Clark, & Y. Yom-Tov. 1999. A test of the condition-bias hypothesis yields different results for two species of sparrowhawks (Accipiter). Wilson Bull. 111: 181--187. (YYT: Dept. Zool., Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv 69978, Israel; EM: caught in food baited traps and unbaited mist nests. Data from Accipiter brevipes support predictions (sample from baited traps biased toward individuals in poor physical condition), Accipiter nisus do not.---J.J.Dos. {E116, E526} {ROL #82}

{E506} Mawson, P. 2000. Sex bias or sampling bias? What you see isn't necessarily what you get. Eclectus 8: 12--14. (Dept. Conserv. & Land Manage., Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre, WA 6983, Australia.)---Whilst evaluating control techniques, large samples of Purpureicephalus spurius and Barnardius zonarius were collected by three methods: shooting, shooting to scare, and mist-netting, from two localities in southwestern WA. Samples collected by mist-netting showed a preponderance of males in Purpureicephalus at both localities and for Barnardius at one but not the other. All samples by shooting showed no significant imbalance between the sexes, indicating the need to consider the method of collection for data obtained to evaluate the structure of wild populations.---I.R. {C706, C914} {ROL #82}

{E506} Nelms, C. O., D. L. Otis, et al. 1999. Cluster sampling to estimate breeding blackbird populations in North Dakota. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 931--937. (DLO: USDA, Denver Wildl. Res. Ctr., Building 16, Denver Federal Ctr., Denver, CO 80225, USA.)---A stratified, 2-stage, cluster sampling scheme using Neyman allocation of cluster sample units is more cost effective than stratified random sampling; Agelaius phoeniceus, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, Quiscalus quiscula.---W.P.J. {ROL #82}

{E506} Panek, M. 1998. Use of call counts for estimating spring density of the Grey Partridge Perdix perdix. Acta Ornith. 33: 143--148. (Pol. Hunting Ass., Res. Stn., Sokolnicza 12, PL 62 055 Czempiñ, Poland.) {ROL #82}

{E506} Reid, J. A., R. B. Horn, & E. D. Forsman. 1999. Detection rates of Spotted Owls based on acoustic-lure and live-lure surveys. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 986--990. (USFS, Pacific NW For. Res. Stn., c/o BLM, 777 N.W. Garden Valley Blvd., Roseburg, OR 97470, USA.)---Most Strix occidentalis pairs were located by using acoustic-lure and live-lure techniques in combination; females were underestimated when only the acoustic-lure technique was used.---W.P.J. {ROL #82}

{E506} Smith, W. P., & D. J. Twedt. 1999. Temporal differences in point counts of bottomland forest landbirds. Wilson Bull. 111: 139--143. (USDA, For. Serv., Pacific NW Res. Stn., For. Sci. Lab., 2700 Sherwood Ln.,--Suite 2A, Juneau, AK 99801-8545, USA; EM: richness, overall avian abundance and abundance of some individual species will likely be underestimated if counted during the evening in the breeding season or winter.---J.J.Dos. {C908} {ROL #82}

{E506} Weinstein, M., G. A. Hurst, & B. D. Leopold. 1999. Using standardized bait-site observation to estimate Wild Turkey reproductive parameters. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 609--615. (11936 Holly Branch Ct., Great Falls, VA 22066, USA.)---There is a potential for bias in standardized bait-site observations because reproductively successful and unsuccessful Meleagris gallopavo hens use bait sites at different times.---W.P.J. {B508} {ROL #82}

{E508} Glennon, M. J., & W. F. Porter. 1999. Using satellite imagery to assess landscape-scale habitat for Wild Turkeys. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 646--653. (College Environ. Sci. & Forest., State Univ. New York, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA.)---Satellite imagery appears to be a useful tool for assessing habitat conditions for Meleagris gallopavo .---W.P.J. {ROL #82}

{E508} Ribic, C. A., et al. (Compilers). 1999. Proceedings of the Marsh Bird Monitoring Workshop. USFWS/USGS Admin. Rep., 52 pp. (USGS/BRD, Wisconsin Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit., 1630 Linden Dr., 226 Russel Labs, Madison, WI 53706-1958 USA; copies available from USFWS, P.O. Box 25486, Denver Fed. Ctr., Denver, CO 80225-0486, USA.)---This summary of a workshop held in Laurel, Maryland, 26--28 Apr 1998, includes recommendations for standardizing field protocols and developing sampling schemes for monitoring marsh-dependent birds at national, regional, and local scales; includes abstracts of invited papers.---J.L.T. {E506} {ROL #82}

{E509} Poulin, B., G. Lefebre, & R. McNeil. 1994. Effect and efficiency of tartar emetic in determining the diet of tropical land birds. ÊCondor 96: 98--104. (Dept. Sci. Biol., Univ. Montréal, CP 6128, succ. "A", Montreal, PQ H3C 3J7, Can.)---70 of 3,419 birds forced to regurgitate in northeastern Venezuela died; reducing dosage reduced mortality; suggests use of regurgitant best method for determining diet of birds from different feeding habitats.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{E509} Rienks, J. H., & C. P. Catterall. 2000. A cautionary note on the use of modified prey in experiments on searching behaviour in birds. Emu 100: 148--151. (Fac. Environ. Sci., Griffith Univ., Nathan, Qld. 4111, Australia.)---Results of aviary feeding experiment indicate that, among dense foliage, Silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis ) took longer to detect saltacid spiders that had been modified by the application of a longitudinal white stripe than they did to detect both unmodified specimens and individuals of another spider species with natural stripes, despite apparently being habituated to the modified prey beforehand.---W.K.S. {D302} {ROL #82}

{E510} Conway, C. J., W. R. Eddleman, & K. L. Simpson. 1994. Evaluation of lipid indices of the Wood Thrush. Condor 96: 783--790. (Montana Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit, Univ. Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA; EM: methods evaluated with fat score and percentage of water the most useful indices of body fat in Hylocichla mustelina.---R.B.C. {D906} {ROL #82}

{E510} Dietz, M. W., et al. 1999. Estimating organ size in small migrating shorebirds with ultrasonography: an intercalibration exercise. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 28--37. (Ctr. Ecol. Evol. Stud., Zool. Lab., Univ. Groningen, P.O. Box 14, 9750 AA Haren, The Netherlands; EM: canutus, Pluvialis apricaria . {D906} {ROL #82}

{E510} Duerr, A. E., & S. Destefano. 1999. Using a metal detector to determine lead sinker abundance in waterbird habitat. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 952--958. (Dames & Moore, 1790 E. River Rd., Suite E-300, Tucson, AZ 85716, USA.) {ROL #82}

{E510} Hillimore, P. J., & H. F. Recher. 1999. Egret nests and cherry pickers: a cautionary tale. Corella 23: 85--86. (Ctr. Ecosystem Manage., Edith Cowan Univ., Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia.)---Although seven chicks fell during six counts, accurate information on active nests, eggs and chicks, nesting material and nest position of Ardea alba could not be obtained from ground observations.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{E510} Nievergelt, F., & F. Liechti. 2000. [Methodical aspects of investigating migratory activity in Emlen-funnels.] J. Ornithol. 141: 180--190. (Schweizerische Vogelwarte, CH-6204 Sempach, Switzerland.) (German, English summary.) {ROL #82}

{E510} Nowakowski, J. J., & A. Malecka. 1999. Test of Busse's method of studying directional preferences of migrating small Passeriformes. Acta Ornith. 34: 37--44. (Dept. Zoology, Agricultural & Teacher's Univ., Prusa 12, PL 08 110 Siedlce, Poland.) {D902} {ROL #82}

{E512} Jarvi, S. I., & P. C. Banko. 2000. Application of a PCR-based approach to identify sex in Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidae). Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 14--17. (USGS Biol. Resour. Div., Pac. Island Ecosystems Res. Ctr., Hawaii Volcanoes Natl. Pk., HI 96718, USA.)---This technique is shown to be valid for four species: Hawaii Amakihi (Hemignathus virens), Apapane (Himatione sanguinea ), Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) and Palila (Loxioides bailleui ).---W.K.S. {D704} {ROL #82}

{E512} Kahn, N. W., J. St. John, & T. W. Quinn. 1998. Chromosome-specific intron size differences in the avian CHD gene provide an efficient method for sex identification in birds. Auk 115: 1074--1078. (TWQ: Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Denver, Denver, CO 80208, USA; EM: technique should simplify sex determination of many bird species, though some precautions and exceptions are noted.---A.D.F. {D704} {ROL #82}

{E514} Beard, K., N. Hengartner, & D. Skelly. 1999. Effectiveness of predicting breeding bird distributions using probabilistic models. Conserv. Biol. 13: 1108--1116. (Sch. For. Environ. Stud., Yale Univ., 205 Prospect Str., New Haven, CT 06511-2104, USA; EM: {ROL #82}

{E514} Nur, N., S. L. Jones, & G. R. Geupel. 1999. Statistical guide to data analysis of avian monitoring programs. USFWS Biol. Tech. Publ. BTP-R6001-1999, 54 pp. (SLJ: USFWS, P.O. Box 25486 DFC, Denver, CO 80225 USA.)---Topics include assessment of abundance and species composition using point counts, demographic monitoring using mist nets and nest visits, and logistic regression.---J.L.T. {E508} {ROL #82}

{E514} Sanderson, J. G. 2000. Testing ecological patterns. Am. Sci. 88: 332--339. (Mail Stop B-256, Los Alamos Natl. Lab., Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA; EM:'s tour algorithm is used to analyze the distribution of Galapagos finches.---V.M.D. {ROL #82}

{E514} Underhill, L. G. 1999. Avian demography: statistics and ornithology. Ostrich 70: 61--70. (Avian Demography Unit, Dept. Stat. Sci., Univ. Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, S. Africa; EM: data often unsuited to standard statistical analyses. Moult and distribution patterns illustrate data sets requiring specialised statistics.---A.J.F.K.C. {ROL #82}

{E514} Woodworth, B. L. 1999. Modeling population dynamics of a songbird exposed to parasitism and predation and evaluating management options. Conserv. Biol. 13: 67--76. (Pacific Island Ecosystems Res. Ctr., USGS/BRD, Kilauea Field Stn., P.O. Box 44, Hawaii Natl. Pk., HI 96718, USA; EM: Rican Vireo (Vireo latimeri). {C914, B704, B910} {ROL #82}

{E515} Lyon, B. E. 1994. A technique for measuring precocial chicks from photographs. Condor 96: 805--809. (Kananaskis Field Stn., Univ. Calgary, 2500 Univ. Dr. NW, Calgary, AB T2N, 1N4, Can.)---Obtaining size and growth measurements from photographs; Fulica americana the example.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{E516} Kuchida, K., et al. 1999. Nondestructive prediction method for yolk:albumen ratio in chicken eggs by computer image analysis. Poult. Sci. 78: 909--913. (Dept. Anim. Prod. Agric. Econ., Obihiro Univ. of Agric. Vet. Med., Obihiro-shi 080-8555, Japan; EM: from four lines of domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus) were illuminated by an overhead projector beam directed through a small hole in a dark room. Video images of the eggs were analyzed and permitted the accurate prediction of yolk:albumen ratios without breaking the eggs.---I.L.B. {computer image analysis, prediction method} {ROL #82}

{E516} Thompson, F. R., W. Dijak, & D. E. Burhans. 1999. Video identification of predators at songbird nests in old fields. Auk 116: 259--264. (N. Central Res. Stn., 202 Anheuser-Busch Nat. Resour. Bldg., Univ. Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA; EM: fthompson/ identified nest predators with camera; supported the hypothesis that snakes are important nest predators in old field habitats.---A.A.W. {C916} {ROL #82}

{E518} Bakken, G. S., et al. 1999. Standardization and calibration of heated mounts illustrated with day-old Mallard ducklings. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 502--506. (Dept. Life Sci., Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, IN 47809, USA; EM: exchange in taxidermic mounts of Anas platyrhynchos, calibrated against live ducklings.---J.S.G. {E118} {ROL #82}

{E518} Visser, G. H., & H. Schekkerman. 1999. Validation of the doubly labeled water method in growing precocial birds: the importance of assumptions concerning evaporative water loss. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72: 740--749. (Ctr. Isotope Res., Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands; EM: in chicks of Limosa limosa and Vanellus vanellus, and tested on published data on Sterna paradisaea chicks. The DLW method seems applicable in young birds growing as fast as 20% d-1, but adjustments for evaporative water loss must be made.---J.S.G. {B720, E118} {ROL #82}

{E520} Algar, D., & A. Burbidge. 2000. Isle of cats. Landscope 15(3): 18--22. (Dept. Conserv. & Land Manage., Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre, WA 6983, Australia.)---Describes in detail the eradication of feral cats (Felis catus) from Hermite Island in the Montebello Group, Western Australia, prior to reintroduction of native mammal species and two locally extinct birds, Spinifexbird ( Eremiornis carteri) and Black-and-white Fairy-wren (Malurus leucopterus ).---I.R. {B912} {ROL #82}

{E520} Homan, P. 2000. Excluding the Common Myna Acridotheres tristis from artificial nest boxes using a baffle. Victorian Naturalist 117: 75. (8 Bayfield Dr., Eltham, Vic. 3095, Australia.)---Three modified boxes used by native bird and mammal species while two unmodified boxes contained myna nests.---I.D.E. {ROL #82}

{E520} Reinhold, D. S., & C. A. Sloan. 1999. Strategies to reduce Double-crested Cormorant predation at aquaculture facilities in Mississippi. USDA Anim. Plant Health Inspection Serv. Tech. Bull. 1879: 99--105. (USDA/APHIS/WS, 6213-E Angus Dr., Raleigh, NC 27631 USA.)---Nonlethal harassment, dispersal from night roosts, and lethal control have reduced Phalacrocorax auritus depredations at catfish farms, but efficiency and compatibility must be improved.---J.L.T. {B504, control methods, frightening} {ROL #82}

{E520} Saenz, D., C. S. Collins, & R. N Conner. 1999. A bark-shaving technique to deter rat snakes from climbing Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity trees. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 1069--1073. (Wildl. Habitat & Silviculture Lab., Southern Res. Stn., USFS, Nacogdoches, TX 75962, USA.)---Picoides borealis. {B912} {ROL #82}

{E522} Isler, M. L., P. R. Isler, & B. M. Whitney. 1998. Use of vocalizations to establish species limits in antbirds (Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae). Auk 115: 577--590. (Div. Birds, Natl. Mus. Nat. Hist., Smithsonian Inst., Washington D.C. 20560, USA; EM: empirically-derived methodology for assessing species limits.---S.K.W. {D103, B320} {ROL #82}

{E524} Jamison, B. E., et al. 2000. Passive integrated transponder tags as markers for chicks. Poult. Sci. 79: 946--948. (Div. Biol., Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS 66506-4901, USA; EM: implantation of transponder tags into three-and seven-day-old domestic chicks (Gallus domesticus) produced no significant differences in 40-day survival rate or daily growth rate.---I.L.B. {ROL #82}

{E524} Machin, K. L., & N. A. Caulkett. 2000. Evaluation of isoflurane and propofol anesthesia for intra-abdominal transmitter placement in nesting female Canvasback ducks. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 324--334. (Dept. Vet. Internal Med., West. Coll. Vet. Med., 52 Campus Dr., Univ. Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Can.; EM: provided smooth, rapid induction and recovery, and lower nest abandonment after transmitter implant; Aythya valisineria recovering from isoflurane struggled.---J.R.P. {C106, surgery, telemetry} {ROL #82}

{E524} Marzluff, J. M., M. S. Vekasy, & C. Coody. 1994. Comparative accuracy of aerial and ground telemetry locations of foraging raptors. Condor 96: 447--454. (Greenleaf Consultants, 8210 Gantz Ave., Boise, ID 83709, USA.)---Aerial radio-tracking of Falco mexicanus in Utah more accurate than ground tracking; aerial fixes underestimate foraging ranges, particularly for breeding males.---R.B.C. {ROL #82}

{E526} Launay, F., O. Combreau, et al. 1999. Trapping of breeding Houbara Bustard (Chlamydotis undulata). Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 603--608. (Natl. Avian Res. Ctr., P.O. Box 45553, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.)---Successful capture of Chlamydotis undulata was possible using a variety of techniques, including clapnet and decoy, decoy, decoy and snares, snares, chicks and snares, dummy eggs, and dummy eggs and snares.---W.P.J. {ROL #82}

{E526} Melville, D. S. 1996. Report on bird ringing in Hong Kong in 1995. Hong Kong Bird Report 1995: 98--111. (WWF Hong Kong, GPO Box 12721, Hong Kong.)---Details of 2,526 birds of 124 species banded during 1995.---W.K.S. {C910, C920} {ROL #82}