The study of culture contact and colonialism has deep roots in anthropology. The development of anthropology as a formal field of study is actually related to the history of colonialism during the past 500 years, as colonizers became interested in the ways of life of indigenous peoples around the world. Anthropological linguists have studied the effects of culture contact and colonialism on language development, language death, and the development of pidgins and creoles; cultural anthropologists study the effects that the history and continuing effects of colonialism have on the lives of people in the present and recent past. Archaeologists study the long-term outcomes of cross-cultural interaction, and its relationships to cultural landscapes, material culture, and past ways of life. This course takes a comparative view of colonialism and culture contact, through the consideration of case studies of encounters and interactions between peoples of different cultural traditions during the past 500 years, as well as examples of culture contact and colonialism in the more ancient past. The modern world is an outcome of recent cases of colonialism—and continuing effects of this history of colonialism—but as archaeologists can demonstrate, there is an even longer history of colonial encounters, and considerable diversity in the outcomes of culture contact in different situations.