I. GROWTH AND TRADE

 

A. Growth and Trade in the Two-Sector, Neoclassical Model

 

1. The Basic Properties of the Two-Sector Growth Model

 

-H. Uzawa (1961). “On a Two-Sector Model of Economic Growth”. REStud; V.29-#1, pp. 40-47.

 

-R. Solow (1961). “Note on Uzawa's Two-Sector Model of Economic Growth”. REStud; V.29-#1, pp. 48-50.

 

-H. Uzawa (1963). “On a Two-Sector Model of Economic Growth, II”. REStud; V.30-#2, pp. 105-118.

 

-K. Inada (1963). “On a Two-Sector Model of Economic Growth: Comments and a Generalization”. REStud; V.30-#2, pp. 119-127.

 

-E. Drandakis (1963). “Factor Substitution in the Two-Sector Growth Model”. REStud; V.30-#3, pp. 217-228.

 

-K. Inada (1964). “On the Stability of Growth Equilibria in Two-Sector Models”. REStud; V.31-#2, pp. 127-142.

 

-K. Inada (1965). “On Neo-Classical Models of Economic Growth”. REStud; V.32-#2, pp. 151-160.

 

-A. Takayama (1964). “On A Two-Sector Model of Economic Growth--Comparative Statics Analysis”. REStud; V.30-#?, pp. 95-104.

 

-A. Amano (1965). “Factor Substitution in a Two-Sector Growth Model”. REStud; V.32-#?, pp.

 

-F. Hahn (1965). “On Two-Sector Growth Models”. REStud; V.32-#4, pp. 339-346.

 

-K. Shell (1966). “Comparative Statics for the Two-Sector Model”. Metroeconomica; V.18-#?, pp. 117-124.

 

-R. Sato (1969). “Stability Conditions in Two-Sector Models of Economic Growth”. JET; V.1-#?, pp. 107-117.

 

-V. Ramaswami (1969). “On Two-Sector Neo-Classical Growth”. OEP; V.21-#2, pp. 142-146.

 

2. Comparative Statics of Trade in a Two-Sector Growth Model

 

a. Mostly Factor Accumulation

 

-T.N. Rybczynski (1955). “Factor Endowment and Relative Commodity Prices”. Eca; V.22-#2, pp. 336-341.

 

-V. Ramaswami (1960). “The Effects of Accumulation on the Terms of Trade”. EJ; V.70-#?, pp. 514-518.

 

-A. Guha (1963). “Factor and Commodity Prices in an Expanding Economy”. QJE; V.77-#?, pp. 149-155.

 

-K.L. Shea (1981). “A Graphical Analysis of Factor Accumulation in a Three-Sector, Three-Factor Model of International Trade”. EJ; V.91-#?, pp. 1020-1025.

 

b. Mostly Technological Change

 

-J. Hicks (1953). “An Inaugural Lecture”. OEP; V.2-#2, pp. 117-135.

 

-H.G. Johnson (1954). “Increasing Productivity, Income-Price Trends and the Trade Balance”. EJ; V.64-#255, pp. 462-485.

 

-M. Kemp (1955). “Technological Change, Terms of Trade and Welfare”. EJ; V.65-#?, pp. 457-474.

 

-H.G. Johnson (1955). “Economic Expansion and International Trade”. MS; V.23-#2, pp. 95-112.

 

-W.M. Corden (1956). “Economic Expansion and International Trade”. OEP; V.8-#2, pp. 223-228.

 

-J. Black (1956). “Economic Expansion and International Trade: A Marshallian Approach”. REStud; V.204-212.

 

-J. Bhagwati (1958). “International Trade and Economic Expansion”. AER; V.48-#5, pp. 941-953.

 

-H.G. Johnson (1959). “Economic Development and International Trade”. Nationalokonomisk Tidsskrift; V.9-#5/6, pp. 253-272.

 

-A. Takayama (1964). “Economic Growth and International Trade”. REStud; V.30-#?, pp.

 

-M. Ikema (1969). “The Effect of Economic Growth on the Demand for Imports: A Simple Diagram”. OEP; V.21-#2, pp. 66-69.

 

-M. Kemp and K. Shimomura (1988). “The Impossibility of Global Absolute Advantage in the Heckscher-Ohlin Trade Model”. OEP; V.40-#?, pp. 575-576.

 

-K. Shimomura (1991). “A Note on the Hicks-Ikema-Kemp Proposition”. Kobe Economic and Business Review; V.36-#?, pp. 27-32.

 

-M. Kemp, Y.-K. Ng and K. Shimomura (1993). “The International Diffusion of the Fruits of Technical Progress”. IER; V.34-#2, pp. 381-385.

 

c. Immiserizing Growth

 

-J. Bhagwati (1958). “Immiserizing Growth: A Geometric Note”. REStud; V.25-#3, pp. 201-205.

 

-H.G. Johnson (1966). “The Possibility of Income Losses from Increased Efficiency of Factor Accumulation in the Presence of Tariffs”. EJ;

 

-A.H. Tan (1968). “Immiserizing Tariff-Induced Capital Accumulation and Technical Change”. Malayan Economic Review; V.13-#2, pp. 1-7.

 

-T. Bertrand and F. Flatters (1971). “Tariffs, Capital Accumulation and Immiserizing Growth”. JIE; V.1-#4, pp. 453-460.

 

-R. Martin (1977). “Immiserizing Growth for a Tariff-Distorted, Small Economy”. JIE; V.3-#4, pp. 323-326.

 

-J. Bhagwati (1968). “Distortions and Immiserizing Growth: A Generalization”. REStud; V.35-#104, pp. 481-485.

 

-J. Bhagwati (1973). “The Theory of Immiserizing Growth: Further Applications”. in M. Connolly and A. Swoboda, eds. International Trade and Money. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

 

-H.G. Johnson (1970). “A Note on Distortions and the Rate of Growth of an Open Economy”. EJ; V.80-#320, pp. 990-992.

 

-M. Alam (1981). “Welfare Implications of Growth under Quotas”. EcLets; V.8-#?, pp. 177-180

 

-J. Cassing (1983). “A Note on Growth in the Presence of Tariffs”. JIE; V.14-#?, pp. 115-121.

 

-M. Anam and F. Zandi (1989). “Immiserizing Factor Growth and the Non-Equivalence of Quotas and VERs”. IEJ; V.3-#3, pp. 23-30.

 

-J. Melvin (1969). “Demand Conditions and Immiserizing Growth”. AER; V.59-#4, pp. 604-606.

 

-J. Bhagwati (1969). “Optimal Policies and Immerisizing Growth”. AER; V.59-#5, pp. 967-970.

 

S.K. Bagi (1990). “A Synthesis of Theories of Immiserizing Growth”. Indian Economic Journal; V.37-#3, pp. 12-27.

 

-R. Clarete and J. Whalley (1994). “Immiserizing Growth and Endogenous Protection”. JDevE; V.45-#?, pp. 121-133.

 

3. Simple Models of Trade and Welfare in Steady State Growth

 

a. The Small Open Economy

 

-J. Vanek (1971). “Economic Growth and International Trade in Pure Theory”. QJE; V.85-#?, pp. 377-390.

 

-H.G. Johnson (1971). “Trade and Growth: A Geometric Exposition”. JIE; V.1-#?, pp. 83-102. (Correction in V.2-#1, pp. 87-88.)

 

-T. Bertrand (1975). “The Gains from Trade: Steady State Solutions in an Open Economy”. QJE; V.89-#?, pp. 556-568.

 

-A. Deardorff (1973). “The Gains from Trade In and Out of Steady State”. OEP; V.25-#?, pp. 173-191.

 

-A. Deardorff (1974). “A Geometry of International Trade”. CJE; V.7-#2, pp. 295-306.

 

-A. Deardorff (1974). “Trade Reversals and Growth Stability”. JIE; V.4-#?, pp. 83-90.

 

-A. Smith (1977). “Capital Accumulation in the Open, Two-Sector Economy”. EJ; V.87-#346, pp. 273-282.

 

-R. Manning and J. Markusen (1991). “National Product Functions in Comparative Steady-State Analysis”. IER; V.32-#3, pp. 613-624.

 

-P. Pattanaik (1974). “Trade, Distribution and Saving”. JIE; V.4-#?, pp. 77-82.

 

-K. Okuguchi (1977). “Trade, Savings and a Non-Traded Good”. JIE; V.?-#?, pp. 379-384.

 

b. Large Economies

 

-R. Baldwin (1975). “International Trade and Economic Growth: A Diagramatic Analysis”. AER; V.65-#1, pp. 187-193.

 

-C. Smallwood (1975). “Economic Growth and the Pure Theory of International Trade”. Scottish Journal of Political Economy; V.22-#2, pp. 135-159.

 

-D.M. Bensusan-Butt (1954). “A Model of Trade and Accumulation”. AER; V.44-#4, pp. 511-529.

 

-T.N. Srinivasan (1965). “Foreign Trade and Economic Development”. Metroeconomica; V.17-#?, pp. 83-98.

 

-H. Oniki and H. Uzawa (1965). “Patterns of Trade and Investment in a Dynamic Model of International Trade”. REStud; V.32-#?, pp. 15-38.

 

-P. Bardhan (1965). “Equilibrium Growth in the International Economy”. QJE; V.79-#?, pp. 455-464.

 

-P. Bardhan (1965). “Optimum Accumulation and International Trade”. REStud; V.32-#?, pp. 241-244.

 

-P. Bardhan (1966). “On Factor Accumulation and the Pattern of International Specialization”. REStud; V.33-#?, pp. 39-44.

 

-K. Inada (1968). “Free Trade, Capital Accumulation and Factor Price Equalization”. EcRec; V.44-#?, pp. 322-341.

 

-H. Atsumi (1971). “The Long Run Offer Function and A Dynamic Theory of International Trade”. JIE; V.1-#3, pp. 267-299.

 

-M. Kemp (1970). “International Trade between Countries with Different Natural Rates of Growth”. EcRec; V.46-#?, pp. 467-481.

 

-C. Khang (1971). “Equilibrium Growth in the International Economy: The Case of Unequal Natural Rates of Growth”. IER; V.12-#2, pp. 239-249.

 

-C. Khang (1969). “A Dynamic Model of Trade Between Final and Intermediate Products”. JET; V.1-#?, pp. 416-437.

 

-C. Khang and M. Kemp (1973). “International Trade and Investment Between Countries with Different Natural Rates of Growth”. Metroeconomica; V.25-#3; pp. 214-228.

 

-H. Petith (1974). “The Pattern of Trade in a Neoclassical Growth Model with a General Savings Function”. JIE; V.4-#4, pp. 387-393.

 

-A. Deardorff and J. Hanson (1978). “Accumulation and a Long-Run Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem”. EcInq; V.16-#?, pp. 288-292.

 

-A. Deardorff (1990). “Trade and Capital Mobility in a World of Diverging Populations”. in D.G. Johnson and R. Lee, eds. Population Growth and Economic Development: Issues and Evidence. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 561-588.

 

-A. Deardorff (1994). “Growth and International Investment with Diverging Populations”. OEP; V.46-#?, pp. 477-491.

 

4. Growth and International Capital Flows

 

-V. Ramaswami (1953). “Equilibrium Growth in an International Economy”. CJEPS; V.19-#4, pp. 478-500.

 

-G. Borts (1964). “A Theory of Long-Run International Capital Movements”. JPE; V.72-#?, pp. 341-359.

 

-E. Grinols and J. Bhagwati (1976). “Foriegn Capital, Savings and Dependence”. REStat; V.58-#?, pp. 416-424. (Comment by Wasow and Response, REStat (1979) V.61-#?, pp. 150-156).

 

B. Growth and Trade in Optimal Growth Models

 

1. Optimum Growth Models

 

-R. Dorfman (1969). “An Economic Interpretation of Optimal Control Theory”. AER; V.59-#5, pp. 817-831.

 

-N. Liviatan (19??). “A Diagrammatic Exposition of Optimal Growth Theory”. AER; V.?-#?, pp. 302-309.

 

-T. Koopmans (1965). “On the Concept of Optimal Economic Growth”. in The Econometric Approach to Development Planning. pp. 225-287.

 

-H. Uzawa (1964). “Optimal Growth in a Two-Sector Model of Capital Accumulation”. REStud; V.31-#1, pp. 1-24.

 

-K. Sato (1964). “Neo-classical Economic Growth and Saving: An Extension of Uzawa's Model”. ESQ; V.14-#?, pp. 69-75.

 

-T.N. Srinivasan (1964). “Optimal Savings in a Two-Sector Model of Growth”. Etrica; V.32-#3, pp. 358-373.

 

-T. Koopmans (1964). “Economic Growth at a Maximal Rate”. QJE; V.78-#?, pp. 355-394.

 

-K. Shell (1967). “Optimal Programs of Capital Accumulation for an Economy in Which there is Exogenous Technical Change”. in K. Shell, ed. Essays on the Theory of Optimal Economic Growth. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 1-30.

 

-M. Bruno (1967). “Optimal Accumulation in Discrete Capital Models”. in K. Shell, ed. Essays on the Theory of Optimal Economic Growth. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 181-218.

 

-M. Bruno (1969). “Fundamental Duality Relations in the Pure Theory of Capital and Growth”. REStud; V.36-#1, pp. 39-53.

 

-A. Araujo and J. Schienkman (1977). “Smoothness, Comparative Dynamics and the Turnpike Property”. Etrica; V.45-#?, pp. 601-620.

 

-A. Araujo and J. Schienkman (1979). “Notes on Comparative Dynamics”. in J. Green and J. Schienkman, eds. General Equilibrium, Growth and Trade. New York: Academic Press.

 

-L. McKenzie (1986). “Optimal Economic Growth, Turnpike Theorems and Comparative Dynamics”. in K. Arrow and M. Intrilligator, eds. Handbook of Mathematical Economics. Amsterdam: North: Holland, pp. 1281-1355.

 

-M. Caputo (1990). “How to Do Dynamics on the Back of an Envelope in Optimal Control Theory”. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control; V.14-#4, pp. 655-683.

 

-J. LaFrance and L.D. Barnery (1991). “The Envelope Theorem in Dynamic Optimization”. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control; V.15-#?, pp. 355-385.

 

-M. Boldrin and R. Deneckere (1990). “Sources of Complex Dynamics in Two-Sector Growth Models”. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control; V.14-#4, pp. 627-653.

 

2. Optimal Growth and Trade

 

-H. Ryder (1967). “Optimal Accumulation and Trade in an Open Economy of Moderate Size”. in K. Shell ed. Essays on the Theory of Optimal Economic Growth. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 87-116.

 

-J. Stiglitz (1970). “Factor Price Equalization in a Dynamic Economy”. JPE; V.78-#3, pp. 456-488.

 

-A. Takayama (1971). “A Dynamic Analysis of the Patterns of Specialization and Factor Accumulation”. Chapter 14 in A. Takayama, International Trade. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, pp. 403-434.

 

-S. Togan (1975). “The Gains from International Trade in the Context of a Growing Economy”. JIE; V.5-#3, pp. 229-238.

 

-T.N. Srinivasan and J. Bhagwati (1980). “Trade and Welfare in a Steady State”. in J. Chipman and C. Kindleberger, eds. Flexible Exchange Rates and the Balance of Payments. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 341-353.

 

-Z. Chen (1992). “Long-run Equilibria in a Dynamic Heckscher-Ohlin Model”. CJE; V.25-#4, pp. 923-943.

 

-M. Yano (1990). “Von Neumann Facets and the Dynamic Stability of Perfect Foresight Equilibrium Paths in Neo-Classical Trade Theory”. ZfN; V.51-#1, pp. 27-69.

 

3. Optimal Policy with Capital Mobility

 

-T. Negishi (1965). “Foreign Investment and Long-Run National Advantage”. EcRec; V.41-#?, pp. 628-632.

 

-A. Francis (1970). “An Alternative Treatment of Foreign Investment and Long-run National Advantage”. EcRec; V.46-#?, pp. 255-257.

 

-N. van Long (1973). “On a Paradox in the Theory of Capital Movements”. EcRec; V.49-#?, pp. 440-446.

 

-R. Manning (1975). “Attitudes to International Capital Movements in the Long Run: The Case of Neo-Classical Savings in the Foreign Country”. EcRec; V.51-#?, pp. 242-248.

 

-M. Ohyama (1978). “Reconsideration of Some Paradoxes in the Theory of Optimal Foreign Investment”. EcRec; V.54-#?, pp. 346-353.

 

4. Optimal Investment with International Borrowing

 

-K. Hamada (1966). “Economic Growth and Long-Term International Capital Movements”. Yale Economic Essays; V.6-#?, pp. 49-96.

 

-K. Hamada (1969). “Optimal Capital Accumulation by an Economy Facing an International Capital Market”. JPE; V.77-#?, pp. 684-697.

 

-P. Bardhan (1967). “Optimum Foreign Borrowing”. in K. Shell, ed. Essays on the Theory of Optimal Economic Growth. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 117-128.

 

-M. Kemp (1968). “International Trade and Investment in the Context of Growth”. EcRec; V.?-#?, pp. 211-223.

 

-J. Hanson and P. Neher (1967). “The Neoclassical Theorem Once Again: Closed and Open Economies”. AER; V.57-#?, pp. 869-878.

 

-R. Bade (1972). “Optimal Growth and Foreign Borrowing with Restricted Mobility of Foreign Capital”. IER; V.13-#3, pp. 544-552.

 

-J.D. Pitchford (1970). “Foreign Investment and National Advantage in a Dynamic Context”. I. McDougall and R. Snape, eds. Studies In International Economics. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 193-206.

 

-J.D. Pitchford (1989). “Optimum Borrowing and the Current Account when there are Fluctuations in Income”. JIE; V.26-#?, 345-358.

 

-R. Manning (1972). “Optimal Taxation when Borrowing Alters the Foreign Supply Curve for Capital”. EcRec; V.48-#?, pp. 400-410.

 

-J. Hanson (1974). “Optimal International Borrowing and Lending”. AER; V.64-#?, pp. 616-630.

 

-G. Feder and U. Regev (1975). “International Loans, Direct Foreign Investment and Optimal Capital Accumulation”. EcRec; V.51-#?, pp. 320-325.

 

-J. McCabe and D. Sibley (1976). “Optimal Foreign Debt Accumulation with Export Revenue Uncertainty”. IER; V.17-#?, pp. 675-686.

 

-G. Feder and R. Just (1979). “Optimal International Borrowing, Capital Allocation, and Credit Worthiness Control”. Kredit und Kapital; V.12-#2, pp. 207-220.

 

-H. Kharas (1984). “The Long-Run Creditworthiness of Developing Countries: Theory and Practice”. QJE; V.?-#?, pp. 415-439.

 

-R. Manning and K.L. Shea (1989). “Perfectly Discriminatory Policy Towards International Capital Movements in a Dynamic World”. IER; V.30-#2, pp. 329-348.

 

-R. Manning and K.L. Shea (1989). “Perfect Discrimination and Long-Run National Advantage”. ZfN; V.49-#3, pp. 299-313.

 

-H. Wan (1971). “A Simultaneous Variational Model for International Capital Movements”. in J. Bhagwati, et al., eds. Trade, Balance of Payments and Growth. Amsterdam: North Holland, pp. 261-287.

 

5. Growth, Capital Mobility and Stages in the Balance of Payments

 

-P. Neher (1970). “International Capital Movements Along Balanced Growth Paths”. EcRec; V.46-#?, pp. 393-401. (Comment by Fischer & Frenkel, EcRec, (1972), pp. 266-271)

 

-J. Frenkel (1971). “A Theory of Money, Trade and the Balance of Payments in a Model of Accumulation”. JIE; V.1-#2, pp. 159-187.

 

-S. Fischer and J. Frenkel (1974). “Economic Growth and Stages of the Balance of Payments: A Theoretical Model”. in G. Horwich and P. Samuelson, eds. Trade, Stability and Macroeconomics. New York: Academic Press, pp. 503-521.

 

-S. Fischer and J. Frenkel (1972). “Investment, the Two-Sector Model and Trade in Debt and Capital Goods”. JIE; V.2-#?, pp. 211-233.

 

-S. Fischer and J. Frenkel (1974). “Interest Rate Equalization and Patterns of Production, Trade and Consumption in a Two-Country Growth Model”. EcRec; V.50-#?, pp. 555-580.

 

-Y. Onitsuka (1974). “International Capital Movements and the Patterns of Economic Growth”. AER; V.64-#1, pp. 24-36.

 

-M. Bazdarich (1978). “Optimal Growth and Stages in the Balance of Payments”. JIE; V.8-#?, pp. 425-443.

 

-H. Hori and J. Stein (1977). “International Growth with Free Trade in Equities and Goods”. IER, V.18-#1, pp. 83-100. (Comment by de Vries (1983), V.24-#3, pp. 761-769.)

 

-R. Ruffin (1979). “Growth and the Long-Run Theory of Capital Movements”. AER; V.69-#5, pp. 832-842.

 

-Y. Takagi (1981). “Aid and Debt Problems in Less Developed Countries”. OEP; V.33-#?, pp. 323-337.

 

-M. Katz (1982). “The Cost of Borrowing, the Terms of Trade, and the Determination of External Debt”. OEP; V.34-#?, pp. 332-345.

 

-R. Ruffin (1985). “Taxing International Capital Movements in a Growing World”. JIE; V.18-#?, pp. 261-279.

 

-H. Siebert (1987). “Foreign Debt and Capital Accumulation”. WA; V.123-#?, pp. 618-630.

 

-N. van Long and H. Siebert (1989). “Optimal Foreign Borrowing: The Impact of Planning Horizon on the Half and Full Debt Cycle”. ZfN; V.49-#3, pp. 279-297.

 

-H. Siebert (1989). “The Half and Full Debt Cycle”. WA; V.125-#?, pp. 217-229.

 

-S. Manzocchi (1990). “Stages in the Balance of Payments: A Survey of the Neoclassical Theory”. Economic Notes, pp. 397-416.

 

C. Growth and Trade in Overlapping Generations (OLG) Models

 

1. Growth with OLG

 

-G. McCandless with N. Wallace (1991). Introduction to Dynamic Macroeconomics: An OLG Approach. Cambridge: Harvard.

 

a. Pure Exchange

 

-P. Samuelson (1958). “An Exact Consumption-Loan Model of Interest with or without the Social Contrivance of Money”. JPE; V.66-#6, pp. 467-482.

 

-D. Cass and M. Yaari (1966). “A Re-Examination of Pure Consumption Loans Models”. JPE; V.74-#?, pp. 353-367.

 

-K. Shell (1971). “Notes on the Economics of Infinity”. JPE; V.79-#?, pp. 1002-1111.

 

-D. Gale (1973). “Pure Exchange Equilibrium of Dynamic Economic Models”. JET; V.6-#1, pp. 12-36.

 

-W. Chang, M. Kemp and N.V. Long (1983). “Dynamic Properties of a Simple OLG Model”. OEP; V.35-#?, pp. 366-372.

 

-Y. Balasko and K. Shell (1980). “The OLG Model, I: The Case of Pure Exchange without Money”. JET; V.23-#?, pp. 281-306.

 

-Y. Balasko, D. Cass and K. Shell (1980). “Existence of Competitive Equilibrium in a General OLG Model”. JET; V.23-#?, pp. 307-322.

 

-J. Genakopolos and H. Polemarchakis (1984). “Intertemporally Separable OLG Models”. JET; V.34-#?, pp. 207-215.

 

-T. Kehoe and D. Levine (1984). “Intertemporal Separability in OLG Models”. JET; V.34-#?, pp. 216-226.

 

-T. Kehoe and D. Levine (1985). “Comparative Statics and Perfect Foresight in Infinite Horizon Models”. Etrica; V.53-#?, pp. 433-453.

 

-W. Muller and M. Woodford (1988). “Determinacy of Equilibrium in Stationary Economies with Both Finite and Infinite-Lived Consumers”. JET; V.46-#?, pp. 255-290.

 

-T. Kehoe, D. Levine, A. Mas-Colell and M. Woodford (1991). “Gross Substitutability in Large Square Economies”. JET; V.54-#1, pp. 1-25.

 

-L. Beneviste (1986). “Pricing Optimal Distributions to Overlapping Generations: A Corollary to Efficiency Pricing”. REStud; V.53-#?, pp. 301-306.

 

-K. Hendricks, K. Judd, and D. Kovenock (1980). “A Note on the core of the OLG Model”. EcLets; V.6-#?, pp. 95-97.

 

-D. Kovenock (1984). “A Second Note on the Core of the OLG Model”. EcLets; V.14-#?, pp. 101-106.

 

-S. Chae (1987). “Short-run Core Equivalence in an OLG Model”. JET; V.43-#?, pp. 170-183.

 

-J. Esteban and T. Millan (1990). “Competitive Equilibria and the Core of OLG Economies”. JET; V.50-#?, pp. 155-174.

 

-C. Aliprantis and O. Burkinshaw (1990). “An OLG Core Equivalence Theorem”. JET; V.50-#?, pp. 362-380.

 

-S. Chae and J. Esteban (1993). “Core Equivalence in an OLG Model”. JET; V.59-#?, pp. 417-425.

 

-J. Silvestre (2000). “Surplus Analysis for Overlapping Generations”. Journal of Economic Dynamics And Control; V.24-#4, pp. 623-650.

 

b. OLG with Production

 

-P. Diamond (1965). “National Debt in a Neoclassical Growth Model”. AER; V.55-#5, pp. 1126-1150.

 

-D. Cass and M. Yaari (1967). “Individual Savings, Aggregate Capital Accumulation, and Efficient Growth”. in K. Shell, ed. Essays on the Theory of Optimal Economic Growth. Cambridge: MIT, pp. 233-268.

 

-P. Samuelson (1968). “The Two-Part Golden Rule Deduced as the Asymptotic Turnpike of Caternary Motions”. Western Econmic Journal; V.6-#2, pp. 85-93.

 

-P. Samuelson (1975). “The Optimum Growth Rate for Population”. IER; V.16-#3, pp. 531-538.

 

-A. Deardorff (1976). “The Optimum Growth Rate for Population: A comment”. IER; V.17-#2, pp. 510-515. [Response by Samuelson follows]

 

-O. Galor and H. Ryder (1989). “Existence, Uniqueness and Stability of Equilibrium in an OLG Model”. JET; V.49-#?, pp. 360-375.

 

-O. Galor (1992). “A Two-Sector OLG Model: A Global Characterization of the Dynamical System”. Etrica; V.60-#6, pp. 1351-1386.

 

c. OLG a la Yaari-Blanchard-Weil

 

-M. Yaari (1965). “Uncertain Lifetime, Life Insurance and the Theory of the Consumer”. REStud; V.32-#?, pp. 137-150.

 

-O.J. Blanchard (1984). “Current and Anticipated Deficits, Interest Rates and Economic Activity”. EER; V.25-#?, pp. 7-27.

 

-O.J. Blanchard (1985). “Debt, Deficits and Finite Horizons”. JPE; V.93-#?, pp. 223-247.

 

-P. Weil (1988). “Overlapping Generations of Infinitely Lived Agents”. JPubE; V.38-#?, pp. 183-198.

 

-W. Buiter (1988). “Death, Birth, Productivity Growth and Debt Neutrality”. EJ; V.98-#?, pp. 279-293.

 

-A. Abel (1989). “Birth, Death and Taxes”. JPubE; V.39-#1, pp. 1-15.

 

-G. Calvo and M. Obstfeld (1988). “Optimal Time Consistent Fiscal Policy with Finite Lifetimes: Analysis and Extensions”. in E. Helpman, A. Razin and E. Sadka, eds. Economic Effects of the Government Budget. Cambridge: MIT, pp. 163-198.

 

-M. Kawai and L. Maccini (1990). “Fiscal Policy, Anticipated Switches in Methods of Finance and the Effects on the Economy”. IER; V.31-#?, pp. 913-934.

 

-C. Davidson, L. Martin and S. Matusz (1994). “Jobs and Chocolate: Samuelsonian Surpluses in Dynamic Models of Employment”. REStud; V.61-#1, pp. 173-192.

 

d. OLG with Money

 

-N. Wallace (1980). “The OLG Model of Fiat Money”. in J. Karaken and N. Wallace, eds. Models of Monetary Economies. Minneapolis: Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, pp. 49-82. [Comments by Tobin, Schienkman, and Cass/Shell]

 

-B. McCallum (1983). “The Role of OLG in Models of Monetary Economics”. K. Brunner and A. Meltzer, eds. Theory, Policy, Institutions. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 129-164.

 

-J.-M. Grandmont and G. Laroque (1973). “Money in the Pure Consumption Loan Model”. JET; V.6-#?, pp. 382-395.

 

-M. Kemp and N.V. Long (1979). “Money, Inflation and Maximizing Behavior”. EcLets; V.2-#?, pp. 321-326.

 

-D. Cass, M. Okuno and I. Zilcha (1979). “The Role of Money in Supporting the Pareto Optimality of Competitive Equilibrium in Consumption Loan Type Models”. JET; V.20-#1, pp. 41-80.

 

-M. Okuno and I. Zilcha (1980). “On the Efficiency of a Competitive Equilibrium in Infinite Horizon Monetary Models”. REStud; V.47-#?, pp. 797-807.

 

-M. Okuno and I. Zilcha (1981). “A Proof of the Existence of Competitive Equilibrium in an OLG Exchange Economy with Money”. IER; V.22-#?, pp. 239-252.

 

-Y. Balasko and K. Shell (1981). “The OLG Model, II: The Case of Pure Exchange with Money”. JET; V.24-#?, pp. 112-142.

 

-Y. Balasko and K. Shell (1981). “The OLG Model, III: The Case of Log-Linear Utility Functions”. JET; V.24-#?, pp. 143-152.

 

-Y. Balasko and K. Shell (1986). “Lump-Sum Taxes and Transfers: Public Debt in the OLG Model”. in W. Heller, R. Starr and D. Starrett, eds. Equilibrium Analysis. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 121-153.

 

-M. Kemp and N.V. Long (1990). “The Relaxation of Price Controls, the General Price Level and Welfare”. Journal of Macroeconomics; V.12-#2, pp. 221-246.

 

e. Chaotic Dynamics in OLG Economies

 

-J. Benhabib and R. Day (1982). “A Characterisation of Erratic Dynamics in the OLG Model”. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control; V.4-#1, pp. 37-55.

 

-J. Grandmont (1985). “On Endogenous Competitive Business Cycles”. Etrica; V.53-#?, pp. 995-1045.

 

-J. Grandmont (1986). “Stabilizing Competitive Business Cycles”. JET; V.40-#?, pp. 57-76.

 

-J. Tirole (1985). “Asset Bubbles and OLG”. Etrica; V.53-#?, pp. 1071-1100.

 

2. Growth and Trade with OLG

 

a. Growth and Trade in the Samuelson-Diamond Model

 

-D. Gale (1971). “General Equilibrium with Imbalance of Trade”. JIE; V.1-#2, pp. 141-158.

 

-J. Green (1972). “The Question of Collective Rationality in Professor Gale's Model of Trade Imbalance”. JIE; V.2-#1, pp. 39-55.

 

-D. Gale (1974). “The Trade Imbalance Story”. JIE; V.4-#?, pp. 119-137.

 

-M. Kemp (1973). “Trade Gains in a Pure Consumption-Loan Model”. Australian Economic Papers; V.12-#?, pp. 124-126.

 

-J. Karaken and N. Wallace (1977). “Portfolio Autarky: A Welfare Analysis”. JIE; V.7-#?, pp. 19-43.

 

-J. Fried (1980). “The Intergenerational Distribution of the Gains from Technical Change and from International Trade”. CJE; V.13-#1, pp. 65-81.

 

-B. Bental (1985). “Is Capital Mobility Always Desirable? A Welfare Analysis of Portfolio Autarky in a Growing Economy”. IER; V.26-#1, pp. 203-212.

 

-O. Galor (1994). “Tariffs, Income Distribution and Welfare in a Small OLG Economy”. IER; V.35-#1, pp. 173-192.

 

-P. Serra (1991). “Short-run and Long-run Welfare Implications of Free Trade”. CJE; V.24-#1, pp. 21-33.

 

-E. Cremers (1997). “Capital Markets and Dimension in Neoclassical Models of Growth with Trade”. JIE; V.43-#1/2, pp. 155-172.

 

-W. Buiter (1981). “Time Preference and International Lending and Borrowing in an OLG Model”. JPE; V.89-#?, pp. 769-797.

 

-R. Dornbusch (1985). “Intergenerational and International Trade”. JIE; V.18-#?, pp. 123-139.

 

-T. Persson (1985). “Deficits and Intergenerational Welfare in Open Economies”. JIE; V.19-#1/2, pp. 67-84.

 

-T. Persson and L. Svensson (1985). “Current Account Dynamics and Terms of Trade: Harberger-Laursen-Metzler Two Generations Later”. JPE; V.93-#1, pp. 43-65.

 

-A. Sibert (1985). “Capital Accumulation and Foreign Investment Taxation”. REStud; V.52-#?, pp. 331-345.

 

-H. Zee (1987). “Government Debt, Capital Accumulation, and the Terms of Trade in a Model of Interdependent Economies”. EcInq; V.25-#?, pp. 599-18.

 

-J. Fried and P. Howitt (1988). “Fiscal Deficits, International Trade and Welfare”. JIE; V.24-#1, pp. 1-22.

 

-K. Matsuyama (1988). “Terms of Trade, Factor Intensities and the Current Account in a Life Cycle Model”. REStud; V.55-#?, pp. 247-262.

 

-M. Obstfeld (1989). “Fiscal Deficits and Relative Prices in a Growing World Economy”. JME; V.23-#3, pp. 461-484.

 

-E. Fisher (1990). “Sustainable Balance of Trade Deficits”. JME; V.25-#?, pp. 411-430.

 

-E. Fisher (1995). “A New Way of Thinking About the Current Account”. IER; V.36-#3, pp. 555-568

 

-E. Fisher (1995). “Growth, Trade, and International Transfers”. JIE; V.39-#1/2, pp. 143-158.

 

-M. Finn (1990). “On Savings and Investment Dynamics in a Small Open Economy”. JIE; V.29-#1/2, pp. 1-21.

 

-A. Sibert (1990). “Taxing Capital in a Large, Open Economy”. JPubE; V.41-#?, pp. 297-317.

 

-T. Ihori (forthcoming). Capital Income Taxation in a World Economy: A Territorial System versus a Residence System”. EJ;

 

-R. Batina and T. Ihori (1991). “International Spillover Effects of Consumption Taxation”. JJIE; V.5-#4, pp. 404-420.

 

-A. Mourmouras (1991). “Infant Governments and the Fiscal Role of Tariffs, Inflation, and Requirements”. JIE; V.31

 

-M. Kohn and N. Marion (1992). “The Implications of Knowledge-based Growth for the Optimality of Open Capital Markets”. CJE; V.25-#4, pp. 865-883.

 

-T.N. Binh (1985). “A Neo-Ricardian Trade Model with OLG”. EcRec; V.?-#?, pp. 707-718

 

-J. Eaton (1987). “A Dynamic Specific-Factors Model of Trade”. REStud; V.54-#?, pp. 325-338.

 

-J. Eaton (1988). “Foreign Owned Land”. AER; V.87-#1, pp. 76-88.

 

-O. Galor (1986). “Time Preference and International Labor Migration”. JET; V.38-#?, pp. 1-20.

 

-O. Galor (1988). “The Long-Run Implications of Hicks-neutral Technical Progress”. IER; V.29-#?, pp. 177-183.

 

-K. Matsuyama (1991). “Immiserizing Growth in Diamond's OLG Model: A Geometrical Exposition”. IER; V.32-#1, pp. 251-262.

 

-W. Buiter and K. Kletzer (1991). “Persistent Differences in National Productivity Growth Rates with a Common Technology and Free Capital Mobility: The Roles of Private Thrift, Public Debt Capital Taxation, and Policy Toward Human Capital Formation”. JJIE; V.5-#4, pp. 325-353.

 

-R. Fischer (1992). “Income Distriubtion in the Dynamic Two-Factor Trade Model”. Eca; V.59-#?, pp. 221-233.

 

-H. Dellas and O. Galor (1992). “Growth via External Public Debt and Capital Controls”. IER; V.33-#2, pp. 269-281.

 

-R. Ruffin and Y.D. Yoon (1993). “International Capital Movements in the Solow and OLG Models”. RIE; V.1-#2, pp. 123-135.

 

-O. Galor and S. Lin (1997). “Dynamic Foundations for the Factor Endowment Model of International Trade”. in B. Jensen and K.-y. Wong, eds. Dynamics, Economic Growth and International Trade. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 151-168.

 

-A. Mountford (1998). “Trade, Convergence and Overtaking”. JIE; V.46-#1, pp. 167-182.

 

b. Growth and Trade in the Yaari-Blanchard-Weil Model

 

-W. Buiter (1987). “Fiscal Policy in Open, Interdependent Economies”. in A. Razin and E. Sadka, eds. Economic Policy in Theory and Practice. London: Macmillan.

 

-W. Buiter (1988). “Structural and Stabilization Aspects of Fiscal and Financial Policy in the Dependent Economy”. OEP; V.40-#?, pp. 220-245.

 

-J. Frenkel and A. Razin (1986). “Fiscal Policies in the World Economy”. JPE; V.94-#3/pt.1, pp. 564-594.

 

-E. Helpman and A. Razin (1987). “Exchange Rate Management: Intertemporal Tradeoffs”. AER; V.77-#1, pp. 107-123.

 

-J. Frenkel and A. Razin (1987). “OLG and the Dynamic Effects of Fiscal Policies”. Part V in Fiscal Policies and the World Economy. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 285-399.

 

-P. Kouri (1986). “Trade, Capital Flows and the Dynamics of the Real Exchange Rate”. in G. Calvo, et al. eds. Debt, Stabilization and Development. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 324-343.

 

-K. Matsuyama (1987). “Current Account Dynamics in a Finite Horizon Model”. JIE; V.23-#3/4, pp. 299-313.

 

-S. van Wijnbergen (1988). “Inflation, Balance of Payments Crises and Public Sector Deficits”. in E. Helpman, et al., eds. Economic Effects of the Government Budget. Cambridge: MIT, pp. 287-309.

 

-A. Giovannini (1988). “The Real Exchange Rate, The Capital Stock and Fiscal Policy”. EER; V.32-#?, pp. 1747-1767.

 

-A. Giovannini and J.W. Park (1992). “Capital Controls and International Trade Finance”. JIE; V.33-#3/4, pp. 285-304.

 

-J. Eaton (1989). “Monopoly Wealth and International Debt”. IER; V.30-#1, pp. 33-48.

 

-C. Engel and K. Kletzer (1990). “Tariffs and Saving in a Model with New Generations”. JIE; V.28-#1/2, pp. 71-91.

 

-F. van der Ploeg (1991). “Money and Capital in Interdependent Economies with Overlapping Generations”. Eca; V.58-#230, pp. 233-256.

 

-G. Algoskoufis and F. van der Ploeg (1991). “On Budgetary Policies, Growth and External Deficits in an Interdependent World”. JJIE; V.5-#4, pp. 305-324.

 

-K. Matsuyama (1992). “A Simple Model of Sectoral Adjustment”. REStud; V.59-#?, pp. 375-388.

 

-A.L. Bovenberg (1992). “Residence- and Source-based Taxation of Capital Income in an OLG Model”. ZfN; V.56-#3, pp. 267-295.

 

-A.L. Bovenberg (1993). “Investment-Promoting Policies in Open Economies: The Importance of Intergenerational and International Distributional Effects”. JPubE; V.51-#1, pp. 3-54.

 

-B. Daniel (1993). “Uncertainty and the Timing of Taxes”. JIE; V.34-#1/2, pp. 95-114.

 

-D. Park (1994). “Foreign Exchange Liberalization and the Viability of a Fixed Exchange Rate Regime”. JIE; V.36-#1/2, pp. 99-116.

 

c. Exchange Rates and the BoP with OLG

 

-J. Karaken and N. Wallace (1981). “On the Indeterminacy of Equilibrium Exchange Rates”. QJE; V.46-#?, pp. 207-222.

 

-H. Lapan and W. Enders (1980). “Random Disturbances and the Choice of Exchange Rate Regimes in an Intergenerational Model”. JIE; V.10-#?, pp. 263-283.

 

-J. Aizenman (1981). “The Use of Balance of Payments as a Shock Absorber in Fixed Rate and Managed Float Systems”. JIE; V.11-#?, pp. 479-486.

 

-W. Enders and H. Lapan (1981). “The Exchange Regime, Resource Allocation, and Uncertainty”. SEJ; V.48-#?, pp. 924-940.

 

-H. Lapan and W. Enders (1983). “Rational Expectations, Endogenous Currency Substitution, and Exchange Rate Determination”. QJE; V.?-#?, pp. 427-439.

 

-W. Enders and H. Lapan (1983). “On the Relationship Between the Exchange Regime and the Portfolio Rules of Optimizing Agents”. JIE; V.15-#?, pp. 199-224.

 

-E. Fisher (1990). “Sustainable Balance of Trade Deficits”. JME; V.25-#?, pp. 411-430.

 

-E. Fisher (1995). “A New Way of Thinking About the Current Account”. IER; V.36-#?, pp.

 

-E. Fisher (1996). “On Exchange Rates and Efficiency”. Economic Theory; v.7-#?, pp. 267-281.

 

D. Capital Theoretic/Neo-Ricardian Models of Growth and Trade

 

-A. Smith (1976). “Trade, Growth and Consumption in Alternative Models of Capital Accumulation”. JIE; V.6-#?, pp. 371-384.

 

-A. Dixit (1981). “The Export of Capital Theory”. JIE, V.11-#?, pp. 279-294.

 

-A. Smith (1984). “Capital Theory and Trade Theory”. in R. Jones and P. Kenen, ed. Handbook of International Economics. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 289-324.

 

1. The Structure of Neo-Ricardian Models

 

-L. Mainwaring (1984). Value and Distribution in Capitalist Economies: An Introduction to Sraffian Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

-P. Sraffa (1960). Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

-P. Garegnani (1970). “Heterogeneous Capital, The Production Function and the Theory of Distribution”. REStud; V.37-#3, pp. 407-436.

 

-J. Metcalfe and I. Steedman (1972). “Reswitching and Primary Input Use”. EJ; V.82-#?, pp. 140-157.

 

-L. Pasinetti (1974). Growth and Income Distribution. Cambridge: Cambrige University Press.

 

-L. Pasinetti (1981). Structural Change and Economic Growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

-W. Darity (1981). “The Simple Analytics of Neo-Ricardian Growth and Distribution”. AER; V.71-#5, pp. 978-993.

 

-J. Blatt (1984). Dynamic Economic Systems: A Post-Keynesian Approach. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.

 

-A. Dixit (1977). “The Accumulation of Capital Theory”. OEP; V.29-#1, pp. 1-29.

 

2. International Trade in Neo-Ricardian Models

 

-I. Steedman and J. Metcalfe (1973). “'On Foreign Trade'”. Economia Internazionale; reprinted in I. Steedman, ed. Fundamental Issues in Trade Theory. New York: St. Martins, pp. 99-109.

 

-L. Mainwaring (1974). “A Neo-Ricardian Analysis of International Trade”. KYKLOS; V.27-#?, pp. 537-553.

 

-J. Metcalfe and I. Steedman (1974). “A Note on the Gain From Trade”. EcRec; V.50-#?, pp. 581-595.

 

-P. Samuelson (1975). “Trade Pattern Reversals in Time-Phased Ricardian Systems”. JIE; V.5-#?, pp. 309-363.

 

-P. Samuelson (1978). “Free Trade's Intertemporal Pareto-Optimality”. JIE; V.8-#?, pp. 147-149.

 

-M.A.M. Smith (1979). “Intertemporal Gains from Trade”. JIE; V.9-#?, pp. 239-248.

 

-L. Mainwaring (1979). “On the Transition from Autarky to Trade”. in I. Steedman, ed. Fundamental Issues in Trade Theory. New York: St. Martins, pp. 131-141.

 

-I. Steedman (1979). “The von Neumann Analysis and the Small Open Economy”. in I. Steedman, ed. Fundamental Issues in Trade Theory. New York: St. Martins, pp. 142-158.

 

-S. Parinello (1979). “Distribution, Growth and International Trade”. in I. Steedman, ed. Fundamental Issues in Trade Theory. New York: St. Martins, pp. 159-187.

 

-J. Metcalfe and I. Steedman (1979). “Growth and Distribution in an Open Economy”. in I. Steedman, ed. Fundamental Issues in Trade Theory. New York: St. Martins, pp. 201-227.

 

-K. Acheson (1970). “The Aggregation of Heterogeneous Capital Goods and Various Trade Theorems”. JPE; V.78-#2, pp. 565-571.

 

-J. Metcalfe and I. Steedman (1972). “Heterogeneous Capital and the Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson Theory of Trade”. in J. Parkin and A. Nobay, eds. Essays in Modern Economics. London: Longman, pp. 50-60.

 

-M. Kemp (1973). “Heterogeneous Capital Goods and Long-Run Stolper-Samuelson Theorems”. Australian Economic Papers; V.12-#?, pp. 253-260.

 

-I. Steedman and J. Metcalfe (1973). “The Non-Substitution Theorem and International Trade Theory”. Australian Economic Papers; V.12-#?, pp. 267-269.

 

-I. Steedman and J. Metcalfe (1977). “Reswitching, Primary Inputs and the HOS Theory of Trade”. JIE; V.7-#?, pp. 201-208.

 

-L. Mainwaring (1976). “Relative Prices and “Factor Price” Equalization in a Heterogeneous Capital Goods Model”. Australian Economic Papers; V.12-#?, pp. 109-118.

 

-E. Burmeister (1978). “An Interest Rate and Factor Price Equalization Theorem with Non-Traded Commodities”. JIE; V.8-#?, pp. 1-9.

 

-L. Mainwaring (1978). “The Interest Rate Equalization Theorem with Non-Traded Goods”. JIE; V.8-#?, pp. 11-19.

 

-P. Samuelson (1978). “Interest Rate Equalization and Non-Equalization by Trade in Leontief-Sraffa Models”. JIE; V.8-#?, pp. 21-27.

 

-W. Ethier (1979). “The Theorems of International Trade in Time-Phased Economies”. JIE; V.9-#?, pp. 225-238. (Comment by Metcalfe and Steedman, and Response. JIE, V.11-#?, pp. 267-277)

 

-I. Steedman (1979). Trade Amongst Growing Economies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

3. International Trade in Vintage Capital Models

 

-R. Solow, J. Tobin, C.v. Weizsacker, and M. Yaari (1966). “Neoclassical Growth with Fixed Factor Proportions”. REStud; V.33-#94, pp. 79-115.

 

-C. Bliss (1968). “On Putty-Clay”. REStud; V.35-#102, pp. 105-132.

 

-J. Benhabib and A. Rustichini (1993). “A Vintage Capital Model of Investment and Growth: Theory and Evidence”. in R. Becker, M. Boldrin, R. Jones and W. Thomson, eds. General Equilibrium, Growth, and Trade II. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 248-301.

 

-P. Bardhan (1966). “International Trade Theory in a Vintage Capital Model”. Etrica; V.34-#4, pp. 756-767.

 

-H. Petith (1972). “Vintage Capital, Joint Production and the Theory of International Trade”. IER; V.13-#1, pp. 148-159.

 

-A. Smith (1974). “International Trade in Second-Hand Machines”. JDevE; V.?-#?, pp. 267-278.

 

-G. Gabisch (1975). “A Vintage Capital Model of International Trade: The Case of Trade with Second-Hand Machines”. JIE; V.5-#4, pp. 365-383.

 

-A. Smith (1976). “International Trade in Vinatge Models”. REStud; V.43-#1, pp. 99-113.

 

-H. Petith (1976). “The Stolper-Samuelson Theorem, the Rybczynski Theorem, and the Pattern of Trade in Neoclassical and Vintage Capital Trade and Growth Models”. IER; V.17-#1, pp. 57-75.

 

-R. Bond (1983). “Trade in Used Equipment with Heterogeneous Firms”. JPE, V.91-#4, pp. 688-705.

 

-J.C. Kim (1989). “Trade in Used Goods and Durability Choice”. IEJ; V.3-#3, pp. 53-63.

 

4. International Trade in Neo-Austrian Models

 

-J. Hicks (1973). Capital and Time: A Neo-Austrian Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 

-E. Burmeister (1974). “Synthesizing the neo-Austrian and Alternative Approaches to Capital Theory: A Survey”. JEL; V.12-#?, pp. 413-456.

 

-R. Brecher and I. Parker (1977). “Time Structure of Production and the Theory of International Trade”. JIE; V.7-#?, pp. 385-402.

 

-R. Findlay (1978). “An 'Austrian' Model of International Trade and Interest Rate Equalization”. JPE; V.86-#6, pp. 989-1007.

 

-A. Schweinberger (1984). “The Austrian Concept of Capital and the Pure Theory of International Trade”. in A. Ingham and A. Ulph, eds. Demand, Equilibrium and Trade. New York: St. Martins, pp. 77-91.

 

-L. Young and J. Romero (1990). “International Investment and the Positive Theory of International Trade”. JIE; V.29-#3/4, pp. 333-349.

 

-A. Dixit and G. Grossman (1982). “Trade and Protection with Multistage Production”. REStud; V.49-#?, pp. 583-594.

 

-K. Sanyal (1983). “Vertical Specialization in a Ricardian Model with a Continuum of Stages of Production”. Eca; V.50-#1, pp. 70-78.

 

-A. Sarkar (1985). “A Model of Trade in Intermediate Goods”. JIE; V.19-#?, pp. 85-98.

 

-S. Marjit (1987). “Trade in Intermediates and the Colonial Pattern of Trade”. Eca; V.54-#?, pp. 173-184.

 

-S. Marjit (1988). “Tariff, Technical Progress and Trade with Vertical Specialization”. KES; V.25-#1, pp. 51-57.

 

E. “Endogenous” Growth and Trade

 

1. Surveys/Overviews

 

-P. Romer (1989). “Capital Accumulation and the Theory of Long-Run Growth”. in R. Barro, ed. Modern Business Cycle Theory. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, pp. 51-127.

 

-E. Helpman (1992). “Endogenous Macroeconomic Growth Theory”. EER; V.36-#?, pp. 237-267.

 

-P. Hammond and A. Rodríguez-Clare (1993). “On Endogenizing Long-Run Growth”. In T. Andersen and K.O. Moene, eds. Endogenous Growth. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 1-35.

 

-N.V. Long and K.-y. Wong (1997). “Endogeous Growth and International Trade: A Survey”. in B. Jensen and K.-y. Wong, eds. Dynamics, Economic Growth and International Trade. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 11-74.

 

2. Growth and Trade with Learning-by-Doing

 

a. Growth with Learning by Doing

 

-N. Kaldor (1957). “A Model of Economic Growth”. EJ; V.68-#?, pp. 591-624.

 

-K. Arrow (1962). “The Economic Implications of Learning by Doing”. REStud; V.29-#?, pp. 155-173.

 

-D. Levhari (1966). “Further Implications of Learning by Doing”. REStud; V.33-#?, pp. 31-38.

 

-D. Levhari (1966). “Extensions of Arrow's 'Learning by Doing'”. REStud; V.33-#?, pp. 117-133.

 

-J. Black (1969). “Learning by Doing and Optimum Savings”. CJE; V.2-#4, pp. 604-612.

 

-A. d'Autume and P. Michel (1993). “Endogenous Growth in Arrow's Learning by Doing Model”. EER; V.37-#?, pp. 1175-1184

 

-S. Rosen (1972). “Learning by Experience as Joint Production”. QJE; V.86-#?, pp. 366-382.

 

-A.M. Spence (1981). “The Learning Curve and Competition”. Bell Journal of Economics; V.12-#?, pp. 49-70.

 

-P. Ghemawat and A.M. Spence (1985). “Learning Curve Spillovers and Market Performance”. QJE; V.100-#?, pp. 839-852.

 

-D. Fudenberg and J. Tirole (1983). “Learning-by-doing and Market Performance”. Rand Journal of Economics; V.14-#?, pp. 522-530.

 

-W.W. Chen (198?). “The Effect of Learning on Market Structure”. Rand Journal of Economics; V.?-#?, pp. 196-201.

 

-N. Stokey (1986). “The Dynamics of Industrywide Learning”. Equilibrium Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 81-104.

 

-N. Stokey (1988). “Learning by Doing and the Introduction of New Goods”. JPE; V.96-#?, pp. 701-717.

 

-J. Schmitz (1989). “Imitation, Entrepreneurship and Long-Run Growth”. JPE; V.97-#3, pp. 721-739.

 

-M. King and M. Robson (1993). “A Dynamic Model of Investment and Endogenous Growth”. In T. Andersen and K.O. Moene, eds. Endogenous Growth. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 55-76.

 

-S. Parente (1994). “Technology Adoption, Learning-by-Doing and Growth”. JET; V.63-#?, pp. 346-369.

 

-D. Mookherjee and D. Ray (1991). “Collusive Market Structure under Learning-by-Doing and Increasing Returns”. REStud; V.58-#?, pp. 993-1009.

 

b. International Trade and Growth with Learning by Doing

 

-H. Ryder (1969). “Optimal Accumulation in a Listian Model”. in H.W. Kuhn and G.P. Szego, Mathematical Systems Theory and Economomics--II. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 457-479.

 

-E. Sheshinski (1967). “Optimal Accumulation with Learning by Doing”. in K. Shell, Essays on the Theory of Optimal Economic Growth. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 31-52.

 

-P.K. Bardhan (1971). “On Optimum Subsidy to a Learning Industry: An Aspect fo the Theory of Infant-Industry Protection”. IER. V.12-#1, pp. 54-70.

 

-S. Clemhout and H.Y. Wan (1970). “Learning-by-Doing and Infant Industry Protection”. REStud, V.37-#?, pp. 33-56.

 

-M. Teubal (1973). “Comparative Advantage and Technological Change: The Learning by Doing Case”. JIE, V.3-#?, pp. 161-178.

 

-G. Feder and A. Schmitz (1976). “Learning by Doing and Infant Industry Protection: A Partial Equilibrium Approach”. REStud. V.43-#1, pp. 175-178.

 

-P. Krugman (1987). “The Narrow Moving Band, The Dutch Disease, and the Competitive Consequences of Mrs. Thatcher: Notes on Trade in the Presence of Dynamic Scale Economies”. JDevEc; V.27-#?, pp. 41-55.

 

-P. Succar (1987). “The Need for Industrial Policy in LDC's: A Restatement of the Infant Industry Argument”. IER, V.28-#2, pp. 521-534.

 

-H.P. Bowen (1988). “Protection and Welfare in the Presence of Dynamic Learning”. WA, V.124-#4, pp. 607-621.

 

-P. Dasgupta and J. Stiglitz (1988). “Learning-by-Doing, Market Structure, and Industrial and Trade Policies”. OEP; V.40-#?, pp. 246-268.

 

-M. Boldrin and J. Schienkman (1988). “Learning-by-Doing, International Trade and Growth”. in P. Anderson, K. Arrow and D. Pines, eds. The Economy as an Evolving Complex System. Redwood City: Addison-Wesley; pp.

 

-M. Lau and H. Wan (1989). “Optimal Output Mix, Static Comparative Advantage and Dynamic Comparative Advantage”. ms: Cornell University.

 

-A. Young (1991). “Learning by Doing and the Dynamic Effects of International Trade”. QJE; V.105-#2, pp. 369-405.

 

-J. Ishikawa (1992). “Learning by Doing, Changes in Industrial Structure and Trade Patterns, and Economic Growth in a Small Open Economy”. JIE, V.33-#3/4, pp. 221-244.

 

-V. Dehejia (1993). “Optimal Endogenous Growth in a Two-Sector Model with Learning-by-Doing and Spillovers”. JEI; V.8-#1, pp. 100-115.

 

-J. Feeney (1994). “International Market Interdependence and Learning-by-Doing in a Risky World”. WA; V.130-#1, pp. 101-117.

 

-Y.-C. Chuang (1998). “Learning by Doing, the Technology Gap, and Growth”. IER; V.39-#3, pp. 697-715.

 

3. Human Capital, Growth and Trade

 

a. Knowledge, Human Capital and Growth

 

(1) Mainly Theoretical: Optimal Growth with Human Capital

 

-H. Uzawa (1965). “Optimal Technical Change in an Aggregative Model of Economic Growth”. IER; V.6-#?, pp. 18-31.

 

-J. Aarrestad (1975). “Optimal Allocation of Labor to the Educational Sector”. SwedJE; V.77-#?, pp. 303-318.

 

-P.N.V. Tu (1970). “A Multisectoral Model of Economic and Educational Planning”. Metroeconomica; V.32-#?, pp. 207-226.

 

-A. Razin (1972). “Investment in Human Capital and Economic Growth”. Metroeconomica; V.34-#?, pp. 101-115.

 

-A. Razin (1972). “Optimum Investment in Human Capital”. REStud; V.39-#?, pp. 455-460.

 

-S.C. Hu (1976). “Education and Economic Growth”. REStud; V.43-#?, pp. 509-519.

 

-R. Manning (1975). “Optimal Aggregative Development of a Skilled Workforce”. QJE; V.89-#?, pp. 504-511.

 

-R. Manning (1976). “Issues in Optimal Educational Policy in the Context of Balanced Growth”. JET; V.13-#?, pp. 380-395.

 

-R. Manning (1978). “Optimal Wage Differentials in Balanced Growth in an Aggregative Model of Education with Higher Degrees”. Australian Economic Papers; V.17-#?, pp. 81-90.

 

-R. Manning (1979). “Two Theorems Concerning Optimal Educational Policy in Balanced Growth”. JET; V.21-#?, pp. 465-472

 

-R. Findlay and C. Rodriguez (1981). “A Model of Economic Growth with Investment in Human Capital”. in M. Khan and I. Sirageldin, eds. Research in Human Capital and Development, V.II. Greenwich: JAI Press, pp.

 

-T. Chaudhuri and M.A. Khan (1984). “Educated Unemployed, Educational Subsidies and Growth”. Pakistan Development Review; V.23-#?, pp. 395-409.

 

-M. Upadhyay (1994). “Accumulation of Human Capital in LDCs in the Presence of Unemployment”. Eca, V.61-#243, pp. 355-378.

 

(2) Mostly Theoretical: Endogenous Growth with Human Capital

 

-P. Romer (1986). “Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth”. JPE; V.94-#5, pp. 1002-1037. (Comment, V.99-#2, pp. 429-435).

 

-P. Romer (1987). “Crazy Explanations for the Productivity Slowdown”. NBER Macroeconomics Annual--1987. Cambridge: MIT, pp. 163-201.

 

-R. Lucas (1988). “On the Mechanics of Economic Development”. Journal of Monetary Economics; V.22-#1, pp. 3-42.

 

-R. Lucas (1990). “Supply Side Economics: An Analytical Review” OEP; V.42-#?, pp. 293-316.

 

-R. Lucas (1993). “Making a Miracle”. Etrica; V.61-#2, pp. 251-272.

 

-E. Prescott and J. Boyd (1987). “Dynamic Coalitions, Growth and the Firm”. in E. Prescott and N. Wallace, eds. Contractual Arrangements for Intertemporal Trade. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 146-160.

 

-P. Romer (1990). “Human Capital and Growth: Theory and Evidence”. Carnegie-Rochester Series on Public Policy; #32, pp. 251-286.

 

-C. Azariadis and A. Drazen (1990). “Threshold Externalities in Economic Development”. QJE; V.105-#?, pp. 501-526.

 

-L. Jones and R. Manuelli (1990). “A Convex Model of Equilibrium Growth: Theory and Policy Implications”. JPE; V.98-#5, pp. 1008-1038.

 

-L. Jones and R. Manuelli (1992). “Finite Lifetimes and Growth”. JET; V.58-#2, pp. 171-197.

 

-M. Ohyama (1991). “Human Capital and Endogenous Economic Growth”. Keio Economic Studies; V.28-#?, pp. 1-14.

 

-X. Yang and J. Borland (1991). “A Microeconomic Mechanism for Economic Growth”. JPE; V.99-#?, 460-482.

 

-R. Tamura (1991). “Income Convergence in an Endogenous Growth Model”. JPE; V.99-#3, pp. 522-540.

 

-R. Tamura (1992). “Efficient Equilibrium Convergence: Heterogeneity and Growth”. JET; V.58-#2, pp. 355-376.

 

-V. Chari and H. Hoppenhayn (1991). “Vintage Human Capital, Growth and the Difference of New Technology”. JPE; V.99-#?, pp. 1142-1165.

 

-T. Suzuki (1996). “Intertemporal General Equilibrium with External Increasing Returns”. JET; V.69-#?, pp. 117-133.

 

-B. Jovanovic and Y. Nyarko (1995). “The Transfer of Human Capital”. JEDC; V.19-#?, pp. 1033-1064.

 

-C. Chamley (1992). “Externalities and Dynamics in Models of Learning or Doing”. IER; V.34-#4, pp. 583-609.

 

-J. Caballé and M. Santos (1993). “On Endogenous Growth with Physical and Human Capital”. JPE; V.101-#6, pp. 1042-1067.

 

-C. Mulligan and X. Sala-i-Martin (1993). “Transitional Dynamics in Two-Sector Models of Endogenous Growth”. QJE; V.108-#?, pp. 739-773.

 

-D. Xie (1994). “Divergence in Economic Performance: Transitional Dynamics with Multiple Equilibria”. JET; V.63-#1, pp. 97-112.

 

-J. Benhabib and R. Perli (1994). “Uniqueness and Indeterminacy: On the Dynamics of Endogenous Growth”. JET; V.63-#1, pp. 113-142.

 

-M. Faig (1995). “A Simple Economy with Human Capital: Trnasitional Dynamics, Technology Shocks, and Fiscal Policies”. Journal of Macroeconomics; V.17-#3, pp. 421-446.

 

-T. Eicher (1996). Interaction between Endogenous Human Capital and Technological Change”. REStud; V.63-#?, pp. 127-144.

 

-E. Bond, P. Wang and C. Yip (1996). “A General Two-Sector Model of Endogenous Growth with Human and Physical Capital: Balanced Growth and Transitional Dynamics”. JET; V.68-#?, pp. 149-173.

 

-E. Bond and K. Trask (1997). “Trade and Growth with Endogenous Human and Physical Capital Accumulation”. in B. Jensen and K.-y. Wong, eds. Dynamics, Economic Growth and International Trade. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 211-240.

 

-A. Ladrón, S. Ortigueira and M. Santos (1997). “Equilibrium Dynamics in Two-Sector Models of Endogenous Growth”. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control; V.21-#1, pp. 115-143.

 

-S. Ortigueira and M. Santos (1997). “On the Speed of Convergence in Enodgenous Growth Models”. AER; V.87-#3, pp. 383-399.

 

-T. Aronsson and K.-G. Löfgren (1996). “Social Accounting and Welfare Measurement in a Growth Model with Human Capital”. ScanJE; V.98-#2, pp. 185-201.

 

-D. Laing, T. Palivos and P. Wang (1995). “Learning, Matching and Growth”. REStud; V.62-#1, pp. 115-129.

 

-M. Goodfriend and J. McDermott (1995). “Early Development”. AER; V.85-#1, pp. 116-133.

 

-M. Funke and H. Strulik (2000). “On Endogenous Growth with Physical Capital, Human Capital and Product Variety”. European Economic Review; V.44-#3, pp. 491-515.

 

-C. Chamley (1992). “The Last Shall be First: Efficient Constraints on Foreign Borrowing in a Model of Endogenous Growth”. JET; V.58-#2, pp. 335-354.

 

-D. Cohen (1992). “Growth, Productivity, and Access to World Financial Markets”. JJIE; V.6-#4, pp. 365-382.

 

-G. Grossman and N. Yanagawa (1993). “Asset Bubbles and Endogenous Growth”. JMonE; V.21-#1, pp. 3-19.

 

(3) Mostly Empirical

 

-G. Psacharopoulos (1984). “The Contribution of Education to Economic Growth”. in J. Kendrick, ed. International Comparisons of Productivity and Causes of the Economic Slowdown. pp. 335-355.

 

-G. Psacharopoulos and A. Arriagada (1986). “The Educational Composition of the Labor Force: An International Comparison”. International Labor Review; V.125-#5, pp. 561-574.

 

-R. Barro and J.W. Lee (1993). “International Comparisons of Educational Attainment”. JMonE; V.32-#3, pp. 363-394.

 

-J. Benhabib and M. Spiegel (1992). “The Role of Human Capital and Political Instability in Economic Development”. Rivista di Political Economica; V.11-#?, pp. 55-94.

 

-J. Benhabib and M. Spiegel (1994). “The Role of human Capital in Economic Development: Evidence from Aggregate Cross-Country Data”. JMonE V.34-#?, pp. 143-173.

 

-N. Vikram, E. Swanson and A. Dubey (1995). “A New Data Base on Human Capital Stock: Sources, Methodology, and Results”. JDevE; V.46-#2, pp. 279-401.

 

-N. Gemmel (1996). “Evaluating the Impacts of Human Capital Stocks and Accumulation on Economic Growth: Some New Evidence”. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics; V.58-#1, pp. 9-28.

 

-R. Barro and J.W. Lee (1996). “International Measures of Schooling Years and Schooling Quality”. AER; V.86-#2, pp. 218-223.

 

-M. Bils and P. Klenow (2000). “Does Schooling Cause Growth?”. AER; V.90-#5, pp. 1160-1183.

 

b. Endogenous Growth and Government Policy

 

(1) Theory

 

(a) Fiscal Policy

 

-R. Barro (1990). “Government Spending in a Simple Model of Endogenous Growth”. JPE; V.98-#5/2, pp. s103-s125.

 

-R. Barro and X. Sala-i-Martin (1992). “Public Finance in Models of Economic Growth”. REStud; V.59-#?, pp. 645-661.

 

-J. Lee (1992). “Optimal Size and Composition of Government Spending”. JJIE; V.6-#4, pp. 423-439.

 

-M. Devereux and D. Love (1995). “The Dynamic Effects of Government Spending Policies in a Two-Sector Endogenous Growth Model”. JMCB; V.27-#?, pp. 232-256.

 

-M. Faig (1995). “A Simple Economy with Human Capital: Transitional Dynamics, Technology Shocks and Fiscal Policies”. Journal of Macroeconomics; V.17-#?, pp. 421-446.

 

(b) Public Capital

 

-G. Glomm and B. Ravikumar (1992). “Public versus Private Investment in Human Capital”. JPE; V.100-#4, pp. 818-834.

 

-K. Futagami, Y. Morita and A. Shibata (1993). “Dynamic Analysis of an Endogenous Growth Model with Public Capital”. In T. Andersen and K.O. Moene, eds. Endogenous Growth. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 217-235.

 

-G. Glomm and B. Ravikumar (1994). “Public Investment in Infrastructure in a Simple Growth Model”. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control; V.18-#?, pp. 1173-1187.

 

-S. Turnovsky (1997). “Fiscal Policy in a Growing Economy with Public Capital”. Journal of Macroeconomic Dynamics; V.

 

-S. Turnovsky (1997). “Public and Private Capital in an Endogenously Growing Economy”. in B. Jensen and K.-y. Wong, eds. Dynamics, Economic Growth and International Trade. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 171-210.

 

(c) Schooling/Human Capital Policy

 

-R. Bénabou (1993). “Workings of a City: Location, Education, and Production”. QJE; V.108-#3, pp. 619-652.

 

-R. Bénabou (1994). “Human Capital, Inequality, and Growth: A Local Perspective”. EER; V.38-#?, pp. 817-826.

 

-R. Bénabou (1996). “Heterogeneity, Stratification and Growth: Macroeconomic Implications of Community Structure and School Finance”. AER; V.86-#3, pp. 584-609.

 

-R. Bénabou (1996). “Equity and Efficiency in Human Capital Investment: The Local Connection”. REStud; V.63-#2, pp. 237-264.

 

-Z. Eckstein and I. Zilcha (1994). “The Effects of Compulsory Schooling on Growth, Income Distribution and Welfare”. JPubE; V.54-#?, pp. 339-359.

 

(d) Taxation and Endogenous Growth

 

-S. Rebelo (1991). “Long-Run Policy Analysis and Long-Run Growth”. JPE; V.99-#3, pp. 500-521.

 

-R. King and S. Rebelo (1990). “Public Policy and Economic Growth: Developing Neoclassical Implications”. JPE; V.98-#5/2, pp. s126-s150.

 

-P. Trostel (1993). “The Effect of Taxation on Human Capital”. JPE; V.101-#2, pp. 327-350.

 

-L. Jones, R. Manuelli and P. Rossi (1993). “Optimal Taxation in Models of Endogenous Growth”. JPE; V.101-#3, pp. 485-517.

 

-P. Pecorino (1993). “Tax Structure and Growth in a Model with Human Capital”. JPubE; V52-#?, pp. 251-271.

 

-P. Pecorino (1994). “The Growth Effects of Tax Reform”. OEP; V.46-#?, pp. 492-501.

 

-M. Devereux and D. Love (1994). “The Effects of Factor Taxation in a Two-Sector Model of Endogenous Growth”. CJE; V.27-#3, pp. 509-

 

-K. Mino (1996). “Analysis of a Two-Sector Model of Endogenous Growth with Capital Income Taxation”. IER; V.37-#1, pp. 227-251.

 

-G. Tullio (1989). “Smith and Ricardo on the Long-run Effects of the Growth of Government Expenditure, Taxation, and Debt: Is Their Theory Relevant Today?”. History of Political Economy; V.21-#4, pp. 723-36.

 

(2) Empirical Analysis of the Effect of Government Spending on Growth

 

-R. Rubinson (1977). “Dependency, Government Revenue, and Economic Growth, 1955-1970". Studies in Comparative International Development; V.12-#?, pp. 1-22.

 

-D. Landau (1983). “Government Expenditure and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Study”. SEJ; V.49-#?, pp. 783-792.

 

-D. Landau (1986). “Government and Economic Growth in Less Developed Countries: An Emprical Study for 1960-1980". EDCC; V.35-#1, pp. 35-75.

 

-R. Ram (1986). “Government Size and Economic Growth: A New Framework and Some Evidence from Cross-section and Time-series Data”. AER; V.76-#1, pp. 191-203. [comments by Carr, Rao, and response, 1989, V.79-#1, pp. 267-284]

 

-R. Ram (1986). Causality Between Inocme and Government Expenditure: A Broad International Perspective”. Public Finance/Finance Publique; V.41-#3, pp. 393-413.

 

E. Bairam (1988). “Government Expenditure and Economic Growth: Reflections on Professor Ram's Approach, a New Framework and Some Evidence from New Zealand Time-Series Data”. Keio Economic Studies; V.25-#1, pp. 59-66.

 

-P. Nagarajan and A. Spears (1989). “‘No Causality’ between Government Expenditure and Economic Growth: A Comment”. Public Finance; V.44-#1, pp. 134-38.

 

-R. Ram (1989). “Wagner's Hypothesis and Tests of Granger-Causality: Reply”. Public Finance; V.44-#1, pp. 139-49.

 

-R. Ram (1987). “Wagner’s Hypothesis in Time Series and Cross-section Perspectives: Evidence from ‘Real’ Data for 115 Countries”. REStat; V.69-#2, pp. 194-204.

 

-R. Ram (1988). “A Multicountry Perspective on Causality between Government Revenue and Government Expenditure”. Public Finance; V.43-#2, pp. 261-70.

 

-R. Ram (1988). “Additional Evidence on Causality between Government Revenue and Government Expenditure”. SEJ; V.54-#3, pp. 763-69.

 

-B. Singh and B. Sahni (1986). “Patterns and Directions of Causality between Government Expenditure and National Income in the United States”. Journal of Quantitative Economics; V.2-#?, pp. 291-308.

 

-O. Zinam (1991). “Wagner's Law, Optimal Size of Government, and Convergence Hypothesis”. Atlantic Economic Journal; V.19-#1, pp. 91.

 

-R. Barro (1991). “A Cross-Country Study of Growth, Saving and Government”. in B.D. Bernheim and J. Shoven, eds. National Saving and Economic Performance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press/NBER, pp. 271-301.

 

-W. Easterly and S. Rebelo (1993). “Fiscal Policy and Economic Growth: An Empirical Investigation”. JmonE; V.32-#3, pp. 417-458.

 

-S. Dowrick (1996). “Estimating the Impact of Government Consumption on Growth: Growth Accounting and Endogenous Growth Models”. Empirical Economics; V.21-#1, pp. 163-186.

 

-S. Ahsan, A. Kwan, and B. Sahni (1996). “Cointegration and Wagner's Hypothesis: Time Series Evidence for Canada”. Applied Economics; V.28-#8, pp. 1055-58.

 

-R. Ram (1996). “Productivity of Public and Private Investment in Developing Countries: A Broad International Perspective”. World Development; V.24-#8, pp. 1373-78.

 

-M. Khan and M. Kumar (1997). “Public and Private Investment and the Growth Process in Developing Countries”. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics; V.59-#1, pp. 69-88.

 

c. Money, Inflation and Growth with Human Capital

 

-M. Marquis and K. Reffett (1991). “Real Interest Rates and Endogenous Growth in a Monetary Economy”. EcLets; V.37-#?, pp. 105-109.

 

-P. Wang and C. Yip (1992). “Examining the Long-run Effect of Money on Economic Growth”. JMacro; V.14-#2, pp. 359-369.

 

-P. Pecorino (1995). “Inflation, Human Capital Accumulation and Long-Run Growth”. JMacro; V.17-#3, pp. 533-542.

 

-J. De Gregorio (1992). “The Effects of Inflation on Economic Growth: Lessons from Latin America”. EER; V.36-#?, pp. 417-425.

 

-J. De Gregorio (1993). “Inflation, Taxation, and Long-run Growth”. JMonE; V.31-#3, pp. 271-298.

 

-P. Gomme (1993). “Money ang Growth Revisited: Measuring the Costs of Inflation in an Endogenous Growth Model”. JMonE; V.32-#1, pp. 51-77.

 

-P. Ireland (1994). “Money and Growth: An Alternative Approach”. AER; V.84-#1, pp. 47-65.

 

-L. Jones and R. Manuelli (1995). “Growth and the Effects of Inflation”. JMonE; V.19-#?, pp. 1405-1428.

 

-K. Mino and A. Shibata (1995). “Monetary Policy, Overlapping Generations, and Patterns of Growth”. Eca; V.42-#?, pp. 179-194.

 

-P. Evans (1996). “Growth and the Neutrality of Money”. Empirical Economics; V.21-#1, pp. 187-202.

 

-T. Clark (1997). “Cross-Country Evidence on Long-run Growth and Inflation”. EcInq; V.35-#1, pp. 70-81.

 

d. Fertility, Human Capital Investment, and Growth

 

-G. Becker (1988). “Fertility Economics and Macro Behavior”. AER; V.78-#1, pp. 1-13.

 

-G. Becker and R. Barro (1988). “A Reformulation of the Economic Theory of Fertility”. QJE; V.103-#1, pp. 1-25.

 

-R. Barro and G. Becker (1989). “Fertility Choice in a Model of Economic Growth”. Etrica; V.57-#?, pp. 481-501.

 

-J. Behhabib and K. Nishimura (1989). “Endogenous Fluctuations in the Barro-Becker Theory of Fertility”. in A. Wening and K. Zimmermann, eds. Demographic Change and Economic Development. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 29-41.

 

-G. Becker, K. Murphy and R. Tamura (1990). “Human Capital, Fertility, and Economic Growth”. JPE; V.98-#5/2, pp. s12-s37.

 

-I. Ehrlich and F. Lui (1991). “Intergenerational Trade, Longevity, and Economic Growth”. JPE; V.99-#5, pp. 1029-1059.

 

-J. Benhabib and K. Nishimura (1993). “Endogenous Fertility and Growth”. in R. Becker, M. Boldrin, R. Jones and W. Thomson, eds. General Equilibrium, Growth, and Trade II. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 237-247.

 

-S. Ni and X. Wang (1994). “Human Capital and Income Taxation in an Endogenous Growth Model”. Journal of Macroeconomics; V.16-#3, pp. 493-507.

 

-P. Wang, C. Yip and C. Scotese (1994). “Fertility Choice and Economic Growth: Theory and Evidence”. REStat; V.?-#?, pp. 255-266.

 

-T. Palivos (1995). “Endogenous Fertility, Multiple Growth Paths, and Economic Convergence”. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control; V.19-#?, pp. 1489-1510.

 

-R. Tamura (1994). “Fertility, Human Capital and the Wealth of Families”. Economic Theory; V.4-#?, pp. 593-603.

 

-R. Tamura (1996). “From Decay to Growth: A Demographic Transition to Economic Growth”. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control; V.20-#?, pp. 1237-1261.

 

-F. Bernhard (1990). “Neoclassical Growth with Microfoundations”. ZfN; V.51-#?, pp. 273-285.

 

-L. Raut (1991). “Capital Accumulation, Income Distribution, and Endogenous Fertility in an Overlapping Generations Model”. JdevE; V.34-#?, pp. 123-150.

 

-L. Raut and T.N. Srinivasan (1994). “Dynamics of Endogenous Growth”. Economic Theory; V.4-#5, pp. 777-790.

 

-M. Kremer (1993). “Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million B.C. to 1990". QJE; V.108-#3, pp. 681-716.

 

-J. Zhang and H. Zhang (1997). “Fertility and Wage Rates in an Overlapping-Generations model”. CJE; V.30-#1, pp. 224-234.

 

-A. Razin and C. Yuen (1996). “Capital Income Taxation and Long-run Growth: New Perspectives”. JPubE; V.59-#?, pp. 239-263.

 

-C. Jones (1997). “Population and Ideas: A Theory of Endogenous Growth”. NBER Working Paper, #6825.

 

-O. Galor and D. Weil (2000). “Population, Technology, and Growth: From Malthusian Stagnation to the Demographic Transition and Beyond”. AER; V.90-#4, pp. 806-828.

 

-N. Birdsall (1988). “Economic Approaches to Population Growth”. in H. Chenery and T.N. Srinivasan, eds. Handbook of Development Economics, Amsterdam: North-Holland, V.1, pp.

 

-J. Pitchford (1974). Population in Economic Growth. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

 

-N. Tomes (1981). “The Family, Inheritance and the Intergenerational Transmission of Inequality”. JPE; V.89-#5, pp. 928-958.

 

-M. Rosenzweig and R. Evenson (1977). “Fertility, Schooling and the Economic Contribution of Children in Rural India: An Ecnometric Analysis”. Etrica; V.45-#5, pp. 1065-1079.

 

-M. Rosenzweig and K. Wolpin (1980). “Testing the Quantity-Quality Fertility Model: The Use of Twins as a Natural Experiment”. Etrica; V.48-#1, pp. 227-240.

 

-M. Rosenzweig (1990). “Population Growth and Human Capital Investments: Theory and Evidence”. JPE; V.98-#5/2, pp. s38-s70.

 

-G. Rodgers (1978). “Demographic Determinants of the Distribution of Income”. World Development; V.6-#3, pp. 305-318.

 

-G. Rodgers (1983). “Population Growth, Inequaltiy and Poverty”. International Labor Review; V.122-#4, pp. 443-460.

 

-S. Morley (1981). “The Effect of Changes in Population on Several Measures of Income Distribution”. AER; V.71-#3, pp. 285-294.

 

-D. Lim (1990). “Distribution Issues in the Relationship between Population Growth and Economic Development”. in D.G. Johnson and R. Lee, eds. Population Growth and Economic Development: Issues and Evidence. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 589-627.

 

e. Human Capital, Growth and Trade

 

-P. Kenen (1965). “Nature, Capital and Trade”. JPE; V.73-#5, pp. 437-460.

 

-P. Kenen (1968). “Toward a More General Theory of Capital and Trade”. in P. Kenen and R. Lawrence, eds. The Open Economy. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 100-123.

 

-W. Mayer (1982). “Factor Quality, Factor Prices and Production Patterns”. JIE; V.12-#?, pp. 25-40.

 

-J. Aarrestad (1978). “On the Optimal Development of Knowledge-Based Industries and the Educational Sector of a Small-Open Economy”. IER; V.61-#2, pp. 379-394.

 

-R. Manning (1982). “Trade, Education and Growth: The Small-Country Case”. IER; V.23-#1, pp. 83-106.

 

-R. Findlay and K. Kierzkowski (1983). “International Trade and Human Capital: A Simple General Equilibrium Model”. JPE; 91-#?, pp. 957-978.

 

-K. Flug and O. Galor (1986). “Minimum Wages in a General Equilibrium Model of International Trade and Human Capital”. IER; V.27-#1, pp. 149-164.

 

-I. Borsook (1987). “Earnings, Ability and International Trade”. JIE; V.22-#?, pp. 281-295.

 

-K. Miyagiwa (1989). “Human Capital and Economic Growth in a Minimum-wage Economy”. IER; V.30-#1, pp. 187-202.

 

-E. Dinopoulos and I. Wooton (1989). “International Trade and the Acquisition of Skill”. International Trade Journal; V.3-#?, pp. 389-414.

 

-I. Wooton (1991). “Capital, Skills, and International Trade”. CJE; V.24-#2, pp. 372-390.

 

-N. Stokey (1991). “Human Capital, Product Quality and Growth”. QJE; V.105-#2, pp. 587-616.

 

-J. Rauch (1991). “Reconciling the Pattern of Trade with the Pattern of Migration”. AER; V.81-#4, pp. 774-796.

 

-W. Buiter and K. Kletzer (1991). “Persistent Differences in Productivity Growth with a Common Technology and Free Capital Mobility”. JJIE; V.5-#4, pp. 325-353.

 

-W. Buiter and K. Kletzer (1993). “Permanent International Productivity Growth Differentials in an Integrated Global Economy”. In T. Andersen and K.O. Moene, eds. Endogenous Growth. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 77-103.

 

-T. Saarenheimo (1993). “Trade, Human Capital Accumulation and Growth in an Underdeveloped Economy”. In T. Andersen and K.O. Moene, eds. Endogenous Growth. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 145-167.

 

-K. Blackburn and M.O. Ravn (1993). “Growth, Human Capital Spillovers and International Policy Coordination”. In T. Andersen and K.O. Moene, eds. Endogenous Growth. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 105-125.

 

-N. Stokey (1996). “Free Trade, Factor Returns, and Factor Accumulation”. Journal of Economic Growth; V.1-#4, pp. 421-447.

 

-F. Cartiglia (1997). “Credit Constraints and Human Capital Accumulation in the Open Economy”. JIE; V.43-#1/2, pp. 221-236.

 

-R. Harris (1996). “Human Capital and Measurable Dynamic Gains from Economic Integration”. Empirical Economics; V.21-#1, pp. 45-75.

 

-T. Osang and A. Pereira (1997). “Foreign Growth and Domestic Performance in a Small Open Economy”. JIE; V.43-#3/4, pp. 499-512.

 

-T. Osang and A. Pereira (1997). “Savings, Volume of Trade, and Growth”. RIE; V.5-#3, pp. 310-323.

 

-J. Durkin (1997). “Perfect Competition and Endogenous Comparative Advantage”. RIE; V.5-#3, pp. 401-411.

 

-E. Dinopoulos and P. Segerstrom (1999). “A Schumpeterian Model of Protection and Relative Wages”. AER; V.89-#3, pp. 450-472.

 

-Se-Jik Kim and Yong Jin Kim (2000). “Growth Gains from Trade and Education”. JIE; V.50-#2, pp. 519-545.

 

-O. Galor and O. Stark (1994). “Migration, Human Capital Formation and Long-run Output”. In H. Siebert, ed. Migration: A Challenge for Europe. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr, pp. 59-68.

 

-K.-L. Shea and A. Woodfield (1996). “Optimal Immigration, Education, and Growth in the Long Run”. JIE; V.40-#?, pp. 495-506.

 

-K.-y. Wong (1997). “Endogenous Growth and International Labor Migration: The Case of a Small Emigration Economy”. in B. Jensen and K.-y. Wong, eds. Dynamics, Economic Growth and International Trade. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 289-336.

 

f. Emprical Research on Human Capital and Trade

 

-P. Kenen (1968). “Skills, Human Capital and Comparative Advantage”. in W.L. Hansen, ed. Education, Income, and Human Capital. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 195-230.

 

-D. Keesing (1965). “Labor Skills and International Trade: Evaluating Many Trade Flows with a Single Measuring Device”. REStat; V.47-#?, pp. 287-294.

 

-D. Keesing (1966). “Labor Skills and Comparative Advantage”. AER; V.56-#2, pp. 249-258.

 

-D. Keesing (1968). “Labor Skills and the Structure of Trade in Manufactures”. in P. Kenen and R. Lawrence, eds. The Open Economy. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 3-18.

 

-D. Keesing (1971). “Different Countries' Labor Skill Coefficients and the Skill Intensity of International Trade Flows”. JIE; V.1-#?, pp. 443-452.

 

-H. Waehrer (1968). “Wage Rates, Labor Skills, and US Foreign Trade”. in P. Kenen and R. Lawrence, eds. The Open Economy. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 19-39.

 

-M. Yahr (1968). “Human Capital and Factor Substitution in the CES Production Function”. in P. Kenen and R. Lawrence, eds. The Open Economy. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 70-98.

 

-R. Bharadwaj and J. Bhagwati (1967). “Human Capital and the Pattern of Foreign Trade: The Indian Case”. Indian Economic Review; V.2-#?, pp. 117-142.

 

-K. Roskamp and G. McMeekin (1968). “Factor Proportions, Human Capital and Foreign Trade: The Case of West Germany Reconsidered”. QJE; V.82-#?, pp. 152-160.

 

-A. Fareed (1972). “Formal Schooling and the Human Capital Intensity of American Foreign Trade: A Cost Approach”. EJ; V.82-#?, pp. 629-640.

 

-D. Mitchell (1975). “Recent Changes in the Labor Content of US Trade”. Industrial and Labor Relations Review; V.?-#?, pp. 355-369.

 

-H. Katrak (1973). “Human Skills, R&D and Scale Economies in the Exports of the UK and US”. OEP; V.25-#2, pp. 337-360.

 

-H. Katrak (1982). “Labour Skills, R and D and Capital Requirements in the International Trade and Investment of the UK”. National Institute Economic Review; #101, pp. 38-47.

 

-E. Charos and E. Simos (19??). “The Effects of Human Capital and R&D upon International Trade Flows: Evidence from a Multi-Input, Multi-Output Model for the US”. WA; V.?-#?, pp. 701-

 

-A. Courakis (1991). “Labour Skills and Human Capital in the Explanation of Trade Patterns”. OEP; V.43-#?, pp. 443-462.

 

-A. Webster (1993). “The Skill and Higher Educational Content of US Net Exports”. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics; V.55-#?, pp. 141-160.

 

-K. Maskus, C. Sveikauskas and A. Webster (1994). “The Composition of the Human Capital Stock and Its Relation to International Trade: Evidence from the US and Britain”. WA; V.130-#1, pp. 50-76.

 

-A. Wood (1994). “Give Heckscher-Ohlin a Chance!”. WA; V.130-#1, pp. 20-49.

 

-E. Gundlach (1994). “Accounting for the Stock of Human Capital: Selected Evidence and Potential Implications”. WA; V.130-#2, pp. 350-373.

 

4. Technology Change, Division of Labor, Growth and Trade

 

a. Endogenous Growth with Division of Labor

 

(1) Horizontal Division of Labor

 

-B. Edwards and R. Starr (1987). “A Note on Indivisibilities, Specialization and Economies of Scale”. AER; V.77-#1, pp. 192-194.

 

-P. Romer (1990). “Are Nonconvexities Important for Understanding Growth”. AER; V.80-#2, pp. 97-103.

 

-K. Judd (1985). “On the Performance of Patents”. Etrica; V.53-#3, pp. 567-586.

 

-P. Romer (1987). “Growth Based on Increasing Returns Due to Specialization”. AER; V.77-#2, pp. 56-62.

 

-P. Romer (1990). “Endogenous Technical Change”. JPE; V.98-#5/part 2, pp. s71-s102.

 

-P. Romer (1990). “Capital, Labor, and Productivity”. BPEA; Microeconomics, pp. 337-367.

 

-J. Hartwick (1992). “Endogenous Growth with Public Education”. EcLets; V.39-#?, pp. 493-497.

 

-B. Tran-Nam and C. N. Truong (1994). “Knowledge-based Growth with Exogenous Population Evolution: A Balanced Growth Analysis”. EcLets; V.45-#?, pp. 507-512.

 

-S. Smulders and T. van de Klundert (1995). “Imperfect Competition, Concentration and Growth with Firm-specific R&D”. EER; V.39-#1, pp. 139-160.

 

-K. Matsuyama (1999). “Growing Through Cycles”. Econometrica; V.67-#2, pp. 335-347.

 

-A. Ciccione and K. Matsuyama (1999). “Efficiency and Equilibrium with Dynamic Increasing Returns Due to Demand Complementarities”. Econometrica; V.67-#3, pp. 499-525.

 

(2) Vertical Division of Labor

 

-E. Dinopoulos (1994). “Schumpeterian Growth Theory: An Overview”. Osaka City University Economic Review. V.29-#1, pp, 1-21.

 

-P. Segerstrom, T. Anant, and E. Dinopoulos (1991). “A Schumpeterian Model of the Product Life Cycle”. AER; V.80-#5, pp. 1077-1091.

 

-G. Grossman and E. Helpman (1991). “Quality Ladders and the Theory of Growth”. REStud; V.58-#1, pp. 43-61.

 

-P. Segerstrom (1991). “Innovation, Imitation and Economic Growth”. JPE; V.99-#4, pp. 807-827.

 

-A. Rustichini and J. Schmitz (1991). “Research and Imitation in Long-Run Growth”. JME; V.27-#?, pp. 271-292.

 

-P. Aghion and P. Howitt (1992). “A Model of Growth Through Creative Destruction”. Etrica; V.60-#2, pp. 323-351.

 

-P. Aghion and P. Howitt (1994). “Growth and Unemployment”. RESTud; V.61-#3, pp. 477-494.

 

-P. Aghion and P. Howitt (1996). “Research and Development in the Growth Process”. Journal of Economic Growth; V.1-#1, pp. 49-73.

 

-P. Aghion and P. Howitt (1996). “The Observational Implications of Schumpeterian Growth Theory”. Empirical Economics; V.21-#1, pp. 13-25.

 

-P. Howitt (2000). “Endogenous Growth and Cross-Country Income Differences”. AER; V.90-#4, pp. 829-846.

 

-A. Young (1993). “Substitution and Complementarity in Endogenous Innovation”. QJE; V.107-#3, pp. 775-807.

 

-A. Young (1993). “Invention and Bounded Learning by Doing”. JPE; V.101-#3, pp. 443-472.

 

-P. Segerstrom (1994). “Reexamining the Quality Ladders Growth Model”. ms: Michigan State University.

 

-S. Parente (1995). “A. Model of Technology Adoption and Growth”. Economic Theory; V.6-#?, pp. 405-420.

 

-S. Parente and E. Prescott (1994). “Barriers to Technology Adoption and Development”. JPE; V.102-#2, pp. 298-321.

 

-S. Parente (1994). “Technology Adoption, Learning-by-Doing and Economic Growth”. JET; V.63-#2, pp. 346-369.

 

-N. Stokey (1995). “R&D and Economic Growth”. REStud; V.62-#?, pp. 469-489.

 

-C. Jones (1995). “R&D-Based Models of Economic Growth”. JPE; V.103-#4, pp. 759-784.

 

-C. Jones (1995). “Time Series Tests of Endogenous Growth Models”. QJE; V.106-#?, pp. 495-525.

 

-A. Young (1995). “Growth Without Scale Effects”. NBER Working Paper, #5211.

 

-R. King and R. Levine (1992). “Financial Intermediation and Economic Development”. In C. Mayer and X. Vives, eds. Financial Intermediation in the Construction of Europe. Cambridge: CUP/CEPR, pp.

 

-R. King and R. Levine (1993). “Finance and Growth: Schumpeter might be right”. QJE; V.108-#?, pp. 717-738.

 

-R. King and R. Levine (1993). “Finance, Entrepreneurship and Growth”. JMonE; V.32-#3, pp. 513-542.

 

-R. Feenstra, J. Markusen, and W. Zeile (1992). “Accounting for Growth with New Inputs: Theory and Evidence”. AER; V.82-#2, pp. 415-421.

 

-R. Feenstra and J. Markusen (1994). “Accounting for Growth with New Inputs”. IER; V.35-#2, pp. 429-447.

 

(3) Empirical Evaluation of Technological Spillovers

 

(a) Domestic Interindustry and Intraindustry Spillovers

 

-Z. Griliches (1992). “The Search for R&D Spillovers”. Scandinavian Journal of Economics; V.94-supplement, pp. 29-47.

 

-Z. Griliches and J. Mairesse (1998). “Production Functions: The Search for Identification”. In S. Strom, ed. Econometrics and Economic Theory in the Twentieth Century: The Ragnar Frisch Centennial Symposium. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 169-203.

 

-Z. Grilliches and F. Lichtenberg (1984). “Interindustry Technology Flows and Productivity Growth: A Reexamination”. REStat; V.61-#?, pp. 324-329.

 

-A. Jaffe (1986). “Technological Opportunity and Spillovers of R&D: Evidence from Firms’ Patents, Profits, and Market Value”. AER; V.76-#?, pp. 984-1001.

 

-J. Benhabib and B. Jovanovic (1991). “Externalities and Growth Accounting”. AER; V.81-#1, pp. 83-113.

 

-R. Hall (1986). “Market Structure and Macroeconomic Fluctuations”. BPEA; #2, pp. 285-322.

 

-R. Hall (1988). “The Relations Between Price and Marginal Cost in US Industry”. JPE; V.96-#5, pp. 921-947.

 

-R. Hall (1990). “Invariance Properties of Solow’s Productivity Residual”. in P. Diamond, ed. Growth/Productivity/Unemployment. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 71-112.

 

-R. Caballero and R. Lyons (1989). “The Role of Externalities in US Manufacturing”. NBER Working Paper, #3033.

 

-R. Caballero and R. Lyons (1990). “Internal and External Economies in European Industries”. EER; V.34-#4, pp. 805-830.

 

-R. Caballero and R. Lyons (1992). “External Effects in US Procyclical Productivity”. JMonE; V.29-#2, pp. 209-226.

 

-R. Caballero and A. Jaffe (1993). “How High are the Giant’s Shoulders: An Empirical Assessment of Knowledge Spillovers and Creative Destruction in a Model of Economic Growth”. NBER Macroeconomic Annual--1993. Cambridge: MIT, pp. 15-86.

 

-E. Bartelsman, R. Caballero, and R. Lyons (1995). “Customer- and Supplier-driven Externalities”. AER; V.75-#4, pp. 1075-1084.

 

-S. Basu and J. Fernald (1995). “Are Apparent Productive Spillovers a Figment of Specification Error”. JMonE, V.36-#1, pp. 165-188.

 

-S. Basu (1996). “Procyclical Productivity: Increasing Returns or Cyclical Utilization?”. QJE; V.111-#3, pp. 719-751.

 

-S. Basu and J. Fernald (1997). “Returns to Scale in U.S. Production: Estimates and Implications”. Journal of Political Economy; V.105-#2, pp. 249-283.

 

-C. Burnside, M. Eichenbaum, and S. Rebelo (1995). “Capital Utilization and Returns to Scale”. NBER Macroeconomics Annual--1995. Cambridge: MIT Press/NBER, pp. 67-110.

 

-C. Burnside, M. Eichenbaum, and S. Rebelo (1995). “Sectoral Solow Residuals”. European Economic Review; V.40-#3/5, pp. 861-869.

 

-C. Burnside (1996). “Production Function Regressions, Returns to Scale, and Externalities”. JMonE; V.37-#2, pp. 177-201.

 

-A. Jaffe, M. Trajtenberg and R. Henderson (1993). “Geogrpahic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations”. QJE; V.63-#?, pp.. 577-598.

 

-Jaffe, Adam, M. Trajtenberg, and M. Fogarty (2000). “Knowledge Spillovers and Patent Citations: Evidence from a Survey of Inventors”. AER; V.90-#2, pp. 215-218.

 

-Z. Acs, D. Audretsch, and M. Feldman (1994). “R&D Spillovers and Innovative Activity”. Managerial and Decision Economics; V.15-#?, pp. 131-138.

 

-N. Bania, R. Eberts, and M. Fogarty (forth.). “Universities and the Startup of New Firms: Can We Generalize from Route 128 and Silicon Valley”. REStat; V.?

 

-L. Zucker, M. Darby, and J. Armstrong (1994). “Intellectual Capital and the Firm: The Technology of Geographically Localized Knowledge Spillovers”. NBER Working Paper, #4946.

 

(b) International Spillovers

 

-L. Branstetter (1998). “Looking for International Knowledge Spillovers: A Review of the Literature with Suggestions for New Research”. Annales d'Economie et de Statistique; #49/50 pp. 517-540.

 

-F. Lichtenberg (1993). “R&D Investments and International Productivity Differences”. In H. Siebert. Ed. Economic Growth in the World Economy. Tubingen: J.C.B. Mohr, pp. 89-110.

 

-Gittleman, Maury and Edward Wolff (1995). “R&D Activity and Cross-Country Growth Comparisons”. Cambridge Journal of Economics; V.19-#1, pp. 189-207. [also in D. Archibugi and J. Michie, eds. (1998). Trade, Growth and Technical Change. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 98-121.]

 

-W. Park (1995). “International R&D Spillovers and OECD Economic Growth”. Economic Inquiry; V.33-#4, pp. 571-591.

 

-D. Coe and E. Helpman (1995). “International R&D Spillovers”. EER; V.39-#5, pp. 859-887.

 

-D. Coe, E. Helpman, and A. Hoffmaister (1997). “North-South R&D Spillovers”. Economic Journal; V.107-#440, pp. 134-49.

 

-T. Bayoumi, D. Coe and E. Helpman (1999). “R&D Spillovers and Global Growth”. JIE; V.47-#2, pp. 399-428.

 

-E. Helpman (1999). “R&D and Productivity: The International Connection”. In A. Razin and E. Sadka, eds. The Economics of Globalization: Policy Perspectives from Public Economics. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 17-30.

 

-H.-J. Engelbrecht (1997). “International R&D Spillovers among OECD Economies”. Applied Economics Letters; V.4-#5, pp. 315-319.

 

-H.-J. Engelbrecht (1997). “International R&D Spillovers, Human Capital and Productivity in OECD Economies: An Empirical Investigation”. EER; V.41-#8, pp. 1479-1488.

 

-W. Keller (1998). “Are International R&D Spillovers Trade-Related? Analyzing Spillovers Among Randomly Matched Trade Partners”. EER, V.42-#8, pp. 1469-1481.

 

-D. Coe and A. Hoffmaister (1999). “Are There International R&D Spillovers Among Randomly Matched Trade Partners? A Response to Keller”. IMF Working Paper; “WP/99/18.

 

-F. Lichtenberg and B. van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie (1998). “International R&D Spillovers: A Comment”. EER, V.42-#8, pp. 1483-1491.

 

-J. Wang and B. Xu (1999). “Capital Goods Trade and R&D Spillovers in the OECD”. Canadian Journal of Economics; V.32-#5, pp. 1258-1274.

 

-D. Frantzen (1998). “R&D Efforts, International Technology Spillovers and the Evolution of Productivity in Industrial Countries”. Applied Economics; V.30-#11, pp. 1459-1469.

 

-D. Frantzen (2000). “R&D, Human Capital and International Technology Spillovers: A Cross Country Analysis”. Scandinavian Journal of Economics; V.102-#1, pp. 57-75.

 

-C. Kao, B. Chen, M.-H. Chiang (1999). “International R&D Spillovers Revisited: An Application of Estimation and Inference in Panel Cointegration”. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics; V.61-#4(supplement), pp. 691-709.

 

-C. Edmond (2001). “Some Panel Cointegration Models of International R&D Spillovers”. Journal of Macroeconomics; V.23-#2, pp. 241-260.

 

-M.I. Nadiri and S. Kim (1996). “International R&D Spillovers, Trade and Productivity in Major OECD Countries”. NBER Working Paper; #5801.

 

-M.I. Nadiri and S. Prucha (1997). “Sources of Growth of Output and Convergence of Productivity in Major OECD Countries”. International Journal of Production Economics; V.52-#1/2, pp. 133-146.

 

-W. Keller (2002). “Trade and the Transmission of Technology”. Journal of Economic Growth; V.7-#1, pp. 5-24.

 

-W. Hejazi and A.E. Safarian (1999). “Trade, Foreign Direct Investment, and R&D Spillovers”. Journal of International Business Studies; V.30-#3, pp. 491-511.

 

-J. Wang and B. Xu (2000). “Trade, FDI, and International Technology Diffusion” . Journal of Economic Integration, V.15-#4, pp. 585-601.

 

-B. van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie and F. Lichtenberg (2001). “Does Foreign Direct Investment Transfer Technology across Borders?”. REStat; V.83-#3, pp. 490-497.

 

-H. Braconier, K. Ekholm, and K.H. Midelfart Knarvik (2001). “In Search of FDI-Transmitted R&D Spillovers: A Study Based on Swedish Data”. WA; V.137-#4, pp.

 

-J. Eaton and S. Kortum (1996). “Trade in Ideas: Patenting and Productivity in the OECD”. JIE; V.40-#3/4, pp. 249-278.

 

-J. Eaton and S. Kortum (1997). “Engines of Growth: Domestic and Foreign Sources of Innovation”. Japan and the World Economy; V.9-#2, pp. 235-259.

 

-J. Eaton and A. Tamura (1996). “Japanese and US Exports and Investment as Conduits for Growth”. in T. Ito and A. Krueger, eds.. Financial Deregulation and Integration in East Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press/NBER, pp. 51-72.

 

-J. Eaton and S. Kortum (1999). “International Technology Diffusion: Theory and Measurement”. IER; V.40-#3, pp. 537-570.

 

-M. Connolly (2001). “The Dual Nature of Trade: Measuring Its Impact on Innovation and Growth”. Duke University Economics Department Working Paper, #97-34.

 

-R. Brecher, E. Choudhri, and L. Schembri (1996). “International Spillovers of Knowledge and Sectoral Productivity Growth: Some Evidence for Canada and the US”. JIE; V.40-#3/4, pp. 299-321.

 

-J. Bernstein (1996). “International R&D Spillovers between Industries in Canada and the United States, Social Rates of Return and Productivity Growth”. CJE; V.29-#0(special issue, Part 2 ). pp. S463-467.

 

-J. Bernstein and X. Yan (1996). “Canadian-Japanese R&D Spillovers and Productivity Growth”. Applied Economics Letters; V.3-#12, pp. 763-767.

 

-J. Bernstein and X. Yan (1997). “International R&D Spillovers between Canadian and Japanese Industries”. CJE; V.30-#2, pp. 276-294.

 

-J. Bernstein and P. Mohnen (1998). “International R&D Spillovers between US and Japanese R&D Intensive Sectors”. JIE; V.44-#2, pp. 315-338.

 

-J. Bernstein (1998). “Factor Intensities, Rates of Return, and International R&D Spillovers: The Case of Canadian and U.S. Industries”. Annales d'Economie et de Statistique; #49/50 pp. 541-564.

 

-R. Evenson (1997). “Industrial Productivity Growth Linkages between OECD Countries, 1970-90”. Economic Systems Research; V.9-#2, pp. 221-230.

 

-H. Braconier and F. Sjoholm (1998). “National and International Spillovers from R&D: Comparing a Neoclassical and an Endogenous Growth Approach”. WA; V.134-#4, pp. 638-663.

 

-W. Keller (2000). “Do Trade Patterns and Technology Flows Affect Productivity Growth”. World Bank Economic Review; V.14-#1, pp. 17-47.

 

-W. Keller (2002). “Geographic Localization of International Technology Diffusion”. AER; V.92-#1, pp. 120-142.

 

-Jaffe, Adam, Manuel Trajtenberg, and R. Henderson (1993). “Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations”. QJE; V.108-#3, pp. 577-598.

 

-Jaffe, Adam and Manuel Trajtenberg (1999). “Flows of Knowledge from Universities and Federal Laboratories: Modeling the Flow of Patent Citations over Time and across Institutional and Geographic Boundaries”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America; V.93-#23, pp. 12671-12677.

 

-Jaffe, Adam and M. Trajtenberg (1999). “International Knowledge Flows: Evidence from Patent Citations”. Economics of Innovation and New Technology; V.8-#1/2, pp. 105-136.

 

-Jaffe, Adam and Manuel Trajtenberg (2002). Patents, Citations, and Innovations: A Window on the Knowledge Economy. Cambridge: MIT Press.

 

-F. Sjöholm (1996). “International Transfer of Knowledge: The Role of International Trade and Geographic Proximity”. WA; V.132-#1, pp. 97-114.

 

-F. Sjöholm (1999). “Exports, Imports and Productivity Growth: Results from Establishment Data”. World Development; V.27-#4, pp. 705-715

 

-F. Sjöholm (1999). “Technology Gap, Competition and Spillovers from Direct Foreign Investment: Evidence from Establishment Data”. Journal of Development Studies; V.36-#1, pp. 53-73.

 

-S. Globerman, A. Kokko, and F. Sjöholm (2000). “International technology Diffusion: Evidence from Swedish Patent Data”. Kyklos; V.53-#1, pp. 17-38.

 

-B. Verspagen (1997). “Estimating International Technology Spillovers Using Technology Flow Matrices”. WA; V.133-#2, pp. 226-248.

 

-Los, Bart and Bart Verspagen (2000). “R&D Spillovers and Productivity; Evidence from US Manufacturing Microdata”. Empirical Economics, V.25-#, pp.127-148

 

-L. Branstetter (2000). “”FDI and R&D Spillovers: Is There a Connection”. In T. Ito and A. Krueger, eds. Foreign Direct Investment in Economic Development. Chicago: University of Chicago Press/NBER, pp.

 

-L. Branstetter (2001). “Are Knowledge Spillovers International or Intranational in Scope? Microeconomic Evidence from the U.S. and Japan”. JIE; V.53-#1, pp. 53-79.

 

b. Division of Labor, Growth and Development

 

(1) Some Classic References

 

-A. Young (1928). “Increasing Returns and Economic Progress”. EJ; V.38-#152, pp. 527-542.

 

-P. Rosenstein-Rodan (1943). “Problems of Industrialization of Eastern and South-Eastern Europe”. EJ; V.53-#?, pp. 202-211.

 

-R. Nurkse (1953). Problems of Capital Formation in Underdeveloped Countries. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

 

-T. Scitovsky (1954). “Two Concepts of External Economies”. JPE; V.??-#?, pp. 143-151.

 

-J.M. Flemming (1955). “External Economies and the Doctrine of Balanced Growth”. EJ; V.65-#?, pp. 241-256.

 

-H. Chenery (1959). “The Interdependence of Investment Decisions”. in M. Abramovitz et al. eds. The Allocation of Economic Resources. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

 

-N. Kaldor (1970). “The Case for Regional Policies”. Scottish JPE; V.17-#?, pp. 337-348.

 

-R. Faini (1984). “Increasing Returns, Non-traded Inputs and Regional Development”. EJ; V.94-#374, pp. 308-323.

 

-L. Westphal and J. Cremer (1984). “'The Interdependence of Investment Decisions' Revisited”. in M. Syrquin, et al. eds. Economic Structure and Performance. New York: Academic Press, pp. 543-572.

 

(2) Increasing Returns, Multiple Equilibria, and Macroeconomic Policy

 

-J. Bryant (1983). “A Simple Rational Expectations Keynes-type Model”. QJE; V.98-#?, pp. 525-529.

 

-T. Kehoe (1985). “Multiplicity of Equilibria and Comparative Statics”. QJE; V.100-#?, pp. 119-147.

 

-J. Roberts (1987). “General Equilibrium Analysis of Imperfect Competition: An Illustrative Example”. in G. Feiwel, ed. Arrow and the Ascent of Economic Theory. New York: Macmillan, pp. 415-438.

 

-J. Roberts (1987). “An Equilibrium Model with Involuntary Unemployment at Flexible Competitive Prices and Wages”. AER; V.77-#5, pp. 856-874.

 

-J. Roberts (1988). “Involuntary Unemployment and Imperfect Competition: A Game Theoretic Macro Model”. in G. Feiwel, ed. The Economics of Imperfect Competition and Unemployment: Joan Robinson and Beyond. London: Macmillan, pp. 146-165.

 

-R. Cooper and A. John (1988). “Coordinating Coordination Failures in Keynesian Models”. QJE; V.103-#3, pp. 441-463.

 

-W.P. Heller (1988). “Coordination Failure with Complete Markets in a Simple Model of Effective Demand”. in W.P. Heller, et al. Equilibrium Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.

 

-N.G. Mankiw (1988). “Imperfect Competition and the Keynesian Cross”. Economics Letters; V.26-#1, pp. 7-14.

 

-R. Startz (1989). “Monopolistic Competition as a Foundation for Keynesian Macroeconomic Policy”. QJE; V.104-#?, pp. 737-752.

 

-M. Pagano (1990). “Imperfect Competition, Underemployment Equilibria and Unemployment Policy”. EJ; V.100-#?, pp. 440-463.

 

-A. Manning (1990). “Imperfect Competition, Multiple Equilibria and Unemployment Policy”. EJ; V.100-#supplement, pp. 151-162.

 

-L. Jones and R. Manuelli (1992). “The Coordination Problem and Equilibrium Theories of Recessions”. AER; V.82-#3, pp. 451-471.

 

-K.N. Cheung (1998). “A Dynamic Model of Monopolistic Competition with Trade Externalities and Fiscal Policy”. in K. Arrow, Y.-K. Ng, and X. Yang, eds. Increasing Returns and Economic Analysis. New York: St. Martins, pp. 255-277.

 

(3) Increasing Returns, Multiple Equilibria and Development Policy

 

-W.B. Arthur (1988). “Self-Reinforcing Mechanisms in Economics”. in P. Anderson, K. Arrow and D. Pines, eds. The Economy as an Evolving Complex System. Redwood City: Addison-Wesley; pp. 9-31.

 

-A. Shleifer (1986). “Implementation Cycles”. JPE; V.94-#?, pp. 1163-1190.

 

-K. Murphy, A. Shleifer and R. Vishny (1989). “Industrialization and the Big Push”. JPE; V.97-#5, pp. 1003-10026.

 

-K. Murphy, A. Shleifer and R. Vishny (1989). “Income Distribution, Market Size and Industrialization”. QJE; V.104-#3, pp. 537-564.

 

-K. Murphy, A. Shleifer and R. Vishny (1991). “The Allocation of Talent: Implications for Growth”. QJE; V.106-#2, pp. 503-530.

 

-C. Azariadis and A. Drazen (1990). “Threshold Externalities in Economic Development”. QJE; V.105-#?, pp. 501-526.

 

-P. Krugman (1991). “History versus Expectations”. QJE; V.106-#2, pp. 651-667.

 

-K. Matsuyama (1991). “Increasing Returns, Industrialization, and Indeterminacy of Equilibrium”. QJE; V.106-#2, pp. 617-650.

 

-K. Matsuyama (1992). “The Market Size, Entrepreneurship, and the Big Push”. JJIE; V.6-#4, pp. 347-364.

 

-K. Matsuyama (1992). “Agricultural Productivity, Comparative Advantage and Economic Growth”. JET; V.58-#2, pp. 317-334.

 

-K. Matsuyama (1995). “Complementarities and Cumulative Processes in Models of Monopolistic Competition”. JEL; V.33-#2, pp. 701-729.

 

-K. Matsuyama (1997). “Economic Development as Coordination Problems”. In M. Aoki, H. Kim, and M. Okuno-Fujiwara, eds. The Role of Government in East Asian Development: Comparative Institutional Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press, pp.

 

-K. Matsuyama (1997). “Complementarity, Instability, and Multiplicity”. Japanese Economic Review; V.48-#3, pp. 240-266.

 

-D. Frankel and A. Pauzner (2000). “Resolving Indeterminacy in Dynamic Settings: The Role of Shocks”. QJE; V.140-#1, pp. 285-304.

 

-B. Herrendorf, R. Waldmann, and Á. Valentinyi (2000). “Ruling Out Multiplicity and Indeterminacy: The Role of Heterogeneity”. REStud; V.67-#2, pp. 295 -307.

 

-K. Matsuyama (1995). “New Goods, Market Formations, and Pirfalls of Market Design”. JJIE; V.9-#?, pp. 376-402.

 

-A. Ciccone and K. Matsuyama (1996). “Start-up Costs and Pecuniary Externalities as Barriers to Economic Development”. JDevE; V.49-#1, pp. 33-59.

 

-R. Tamura (1996). “Regional Economies and Market Integration”. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control; V.20-#?, pp. 825-845.

 

-M. Justman (1995). “Infrastructure, Growth and the Two Dimensions of Industrial Policy”. REStud; V.62-#1, pp. 131-157.

 

-D. Rodrik (1996). “Coordination Failures and Government Policy: A Model with Applications to East Asia”. JIE; V.40-#1/2, pp. 1-22.

 

-A. Rodríguez-Clare (1996). “The Division of Labor and Economic Development”. JDevE; V.49-#1, pp. 3-32.

 

-M. Fafchamps and B. Helms (1996). “Local Demand, Investment Multipliers, and Industrialization: Theory and Application to the Guatemalan Highlands”. JDevE; V.49-#1, pp. 61-92.

 

-J.-M. Baland and P. Francois (1996). “Innovation, Monopolies and the Poverty Trap”. JDevE; V.49-#1, pp. 151-178.

 

-C. Azariadis (1996). “The Economics of Poverty Traps, Part I: Complete Markets”. Journal of Economic Growth; V.1-#4, pp. 449-486.

 

-J. Rauch (1997). “Balanced and Unbalanced Growth”. JDevE; V.53-#1, pp. 41-66. [Erratum, JDevE; V.54-#2, pp. 493-518.]

 

-J. Gans (1998). “Industrialization and the ‘Big Push’”. in K. Arrow, Y.-K. Ng, and X. Yang, eds. Increasing Returns and Economic Analysis. New York: St. Martins, pp. 280-304.

 

-M. Premer and U. Walz (1994). “Divergent Regional Development, Factor Mobility, and Nontraded Goods”. Regional Science and Urban Economics; V.24-#6, pp. 707-722.

 

-S. Durlauf (1993). “Nonergodic Economic Growth”. REStud; V.60-#2, pp. 349-366.

 

(4) Development with Endogenous Division of Labor

 

-X. Yang and S. Ng (1998). “Specialization and Division of Labor: A Survey”. in K. Arrow, Y.-K. Ng, and X. Yang, eds. Increasing Returns and Economic Analysis. New York: St. Martins, pp. 3-63.

 

-S. Rosen (1978). “Substitution and the Division of Labor”. Eca; V.45-#179, pp. 235-250.

 

-S. Rosen (1983). “Specialization and Human Capital”. JLabEc; V.1-#1, pp. 43-49.

 

-Y. Barzel and B. Yu (1984). “The Effect of the Utilization Rate on the Division of Labor”. EcInq; V.22-#1, pp. 18-27.

 

-J. Baumgardner (1988). “The Division of Labor, Local Markets and Worker Organization”. JPE; V.96-#3, pp. 509-527.

 

-S. Kim (1989). “Labor Specialization and the Extent of the Market”. JPE; V.97-#3, pp. 692-709.

 

-S. Kim and H. Mohtadi (1992). “Labor Specialization and Endogenous Growth”. AER; V.82-#2, pp. 404-408.

 

-L. Locay (1990). “Economic Development and the Division of Production Between Households and the Market”. JPE; V.98-#5, pp. 965-982.

 

-J. Devereux and L. Locay (1992). “Specialization, Household Production, and the Measurement of Economic Growth”. AER; V.82-#2, pp. 399-403.

 

-G. Becker and K. Murphy (1992). “The Division of Labor, Coordination Costs and Knowledge”. QJE; V.107-#?, pp. 1137-1160.

 

-X. Yang (1991). “Development, Structural Changes and Urbanization”. JDevE; V.34-#?, pp. 199-222.

 

-X. Yang and J. Borland (1991). “A Microeconomic Mechanism for Economic Growth”. JPE; V.99-#3, pp. 460-482.

 

-X. Yang and I. Wills (1990). “A Model Formalizing the Theory of Property Rights”. Journal of Comparative Economics; V.14-#?, pp. 177-198.

 

-J. Borland and X. Yang (1992). “Specialization and a New Approach to Economic Orgnaization and Growth”. AER; V.82-#2, pp. 386-391.

 

-X. Yang and H. Shi (1992). “Specialization and Product Diversity”. AER; V.82-#2, pp. 392-398.

 

-X. Yang and Y.-K. Ng (1993). Specialization and Economic Organization: A New Classical Microeconomic Framework. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

 

-X. Yang and R. Rice (1994). “An Equilibrium Model Endogenizing the Emergence of a Dual Structure between the Urban and Rural Sectors”. Journal of Urban Economics; V.25-#?, pp. 346-368.

 

-H. Shi and X. Yang (1995). “A New Theory of Industrialization”. Journal of Comparative Economics; V.20-#?, pp. 171-189.

 

-S. Ng (1998). “Economies of Specialization and Trade”. in K. Arrow, Y.-K. Ng, and X. Yang, eds. Increasing Returns and Economic Analysis. New York: St. Martins, pp. 127-144.

 

-H. Shi and X. Yang (1998). “Centralized Hierarchy within a Firm and Decentralized Hierarchy in the Market”. in K. Arrow, Y.-K. Ng, and X. Yang, eds. Increasing Returns and Economic Analysis. New York: St. Martins, pp. 145-169.

 

-M. Wen (1998). “An Analytical Framework of Consumer-Producers, Economies of Specialization and Transaction Costs”. in K. Arrow, Y.-K. Ng, and X. Yang, eds. Increasing Returns and Economic Analysis. New York: St. Martins, pp. 170-185.

 

-J. Zhang (1998). “Policy Analysis in a Dynamic Model with Endogenous Specialization”. in K. Arrow, Y.-K. Ng, and X. Yang, eds. Increasing Returns and Economic Analysis. New York: St. Martins, pp. 205-215.

 

-M. Kelly (1997). “The Dynamics of Smithian Growth”. QJE; V.112-#?, pp. 939-964.

 

c. Division of Labor, Growth and Trade

 

-E. Helpman (1988). “Growth, Technological Progress and Trade”. Empirica; V.15-#1, pp. 5-25.

 

-G. Grossman and E. Helpman (1991). Innovation and Growth in the Global Economy. Cambridge: MIT Press.

 

-S. Taylor (1999). “Trade and Trade Policy in Endogenous Growth Models”. in J. Piggott and A. Woodland, eds. International Trade Policy and the Pacific Rim. London: Macmillan, pp. 321-343.

 

-P. Krugman (1990). “Endogenous Innovation, Growth and Trade”. in P. Krugman, Rethinking International Trade. Cambridge: MIT, pp. 164-182.

 

-G. Grossman and E. Helpman (1990). “Comparative Advantage and Long-Run Growth”. AER; V.80-#4, pp. 796-815.

 

-G. Grossman and E. Helpman (1991). “Growth and Welfare in a Small Open Economy”. in E. Helpman and A. Razin, eds. International Trade and Trade Policy. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 141-163.

 

-G. Grossman and E. Helpman (1991). “Trade, Knowledge Spillovers and Growth”. EER; V.35-#?, pp. 517-526.

 

-G. Grossman and E. Helpman (1993). “Hysteresis in the Trade Pattern”. in W. Ethier, E. Helpman and J.P. Neary, eds. Theory, Policy and Dynamics in International Trade. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 268-290.

 

-K. Wälde (1994). “On an Additional Condition for Factor-Price Equalization in Intertemporal Heckscher-Ohlin Models”. EcLets; V.44-#?, pp. 411-414.

 

-K. Wälde (1994). “Unequal Factor Prices and Incomplete Specialization in a Heckscher-Ohlin Model of Endogenous Growth”. ZfN; V.59-#3, pp. 311-323.

 

-K. Wälde (1996). “Proof of Stability, Transitional Dynamics, and International Capital Flows in a Two-Country Model of Innovation and Growth”. ZfN; V.64-#1, pp. 53-84.

 

-J. Nyssen (1994). “Social Efficiency of Bubbles in the Grossman and Helpman Endogenous Growth Model”. EcLets; V.45-#?, pp. 197-202.

 

-R. Feenstra (1996). “Trade and Uneven Growth”. JDevE; V.49-#1, pp. 229-256.

 

-M. Devereux (1997). “Growth, Specialization, and Trade Liberalization”. IER; V.38-#3, pp.

 

-L. Cheng and E. Dinopoulos (1992). “Schumpeterian Growth and International Business Cycles”. AER; V.82-#2, pp. 409-414.

 

-L. Rivera-Batiz and P. Romer (1991). “International Trade with Endogenous Technological Change”. EER, V.35-#4, pp. 971-1004.

 

-F. Rivera-Batiz and L. Rivera-Batiz (1991). “The Effects of Direct Foreign Investment in the Presence of Increasing Returns Due to Specialization”. JDevE; V.34-#?, pp. 287-307.

 

-L. Rivera-Batiz and D. Xie (1992). “GATT, Trade, and Growth”. AER; V.82-#2, pp. 422-427.

 

-K.M. Fung and J. Ishikawa (1992). “Dynamic Increasing Returns, Technology and Economic Growth in a Small Open Economy”. JDevE; V.37-#?, pp. 63-87.

 

-M.S. Taylor (1993). “‘Quality Ladders’ and Ricardian Trade”. JIE; V.34-#3/4, pp. 225-243.

 

-M.S. Taylor (1994). “‘Once-off’ and Continuing Gains from Trade”. REStud; V.61-#3, pp. 589-601.

 

-P. Roemer (1994). “New Goods, Old Theory, and the Welfare Costs of Trade Restrictions”. JDevE; V.43-#?, pp. 5-38.

 

-P. Krugman and A. Venables (1995). “Globalisation and the Inequality of Nations”. QJE; V.110-#4, pp. 857-880.

 

-P. Krugman and A. Venables (1995). “The Seamless World: A Spatial Model of International Specialization”. NBER Working Paper # 5220.

 

-A. Venables (1996). “Trade Policy, Cumulative Causation, and Industrial Development”. JDevE; V.49-#1, pp. 179-197.

 

-D. Puga and A. Venables (1996). “The Spread of Industry: Spatial Agglomeration in Economic Development”. Journal of the Japanese and International Economies; V.10-#4, pp. 440-464.

 

-M. Amiti (1998). “Inter-industry Trade in Manufactures: Does Country Size Matter?”. JIE; V.44-#2, pp. 231-255.

 

-L.A. Ricci (1999). “Economic geography and comparative advantage: Agglomeration versus specialization”. EER; V.43-#2, pp. 357-377.

 

-A. Venables (1999). “Geography and Specialization: Industrial Belts on a Circular Plain”. in R. Baldwin, D. Cohen, A. Sapir, and A. Venables, eds. Market Integration, Regionalism and the Global Economy. Cambridge: CUP/CEPR, pp. 254-273.

 

-J. Markusen and A. Venables (1999). “Foreign direct investment as a catalyst for industrial development”. EER; V.43-#2, pp. 335-356.

 

-C.K. Head, J. Ries and D. Swenson (1999). “Attracting foreign manufacturing: Investment promotion and agglomeration”. RSUE; V.29-#2, pp. 197-218.

 

-E. Dinopoulos and C. Syrapoulos (1997). “Tariffs and Schumpeterian Growth”. JIE; V.42-#3/4, pp. 425-452.

 

-P. Thompson (2000). “Learning from the Experience of Others: Parameter Uncertainty and Economic Growth in a Model of Creative Destruction”. Journal Of Economic Dynamics And Control; V.24-#9, pp. 1285-1313.

 

-Y. Wang (1993). “Endogenous Technical Change and Intra- and Inter-Industry Quality Competition”. EcLets; V.41-#?, pp. 171-177.

 

-E. Brezis, P. Krugman and D. Tsiddon (1993). “Leapfrogging in International Competition: A Theory of Cycles in National Technological Leadership”. AER; V.81-#5, pp. 1211-1219.

 

-M. Ohyama and R. Jones (1995). “Technology Choice, Overtaking and Comparative Advantage”. RIE; V.3-#2, pp. 224-234. [also in In J. Levinsohn, A. Deardorff, and R. Stern, eds. New Directions in Trade Theory. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 199-236]

 

-W. Keller (1996). “Absorptive Capacity: On the Creation and Acquisition of Technology in Development”. JDevE; V.49-#1, pp. 199-227.

 

-K. Matsuyama (1996). “Why are there Rich and Poor Countries? Symmetry Breaking in the World Economy”. Journal of the Japanese and International Economies; V.10-#4, pp. 419-439.

 

-R. Baldwin and R. Forslid (2000). “Trade Liberalisation and Endogenous Growth”. JIE; V.50-#2, pp. 497-517

 

-R. Barro and X. Sala-i-Martin (1995). “ Techonological Diffusion, Convergence, and Growth”. NBER Working Paper, #5151.

 

-R. Baldwin (1989). “The Growth Effects of 1992". Economic Policy; #9, pp. 248-281.-

 

-R. Baldwin (1992). “Measurable Dynamic Gains from Trade”. JPE; V.100-#1, pp. 162-174.

 

-R. Baldwin, J. Francois, and R. Portes (1997). “The Costs and Benefits of Eastern Enlargement: The Impact on th EU and Central Europe”. Economic Policy; #24, pp. 127-176.

 

-L. Rivera-Batiz and P. Romer (1991). “Economic Integration and Endogenous Growth”. QJE; V.105-#2, pp. 531-555.

 

-M. Devereux and B. Lapham (1994). “The Stability of Economic Integration and Endogenous Growth”. QJE; V.108-#1, pp. 299-305.

 

-J. Mazumdar (1996). “Do Static Gains from Trade Lead to Medium-Run Growth?”. JPE; V.104-#?, pp. 1328-1337.

 

-U. Walz (1995). “Trade Liberalization, Factor Mobility, and Regional Growth”. JITE; V.151-#?, pp. 505-525.

 

-U. Walz (1997). “Growth and Deeper Integration in a Three-Country Model”. RIE; V.15-#4, pp. 492-507.

 

-U. Walz (1998). “Does an Enlargement of a Common Market Stimulate Growth and Convergence?”. JIE; V.45-#2, pp. 297-321.

 

-R. Baldwin and E. Seghezza (1998). “Regional Integration and Growth in Developing Nations”. Journal of Economic Integration; V.13-#3, pp. 367-399.

 

-G. Ottaviano (1999). “Integration, geography and the burden of history”. RSUE; V.29-#2, pp. 245-256.

 

-D. Puga (1999). “The rise and fall of regional inequalities”. EER; V.43-#2, pp. 303-334.

 

-R. Faini (1999). “Trade unions and regional development”. EER; V.43-#2, pp. 457-474.

 

-S. Magrini (1999). “”The evolution of income disparities among the regions of the European Union”. RSUE; V.29-#2, pp. 257-281.

 

-Richard E. Baldwin and Rikard Forslid (2000). “The Core-Periphery Model and Endogenous Growth: Stablising and De-Stablilising Integration”. Economica; V.67-#3, pp. 307-324.

 

-D. Backus, P. Kehoe and T. Kehoe (1992). “In Search of Scale Effects in Trade and Growth”. JET; V.58-#?, pp. 377-409.

 

-J. Fagerberg (1994). “Technology and International Differences in Growth Rates”. JEL; V.32-#3, pp. 1147-1175.

 

d. Externalities and Spatial Distribution of Economic Activity

 

-Y. Kanemoto (1987). “Externalities in Space”. in T. Miyao and Y. Kanemoto, eds. Urban Dynamics and Urban Externalities; London: Harwood.

 

-M. Fujita (1990). “Spatial Interactions and Agglomeration in Urban Economics”. in M. Chatterji and R. Kunne, eds. New Frontiers in Regional Sciences. London: Macmillan.

 

-M. Fujita and J.-F. Thisse (1996). “Economics of Agglomeration”. Journal of the Japanese and International Economies; V.10-#4, pp. 339-378.

 

-M. Fujita, P. Krugman, and A. Venables (1999). The Spatial Economy. Cambridge: MIT Press.

 

-J.P. Neary (2000). “On Hype and Hyperbolas: Introducing the New Economic Geography” Journal of Economic Literature; V.39-#2, pp. 536-561.

 

-D. Starrett (1978). “Market Allocation of Location Choice in a Model with Free Mobility”. JET; V.17-#?, pp. 421-436.

 

-P. Hobson (1987). “Optimum Product Variety in Urban Areas”. JUrbanE; V.22-#?, pp. 190-197.

 

-H. Abdel-Rahman (1988). “Product Differentiation, Monopolistic Competition and City Size”. RSUE; V.18-#1, pp. 69-86.

 

-M. Fujita (1988). “A Monopolistic Competition Model of Spatial Agglomeration: Differentiated Product Approach”. RSUE; V.18-#1, pp. 87-124.

 

-F.L. Rivera-Batiz (1988). “Increasing Returns, Monopolistic Competition and Agglomeration Economies in Consumption and Production”. RSUE; V.18-#1, pp. 125-153.

 

-H. Abdel-Rahman and M. Fujita (1990). “Product Variety, Marshallian Externalities and City Sizes”. Journal of Regional Science; V.30-#?, pp. 165-183.

 

-P. David and J. Rosenbloom (1990). “Marshallian Factor Market Externalities and the Dynamics of Industrial Location”. JUrbanE; V.28-#?, pp. 349-370.

 

-B. Arthur (1990). “‘Silicon Valley’ Locational Clusters: When Do Increasing Returns Imply Monopoly?”. MathSocSci; V.19-#?, pp. 235-251.

 

-J. Rauch (1989). “Increasing Returns to Scale and the Pattern of Trade”. JIE; V.26-#?, pp. 359-369.

 

-P. Krugman (1991). “Increasing Returns and Economic Geography”. JPE; V.99-#3, pp. 483-499.

 

-P. Krugman (1991). “History and Industry Location: The Case of the US Manufacturing Belt”. AER; V.81-#2, pp. 80-83.

 

-P. Krugman (1991). Geography and Trade. Cambridge: MIT.

 

-P. Krugman (1993). “On the Number and Location of Cities”. EER; V.37-#?, pp. 293-298.

 

-P. Krugman (1993). “First Nature, Second Nature, and Metropolitan Location”. Journal of Regional Science; V.33-#2, pp. 129-144.

 

-P. Krugman (1993). “On the Relationship between Trade Theory and Location Theory”. RIE; V.1-#2, pp. 110-122.

 

-P. Krugman (1995). “Innovation and Agglomeration: Two Parables Suggested by City-Size Distribtuions”. Japan and the World Economy; V.7-#4, pp. 371-390.

 

-P. Krugman (1996). “Confronting the Mystery of Urban Hierarchy”. Journal of the Japanese and International Economies; V.10-#4, pp. 399-418.

 

-J. Rauch (1993). “Does History Matter Only When it Matters Little? The Case of City-Industry Location”. QJE; V.?-#?, pp. 843-867.

 

-J. Rauch (1993). “Productivity Gains from Geographic Concentration of Human Capital: Evidence from the Cities”. Journal of Urban Economics; V.34-#3, pp. 380-400.

 

-J. Rauch (1995). “Bureaucracy, Infrastructure, and Economic Growth: Evidence from U.S. Cities During the Progressive Era”. AER; V.85-#4, pp. 968-979.

 

-M. Fujita (1993). “Monopolistic Competition and Urban Systems”. EER; V.37-#?, pp. 308-315.

 

-M. Fujita (1995). “When is the Economy Monocentric?: von Thünen and Chamberlin Unified”. RSUE; V.25-#?, pp. 505-528.

 

-M. Fujita (1996). “The Role of Ports in the Making of Major Cities: Self-Agglomeration and Hub-Effect”. JDevE; V.49-#1, pp. 93-120.

 

-J.-F. Thisse (1993). “Oligopoly and the Polarization of Space”. EER; V.37-#?, pp. 299-307.

 

-E. Glaeser, H. Kallal, J. Scheinkman and A. Shleifer (1992). “Growth in Cities”. JPE; V.100-#6, pp. 1126-1152.

 

-A. Ades and E. Glaeser (1995). “Trade and Circuses: Explaining Urban Giants”. QJE; V.110-#1, pp. 195-227.

 

-P. Krugman and R. Elizondo (1996). “Trade Policy and The Third World Metropolis”. JDevE; V.49-#1, pp. 137-150.

 

-D. Puga (1998). “Urbanization Pattersn: European versus Less Developed Countries”. Journal of Regional Science; V.38-#2, pp. 231-252.

 

-Gustavsson, Rasha (1999). “Explaining the Phenomenon of Third World Urban Giants: The Effects of Trade Costs”. Journal of Economic Integration; V.14-#4, pp. 625-650.

 

-M. Fujita, P. Krugman, and T. Mori (1999). “On the evolution of hierarchical urban systems”. EER; V.43-#2, pp. 209-251.

 

-R. Baldwin (1999). “Agglomeration and endogenous capital”. EER; V.43-#2, pp. 253-280.

 

-P. Martin and G. Ottaviano (1999). “Growing locations: Industry location in a model of endogenous growth”. EER; V.43-#2, pp. 281-302.

 

-A. Venables (1999). “Economic Policy and the Manufacturing Base: Hysteresis in Location”. in R. Baldwin and J. Francois, eds. Dynamic Issues in Applied Commercial Policy Analysis. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 177-195. [comment by J.P. Neary, pp. 196-201.]

 

-M. Feldman and D. Audretsch (1999). “Innovation in cities: Science-based diversity, specialization and localized competition”. EER; V.43-#2, pp. 409-429.

 

-M. Beardsell and V. Henderson (1999). “Spatial evolution of the computer industry in the USA”. EER; V.43-#2, pp. 431-456.

 

-D. Davis and D. Weinstein (1999). “Economic Geography and Regional Production Structure: An Empirical Investigation”. EER; V.43-#2, pp. 379-407.

 

5. Empirical Analysis of Growth and Convergence

 

a. Empirical Evaluation of Growth Models

 

(1) Correlates of Growth/Regression Studies

 

-R. Summers and A. Heston (1991). “The Penn World Table (Mark 5): An Expanded Set of International Comparisons, 1950-1988". QJE; V.106-#2, pp. 327-368.

 

-S. Fischer (1991). “Growth, Macroeconomics and Development”. NBER Macroeconomics Annual--1991. Cambridge: MIT Press/NBER, pp. 329-364.

 

-R. Levine and D. Renelt (1992). “A Sensitivity Analysis of Cross-Country Growth Regressions”. AER; V.82-#4, pp. 942-963.

 

-X. Sala-i-Martin (1997). “I Just Ran Two Million Regressions”. AER; V.87-#2, pp. 178-183.

 

-J. Brander (1992). “Comparative Economic Growth: Evidence and Interpretation”. CJE; V.25-#4, pp. 792-818.

 

-W. Easterly (1993). “How Much Do Distortions Affect Growth?”. JMonE; V.32-#2, pp. 187-212.

 

-W. Easterly, M. Kremer, L. Pritchett, and L. Summers (1993). “Country Growth Performance and Temporary Shocks”. JMonE; V.32-#3, pp. 459-483.

 

-S. Fischer (1993). “The Role of Macroeconomic Factors in Growth”. JMonE; V.32-#3, p. 485-512.

 

-D. Quah (1993). “Empirical Cross-Section Dynamics in Economic Growth”. EER; V.37-#2/3, pp. 426-434.

 

-S. Sala-i-Martin (1994). “Cross-Sectional Regressions and the Empirics of Economic Growth”. EER; V.38-#3/4, pp. 739-747.

 

-J. Andrés, R. Doménech, and C. Molinas (1996). “Macroeconomic Performance and Convergence in OECD Countries”. EER; V.40-#?, pp. 1683-1704.

 

-S. Parente and E. Prescott (1993). “Changes in the Wealth of Nations”. FRBM Quarterly Review; spring, pp. 3-16.

 

-J. Schmitz (1993). “Early Progress on the ‘Problem of Economic Development’”. FRBM Quarterly Review; spring, pp. 17-35.

 

-J. Fagerberg (1994). “Technology and International Differences in Growth Rates”. JEL; V.32-#3, pp. 1147-1175.

 

-R. Barro and J.-W. Lee (1994). “Losers and Winners in Economic Growth”. Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics 1993. Washington, DC: World Bank, pp. 267-297. [comment by N. Stokey follows, pp. 47-57]

 

-J. Sachs and A. Warner (1997). “Fundamental Sources of Long-Run Growth”. AER; V.87-#2, pp. 184-188.

 

-P. Klenow and A. Rodriguez-Clare (1997). “The Neoclassical Revival in Growth Economics: Has It Gone Too Far?”. NBER Macroeconomics Annual–1997. Cambridge:MIT Press, pp. 73-103

 

-R. Hall and C. Jones (1996). “The Productivity of Nations”. NBER Working Paper, #5812.

 

-R. Hall and C. Jones (1999). “Why Do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output Per Worker Than Others”. QJE,

 

-J. Temple and P. Johnson (1998). “Social Capability and Economic Growth”. QJE; V.?-#?, pp. 967-990.

 

-J. Temple (1998). “Equipment Investment and the Solow Model”. OEP; V.50-#1, pp.39-62.

 

-P. Vanhoudt (1998). “A Fallacy in Causality Research on Growth and Capital Accumulation”. EcLets; V.60-#?, pp. 77-81.

 

-J. Gallup, J. Sachs and A. Mellinger (1999). “Geography and Economic Development”. Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics, pp. 127-178. [also International Regional Science Review; V.22-#2, pp. 179-232]

 

-W. Easterly and R. Levine (2001). “What have we learned from a decade of empirical research on growth? It's Not Factor Accumulation: Stylized Facts and Growth Models”. WBER; V.15-#2, pp. 177-219. [comments by Klenow and Romer follow.]

 

-W. Brock and S. Durlauf (2001). “What have we learned from a decade of empirical research on growth? Growth Empirics and Reality”. WBER; V.15-#2, pp. 229-272. [comments by Pritchett and Sala-i-Martin follow.]

 

-R. Solow (2001). “What have we learned from a decade of empirical research on growth?: Applying Growth Theory across Countries”. WBER; V.15-#2, pp. 283-288.

 

-S. Radelet, J. Sachs, and J.-W. Lee (2001). “The Determinants and Prospects of Economic Growth in Asia”. International Economic Journal; V.15-#3, pp. 1-29.

 

-C. Bean (1990). “Endogenous Growth and the Procyclical Behavior of Productivity”. EER; V.34-#?, pp. 355-363.

 

(2) Total Factor Productivity Growth

 

(a) TFP Growth Accounting Methodology

 

-J. Greenwood and B. Jovanovic (1998). “Accounting for Growth”. In E. Dean, M. Harper and C. Hulten, eds. New Directions in Productivity Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press/NBER, 179-222.

 

-W.E. Diewert and A. Nakamura (1998). “A Survey of Empirical Methods of Productivity Measurement”. ms: UBC.

 

-W.E. Diewert and A. Nakamura (2002). “The Measurement of Aggregate Total Factor Productivity Growth”. Ms: UBC.

 

-W.E. Diewert and A. Nakamura (2003). “Index Number Concepts, Measures and Decompositions of Productivity Growth”. Journal of Productivity Analysis; 19-#2/3, pp. 127-159.

 

-R. Solow (1957). “Technical Change and the Aggregate Production Function”. REStat; V.39-#?, pp. 312-320.

 

-R. Solow (1959). “Investment and Technological Progress”. in K. Arrow, S. Karlin, and P. Suppes, eds. Mathematical Methods in the Social Sciences. Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp. 89-104.

 

-D. Jorgenson and Z. Griliches (1967). “The Explanation of Productivity Change”. REStud; V.34-#?, pp. 249-280.

 

-W.E. Diewert (1976). “Exact and Superlative Index Numbers”. Journal of Econometrics; V.4-#?, pp. 115-145.

 

-D. Caves, L. Christensen and W.E. Diewert (1982). “Multilateral Comparisons of Output, Input, and Productivity Using Superlative Index Numbers”. EJ; V.92-#1, pp. 73-86.

 

-D. Caves, L. Christensen and W.E. Diewert (1982). “The Economic Theory of Index Numbers and the Measurement of Input, Output, and Productivity”. Etrica; V.50-#6, pp. 1393-1414.

 

-W.E. Diewert (1983). “The Theory of the Output Price Index and the Measurement of Real Output Change”. in Price Level Measurement. Toronto: Statistics Canada, pp. 1049-1113.

 

-B. Hall (1993). “Has the Rate of Return Declined”. BPEA, Microeconomics, pp.

 

-W.E. Diewert and C. Morrison (1986). “Adjusting Output and Productivity Indexes for Changes in the Terms of Trade”. EJ; V.96-#?, pp. 659-679.

 

-W.E. Diewert and C. Morrison (1988). “Export Supply and Import Demand Functions: A Production Theory Approach”. in R. Feenstra, ed. Empirical Methods in International Trade. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 207-222.

 

-C. Morrison and W. E. Diewert (1990). “Productivity Growth and Changes in the Terms of Trade in Japan and the US”. Productivity Growth in Japan and the US. Chicago: University of Chicago Press/NBER, pp. 201-227.

 

-A. Cas, W.E. Diewert and L. Ostensoe (1988). “Productivity Growth and Changes in the Terms of Trade in Canada”. in R. Feenstra, ed. Empirical Methods in International Trade. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 279-294.

 

-U. Kohli (1990). “Growth Accounting in the Open Economy: Parametric and Nonparametric Estimates”. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement; V.16-#3, pp. 125-136.

 

-U. Kohli (1993). “GNP Growth Accounting in the Open Economy: Parametric and Nonparametric Estimates for Switzerland”. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Volkswirtschaft und Statistik/Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics; V.129-#4, pp. 601-615.

 

-K. Fox and U. Kohli (1998). “GDP Growth, Terms-of-Trade Effects, and Total Factor Productivity”. Journal of International Trade and Economic Development; V.7-#1, pp. 87-110.

 

-G. Wan (1995). “Technical Change in Chinese State Industry: A New Approach”. Journal of Comparative Economics; V.21-#3, pp. 308-325. [Comment by Felipe and McCombie, and Response, JCE, 1999, V.27-#2, pp. 355-366.]

 

-G. Wan (1996). “Measuring Input Substitution and Output Expansion Effects: A Nonparametric Approach with Application”. Empirical Economics, V.21-#3, pp. 361-380.

 

-E. Prescott (1998). “Needed: A Theory of Total Factor Productivity”. IER; V.39-#3, pp. 525-551.

 

-C.-T. Hsieh (1998). “Measuring Biased Technological Change”. Woodrow Wilson School Discussion Papers in Economics, # 198.

 

-R. Barro (1999). “Notes on Growth Accounting”. Journal of Economic Growth; V.4-#2, pp. 119-137.

 

-C.-T. Hsieh (1998). “Comment on Barro”. ms: Princeton University.

 

-A. Young (1998). “Paasche vs. Laspeyres: The Elasticity of Substitution and Bias in Measures of TFP Growth”. NBER Working Paper, #6663.

 

-R. Lipsey and K. Carlaw (2000). “What Does Total Factor Productivity Measure?”. International Productivity Monitor; #1, pp. 31-40. [unabridged paper]

 

-T. Sargent and E. Rodriguez (2000). “Labor or Total Factor Productivity: Do We Need to Choose”?. International Productivity Monitor; #1, pp. [unabridged paper]

 

-W.E. Diewert (2000). “The Challenge of Total Factor Productivity Measurement”. International Productivity Monitor; #1, pp. 45-52. [unabridged paper]

 

(b) Applications

 

-D. Holtz-Eakin (1993). “Solow and the States: Capital Accumulation, Productivity and Economic Growth”. National Tax Journal; V.46-#?, pp. 425-439.

 

-A. Young (1992). “A Tale of Two Cities: Factor Accumulation and Technical Change in Hong Kong and Singapore”. NBER Macroeconomics Annual--1992. Cambridge: MIT Press/NBER, pp. 13-54.

 

-A. Young (1995). “The Tyranny of Numbers: Confronting the Statistical Realities of the East Asian Experience”. QJE; V.110-#3, pp. 641-680.

 

-J.-I. Kim and L. Lau (1994). “The Sources of Economic Growth of the East Asian Newly Industrialized Countries”. JJIE; V.8-#?, pp. 235-271.

 

-S. Collins and B. Bosworth (1996). “Economic Growth in East Asia: Accumulation or Assimilation”. BPEA; #2, pp. 735-191.

 

-D. Rodrik (1998). “TFPG Controversies, Institutions, and Economic Performance in East Asia”. In Y. Hayami and M. Aoki, eds. The Institutional Foundations of East Asian Economic Development. New York: St. Martins, pp. 79-101.

 

-C.-T. Hsieh (1999). “Productivity Growth and Factor Prices in East Asia”. AER; V.89-#2, pp. 133-138

 

-C.-T. Hsieh (2002). “What Explains the Industrial Revolution in East Asia? Evidence from Factor Markets”. AER, V.92-#3, pp. 502-526.

 

-A. Young (1998). “Alternative Estimates of Productivity Growth in the NICs: A Comment on the Findings of Chang-Tai Hsieh”. NBER Working Paper; # 6657.

 

-U. Kohli (1997). “Accounting for Recent Economic Growth in Southeast Asia”. Review of Development Economics; V.1-#3, pp. 245-256.

 

-U. Kohli and A. Werner (1998). “Accounting for South Korean GDP Growth: Index-Number and Econometric Estimates”. Pacific Economic Review; V.3-#2, pp. 133-152.

 

-J. Felipe (1999). “Total Factor Productivity Growth in East Asia: A Critical Survey”. Journal of Development Studies; V.35-#4, pp. 1-41.

 

-J. Felipe and J. McCombie (2001). “Biased Technical Change, Growth Accounting, and the Conundrum of the East Asian Miracle”. Journal of Comparative Economics; V.29-#3, pp. 542-565.

 

-J. Felipe and J. McCombie (2003). “Some Methodological Problems with the Neoclassical Analysis of the East Asian Miracle”. Cambridge Journal of Economics; V.27-#5, pp. 695-721.

 

-C. Jones (2002). “Sources of U.S. Economic Growth in a World of Ideas”. AER; V.92-#1, pp. 220-239.

 

-S. Iwata, M. Khan, and H. Murao (2003). “Sources of Economic Growth in East Asia: A Nonparametric Assessment”. IMF Staff Papers; V.50-#2, pp. 157-177.

 

(3) Production-Frontier Methods

 

-R. Färe, S. Grosskopf, M. Norris and Z. Zhang (1994). “Productivity Growth, Technical Progress, and Efficiency Change in Industrialized Countries”. AER; V.84-#1, pp. 66-83.

 

-R. Chambers, R. Färe and S. Grosskopf (1996). “Productivity Growth in APEC Countries”. Pacific Economic Review, V.1-#3, pp. 181-190.

 

-R. Färe and S. Grosskopf (1997). “Efficiency and Productivity in Rich and Poor Countries”. in B. Jensen and K.-y. Wong, eds. Dynamics, Economic Growth and International Trade. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 243-263.

 

-Hultberg, Patrick, M. Ishaq Nadiri, and Robin Sickles (1999). “An International Comparison of Technology Adoption and Efficiency: A Dynamic Panel Model”. Annales d'Economie et de Statistique; #55/56, pp. 449-474.

 

-G. Koop, J. Osiewalski, and M.F.J. Steel (1999). “The Components of Output Growth: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis”. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics; V.61-#4, pp. 455-487.

 

-G. Koop, J. Osiewalski, and M.F.J. Steel (2000). “Modeling the Sources of Output Growth in a Panel of Countries”. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics; V.18-#3, pp. 284-299.

 

-J. Krüger, U. Cantner, and H. Hanusch (2000). “Total Factor Productivity, the East Asian Miracle, and the World Production Frontier”. WA; V.136-#1, pp. 111-136.

 

-B. Skoora (2000). “Measuring Market Distortion: International Comparisons, Policy and Competitiveness”. Applied Economics; V.32-#?, pp. 253-264.

 

-J. Maudos, J.M. Pastor, and L. Serrano (2000). “Convergence in OECD Countries: Technical Change, Efficiency and Productivity”. Applied Economics; V.32-#?, pp. 757-765.

 

-J. Krüger (2003). “The Global Trends in Total Factor Productivity: Evidence from the Nonparametric Malmquist Index Approach”. Oxford Economic Papers; V.55-#?, pp. 265-286.

 

b. On Convergence

 

(1) Overviews/Surveys

 

-A. de la Fuente (1997). “The Empirics of Growth and Convergence: A Selective Review”. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control; V.21-#1, pp. 23-73.

 

-L. Pritchett (1997). “Divergence, Big Time”. Journal of Economic Perspectives; V.11-#3, pp. 3-17.

 

-C. Jones (1997). “On the Evolution of the World Income Distribution”. Journal of Economic Perspectives; V.11-#3, pp. 19-36.

 

-G. Bertola (1999). “Convergence: An Overview”. in R. Baldwin, D. Cohen, A. Sapir, and A. Venables, eds. Market Integration, Regionalism and the Global Economy. Cambridge: CUP/CEPR, pp. 275-295.

 

-S. Durlauf and D. Quah (1999). “The New Empirics of Economic Growth”. J. Taylor and M. Woodford, eds. Handbook of Macroeconomics. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 231-304.

 

-D. Quah (2001). “Cross-Country Growth Comparison: Theory to Empirics”. In J. Dreze, ed. Advances in Macroeconomic Theory, Proceedings of the Twelfth World Congress of the International Economic Association. New York: Macmillan, pp.

 

(2) Historical Discussions of the Convergence Hypothesis

 

-A. Gerschenkron (1952). “Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective”. in B. Hoselitz, ed. The Progress of Underdeveloped Areas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 3-29.

 

-R. Easterlin (1981). “Why Isn't the Whole World Developed?” Journal of Economic History; V.41-#1, pp. 1-20.

 

-I. Kravis and R. Lipsey (1984). “The Diffusion of Economic Growth in the World Economy, 1950-1980". in J. Kendrick, ed. International Comparisons of Productivity and Causes of the Slowdown. Cambridge: Ballinger.

 

-A. Maddison (1987). “Growth and Slowdown in Advanced Capitalist Economies”. JEL; V25-#?, pp. 649-698.

 

-A. Maddison (1989). The World Economy in the 20th Century. Paris: OECD.

 

-A. Maddison (1991). Dynamic Forces in Capitalist Development. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

-A. Maddison (1995). Monitoring the World Economy. Paris: OECD.

 

-M. Abramovitz (1989). Thinking About Economic Growth. Cambridge: CUP.

 

-D. Mowery and N. Rosenberg (1989). Technology and the Pursuit of Economic Growth. Cambridge: CUP.

 

-D. Landes (1990). “Why are We So Rich and They So Poor”. AER; V.80-#2, pp. 1-13.

 

(3) Tests of International Convergence

 

(a) Cross-Section Tests

 

i) Baumol-Abramovitz Convergence Tests

 

-W. Baumol (1986). “Productivity Growth, Convergence and Welfare: What the Long-run Data Show”. AER; V.76-#5, pp. 1072-1085. (Comment by B. deLong (1988), V.78-#5, pp. 1138-1154; Response by Baumol and Wolff, pp. 1155-1159).

 

-M. Abramovitz (1986). “Catching Up, Forging Ahead and Falling Behind”. Journal of Economic History; V.46-#2, pp. 385-406.

 

-M. Abramovitz (1990). “The Catch-up Factor in Postwar Economic Growth”. EcInq; V.28-#1, pp. 1-18.

 

-D. Dollar and E. Wolff (1988). “Convergence of Industry Labor Productivity among Advanced Economies”. REStat; V.70-#, pp. 549-558.

 

-W. Baumol, S. Blackman, and E. Wolff (1989). Productivity and American Leadership: The Long View. Cambridge: MIT Press. [esp. Chapter 5]

 

-S. Dowrick and D.T. Nguyen (1989). “OECD Comparative Economic Growth 1950-1985: Catch-Up and Convergence”. AER; V.79-#5, pp. 1010-1030.

 

-S. Dowrick (1989). “Sectoral Change, Catching Up and Slowing Down: OECD Post-war Growth”. EcLets; V31-#4, pp. 331-335.

 

-S. Dowrick and N. Gemmel (1991). “Industrialisation, Catching-up and Economic Growth: A Comparative Study of the World’s Capitalist Countries”. EJ; V.101-#?, pp. 263-275.

 

-S. Dowrick (1992). “Technological Catch Up and Diverging Incomes: Patterns of Economic Growth, 1960-1988". EJ; V.102-#412, pp. 600-610.

 

-E. Wolff (1991). “Capital Formation and Productivity Convergence Over the Long Term”. AER; V.81-#3, pp. 565-579.

 

-L. Soete and B. Verspagen (1993). “Technology and Growth: the Complex Dynamics of Catching Up, Falling Behind and Taking Over”. In A. Szirmai, B. Van Ark and D. Pilat, eds. Explaining Economic Growth: Essay in Honor of Angus Madison. Amsterdam: North Holland.

 

-D. Dollar and E. Wolff (1993). Competitiveness, Convergence and International Specialization. Cambridge: MIT Press.

 

-W. Baumol, R. Nelson, and E. Wolff, eds. (1994). Convergence of Productivity: Cross-National Studies and Historical Evidence. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

ii) Econometrics of Convergence and Endogenous Growth

 

-R. Kormendi and P. Meguire (1985). “Macroeconomic Determinants of Growth: A Cross-Country Study”. JME; V.16-#?, pp. 141-163.

 

-K. Grier and G. Tullock (1989). “An Empirical Analysis of Cross-National Economic Growth, 1951-1980”. JME; V.24-#?, pp. 259-276.

 

-R. Barro (1991). “Economic Growth in A Cross-Section of Countries”. QJE; V.106-#2, pp. 407-443.

 

-Mankiw, N.G., D. Romer and D. Weil (1992). “A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth”. QJE; V.107-#2, pp. 407-437.

 

-J. Temple (1998). “Robustness tests of the augmented Solow model”. Journal of Applied Econometrics; V.13-#4, pp. 361-375.

 

-M. Friedman (1994). “Do Old Fallacies Ever Die?”. JEL; V.30-#4, pp. 2129-2132.

 

-D. Quah (1993). “Galton’s Fallacy and Tests of the Convergence Hypothesis”. In T. Andersen and K.O. Moene, eds. Endogenous Growth. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 37-53.

 

-C. Bliss (1999). “Galton’s Fallacy and Economic Convergence”. OEP; V.51-#1, pp. 4-14.

 

-D. Quah (1996). “Empirics for Economic Growth and Convergence”. EER; V.40-#?, pp. 1353-1375.

 

-D. Quah (1996). “Twin Peaks: Growth and Convergence in Models of Distribution Dynamics”. EJ; V.106-#437, pp. 1045-1055.

 

-X. Sala-i-Martin (1996). “The Classical Approach to Convergence Analysis”. EJ; V.106-#437, pp. 1019-1036.

 

-O. Galor (1996). “Convergence? Inferences from Theoretical Models”. EJ; V.106-#437, pp. 1056-11069.

 

-S. Durlauf and P. Johnson (1996). “Multiple Regimes and Cross-Country Growth Behavior”. Journal of Applied Econometrics; V.10-#?, pp. 363-384.

 

-F. Lichtenberg (1994). “Testing the Convergence Hypothesis”. REStat; V.76-#?, pp. 576-579.

 

-W. den Haan (1995). “Convergence in Stochastic Growth Models: The Importance of Understanding Why Income Levels Differ”. JME; V.35-#1, pp. 65-82.

 

-D. Cohen (1996). “Tests of the ‘Convergence Hypothesis’: Some Further Results”. Journal of Economic Growth; V.1-#3, pp. 351-361.

 

-S. Knowles and D. Owen (1995). “Health Capital and Cross-country Variation in Income Per Capita in the Mankiw-Romer-Weil Model”. EcLets; V.48-#1, pp. 99-106.

 

-F. Caselli, G. Esquivel, and F. Lefort (1996). “Reopening the Convergence Debate: A New Look at Cross-Country Growth Empirics”. Journal of Economic Growth; V.1-#3, pp. 363-389.

 

-C.K.Y. Leung and D. Quah (1996). “Convergence, Endogenous Growth, and Productivity Disturbances”. JMonE; V.38-#?, pp. 535-547.

 

-W. Nonneman and P. Vanhoudt (1996). “A Further Augmentation of the Solow Model and the Empirics of Economic Growth for OECD Countries”. QJE; V.?-#?, pp. 943-953.

 

-D. Cho and S. Graham (1996). “The Other Side of Conditional Convergence”. EcLets; V.50-#?, pp. 285-290.

 

-D. Cho (1996). “An Alternative Interpretation of Conditional Convergence Results”. JMCB; V.28-#4/Part 1, pp. 669-681.

 

-W. Park and D. Brat (1996). “Cross-Country R&D and Growth: Variations on a Theme of Mankiw-Romer-Weil”. Eastern Economic Journal; V.22-#3, pp. 345-354.

 

-S. Dowrick and J. Quiggin (1997). “True Measures of GDP and Convergence”. AER; V.87-#1, pp. 41-64.

 

-G. Boyle and T. McCarthy (1997). “A Simple Measure of β-Convergence”. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics; V.59-#2, pp. 257-264.

 

-M. Bianchi (1997). “Testing for Convergence: Evidence from Non-Parametric Multimodality Tests”. Journal of Applied Econometrics; V.12-#3, pp. 393-409.

 

-R. Paap and H. van Dijk (1998). “Distribution and Mobility of Wealth of Nations”. EER; V.42-#7, pp. 1269-1293.

 

-J.D. Hamilton and J. Monteagudo (1998). “The Augmented Solow Model and the Productivity Slowdown”. Journal of Monetary Economics; V.42-#?, pp. 495-509.

 

-D. Quah (1999). “Convergence as Distribution Dynamics (With or Without Growth)”. in R. Baldwin, D. Cohen, A. Sapir, and A. Venables, eds. Market Integration, Regionalism and the Global Economy. Cambridge: CUP/CEPR, pp. 298-328.

 

-Z. Liu and T. Stengos (1999). “Non-Linearities in Cross-Country Growth Regressions: A Semiparametric Approach”. Journal of Applied Econometrics; V.14-#?, pp. 527-538.

 

-E. Leamer and M. Taylor (1999). “Estimating Growth Equations for Previously Centrally Planned Economies: Dealing with Dubious Data and Disparate Information”. Journal of Macroeconomics; V.21-#4, pp. 639-671.

 

Lutz Hendricks (2002). “How Important Is Human Capital for Development? Evidence from Immigrant Earnings”. AER; V.92-#1, pp. 198-219.

 

-B. Bernanke and Refet Gürkaynak (2002). “Is Growth Exogenous? Taking Mankiw, Romer and Weil Seriously”. NBER Macroeconomics Annual–2001. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp.

 

(b) Time-Series and Panel Data Tests

 

i) Univariate Time Series Methods

 

-A. Bernard and S. Durlauf (1995). “Convergence in International Output”. Journal of Applied Econometrics; V.10-#?, pp. 97-108.

 

-A. Bernard and S. Durlauf (1996). “Interpreting Tests of the Convergence Hypothesis”. Journal of Econometrics; V.71-#?, pp. 161-173.

 

-C. Jones (1995). “Time Series Tests of Endogenous Growth Models”. QJE; V.110-#2, pp. 495-525.

 

-N. Kocherlakota and K.M. Yi (1996). “A Simple Time-Series Test of Endogenous vs. Exogenous Growth Models: An Application to the United States”. REStat; V.78-#?, pp. 126-134.

 

-P. Evans (1996). “Using Cross-Country Variances to Evaluate Growth Theories”. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control; V20-#?, pp. 1027-1049.

 

-P. Evans (1997). “How Fast Do Economies Converge?”. REStat; V.79-#2, pp. 219-225.

 

-D. Ben-David and D. Papell (1995). “The Great Wars, The Great Crash, and Steady State Growth: Some New Evidence about An Old Sylized Fact”. JMonE; V.36-#?, pp. 453-475.

 

ii) Panel Methods

 

-M. Knight, N. Loyaza, and D. Villanueva (1993). “Testing the Neoclassical Theory of Economic Growth: A Panel Data Approach”. IMFSP; V.40-#3, pp. 512.541.

 

-N. Islam (1995). “Growth Empirics: A Panel Data Approach”. QJE; V.110-#4, pp. 1127-1170.

 

-A. Bernard and C. Jones (1996). “Technology and Convergence”. EJ; V.106-#437, pp. 1037-1044.

 

-A. Bernard and C. Jones (1996). “Productivity Across Industries and Countries: Time Series Theory and Evidence”. REStat; V.?-#?, pp. 135-146.

 

-A. Bernard and C. Jones (1996). “Comparing Apples to Oranges: Productivity Convergence and Measurement Across Industries and Countries”. AER; V.86-#5, pp. 1216-1238.

 

-P. Evans and G. Karras (1996). “Convergence Revisited”. JMonE; V.37-#?, pp. 249-265.

 

-F. Canova and A. Marcet (1995). “The Poor Stay Poor: Non-Convergence Across Countries and Regions”. CEPR Working Paper, #1265.

 

-K. Lee, M.H. Pesaran, and R. Smith (1997). “Growth and Convergence in a Multi-Country Empirical Stochastic Solow Model”. Journal of Applied Econometrics; V.12-#4, pp. 357-392.

 

-M. Lee, R. Longmire, L. Matyas, and M. Harris (1998). “Growth Convergence: Some Panel Data Evidence”. Applied Economics; V.30-#?, pp. 907-912.

 

-P. Evans (1998). “Using Panel Data to Evaluate Growth Theories”. IER; V.39-#2, pp. 295-306.

 

-A. Taylor (1999). “Sources of Convergence in the Late Nineteenth Century”. European Economic Review; V.43-#?, pp. 1621-1645.

 

-M. Nerlove (2000). “Growth Rate Convergence: Fact or Artifact?”. In J. Krishnakumar and E. Ronchetti, eds. Panel Data Econometrics: Future Directions. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 3-33.

 

-M. Nerlove (1999). “Properties of Alternative Estimators of Dynamic Panel Models: An Empirical Analysis of Cross-Country Data for the Study of Economic Growth”. In C. Hsiao, K. Lahiri, L.-F. Lee, and M.H. Pesaran, eds. Analysis of Panels and Limited Dependent Variable Models. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 136-170.

 

-M. Nerlove (1999). “Likelihood Inference for Dynamic Panel Models”. Annales d'Economie et de Statistique; #55/56, pp. 370-410.

 

-Guillaume GAULIER, Christophe HURLIN, Philippe JEAN-PIERRE (1999). “Testing Convergence: A Panel Data Approach”. Annales d'Economie et de Statistique; #55/56, pp. 411-427.

 

-G.S. Maddala (1999). “On the Use of Panel Data Methods with Cross-Country Data”. Annales d'Economie et de Statistique; #55/56, pp. 429-448.

 

-G. Maddala and S. Wu (2000). “Cross-Country Growth Regressions: Problems of Heterogeneity, Stability and Interpretation”. Applied Economics; V.32-#?, pp. 635-642.

 

(4) Trade, Factor Mobility and Convergence in Open Economies

 

-J. Helliwel and A. Chung (1991). “Macroeconomic Convergence: International Transmission of Growth and Technical Progress”. in P. Hooper and J.D. Richardson, ed. International Economic Transactions: Issues in Measurement and Empirical Research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press/NBER, pp.

 

-F. Rassekh (1992). “The Role of International Trade in the Convergence of per capita GDP in the OECD”. IEJ; V.6-#?, pp. 1-15.

 

-D. Ben-David (1993). “Equalizing Exchange: Trade Liberalization and Income Convergence”. QJE; V.108-#?, pp. 653-679.

 

-M. Slaughter (2001). “International Trade and Per Capita Income Convergence: A Difference-in-Differences Approach”. JIE; V.55-#1, pp. 203-228. [comment by Ben-David follows, pp. 229-234.]

 

-D. Ben-David (1994). “Income Disparity among Countries and the Effects of Freer Trade”. in L. Pasinetti and R. Solow, eds. Economic Growth and the Structure of Long-run Development. London: Macmillan.

 

-D. Ben-David (1996). “Trade and Convergence among Countries”. JIE; V.40-#3/4, pp. 279-298.

 

-G. Rossini and M. Burattoni (1996). “Trade and Convergence between Rich and Developing Countries: Some Empirical Evidence on Macrodeterminants of Specialization”. WA; V.132-#1, pp. 75-96.

 

-D. Ben-David and A. Bohara (1997). “Evidence on the Contribution of Trade Reform Towards International Income Equalization”. RIE; V.5-#2, pp. 246-255.

 

D. Ben-David and M. Loewy (1998). “Free Trade, Growth, and Convergence”. Journal of Economic Growth; V.3-#2, pp. 143-170

 

-M. Slaughter (1997). “Per Capita Income Convergence and the Role of International Trade”. AER; V.876-#2, pp. 194-199.

 

-E. Dinopoulos and P. Thompson (2000). “Endogenous Growth in a Cross-Section of Countries”. JIE; V.51-#2, pp. 335-362.

 

-PR Lane (2001). “International Trade and Economic Convergence: The Credit Channel”. OEP; V.53-#2, pp. 221-240.

 

-R. Barro, N.G. Mankiw and X. Sala-i-Martin (1995). “Capital Mobility in Neoclassical Models of Growth”. AER; V.75-#1, pp. 103-115.

 

-D. Quah (1996). “Convergence Empirics Across Economies with (some) Capital Mobility”. Journal of Economic Growth; V.1-#1, pp. 95-124.

 

-E. Borensztein, J. De Gregorio, and J.-W. Lee (1998). “How Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Economic Growth?”. JIE; V.45-#1, pp. 115-135.

 

-J. Williamson (1995). “The Evolution of Global Labor Markets since 1830: Background Evidence and Hypotheses”. Explorations in Economic History; V.32-#2, pp. 141-196.

 

-J. Williamson (1996). “Globalization, Convergence, and History”. Journal of Economic History; V.56-#?, pp. 277-306.

 

-P. Cashin and N. Loayza (1995). “Paradise Lost? Growth, Convergence and Migration in the South Pacific”. IMFSP; V.42-#3, pp. 608-641.

 

-A. Taylor (1996). “Growth and Convergence in the Asia-Pacific Region: The Role of Openness, Trade and Migration”. in P.J. Lloyd and L. Smith, eds. International Trade and Migration in the APEC Region. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, pp. 175-194.

 

(5) Tests of Convergence on Regional Data

 

-R. Barro and X. Sala-i-Martin (1991). “Convergence Across States and Regions”. BPEA; #1, pp. 107-158.

 

-R. Barro and X. Sala-i-Martin (1992). “Convergence”. JPE; V.100-#2, pp. 233-251.

 

-R. Barro and X. Sala-i-Martin (1992). “Regional Growth and Migration: A Japan-US Comparison”. JJIE; V.6-#4, pp. 312-346.

 

-D. Holtz-Eakin (1993). “Solow and the States: Capital Accumulation, Productivity, and Economic Growth”. National Tax Journal; V.46-#4, pp. 425-439.

 

-G. Carlino and L. Mills (1993). “Are US Regional Incomes Converging?”. JMonE; V.32-#2, pp. 335-346.

 

-M. Loewy and D. Papell (1996). “Are US Regional Incomes Converging? Some Further Evidence”. JMonE; V.38-#?, pp. 587-598. [response by Carlino and Mills follows]

 

-G. Carlino and L. Mills (1996). “Testing Neoclassical Convergence in Regional Incomes and Earnings”. RSUE; V.26-#?, pp. 565-590.

 

-J. Bishop, J. Formby and P. Thistle (1994). “Convergence and Distribution of Regional Income Distributions and Welfare”. REStat; V.76-#?, pp. 228-235.

 

-E. Glaeser, J. Scheinkman, and A. Shleifer (1995). “Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Cities”. JMonE; V.36-#1, pp. 117-143.

 

-P. Evans and G. Karras (1996). “Do Economies Converge?: Evidence from a Panel of US States”. REStat; V.78-#3, pp. 384-388.

 

-A. Bernard and C. Jones (1996). “Productivity and Convergence Across U.S. States and Industries”. Empirical Economics; V.21-#1, pp. 113-135.

 

-S. Kim (1998). “Economic Integration and Convergence: U.S. Regions, 1840-1987". Journal of Economic History; V.58-#3, pp. 659-683. [Comment by S. LaCroix and Response, (1999), V.59-#3, pp. 773-786.]

 

-D. Quah (1996). “Aggregate and Regional Disaggregate Fluctuations”. Empirical Economics; V.21-#1, pp. 137-159.

 

-D. Quah (1996). “Regional Convergence Clusters Across Europe”. EER; V.40-#3-5, pp. 951-958.

 

-X. Sala-i-Martin (1996). “Regional Cohesion: Evidence and Theories of Regional Growth and Convergence”. EER; V.40-#?, pp. 1325-1352.

 

-L. Mauro and E. Podrecca (1994). “The Case of Italian Regions: Convergence or Dualism?”. Economic Notes; V.24-#3, pp. 447-472.

 

-D. Neven and C. Gouyette (1995). “Regional Convergence in the European Community”. JCMS; V.33-#?, pp. 47-65.

 

-J. Fagerberg and B. Verspagen (1996). “Heading for Divergence? Regional Growth in Europe Reconsidered”. JCMS; V.34-#3, pp. 431-448.

 

-S. Magrini (1999). “The Evolution of Income Disparities among the Regions of the European Union”. RSUE; V.29-#?, pp. 257-281.


II. TRADE, DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

 

A. Models of North-South Trade and Growth

 

-R. Findlay (1984). “Growth and Development in Trade Models”. in R. Jones and P. Kenen, eds. Handbook of International Economics, V.1. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp.185-236.

 

-J.A. Ocampo (1986). “New Developments in Trade Theory and LDCs”. JDevE; V.22-#?, pp. 129-170.

 

1. Simple Models of Trade and Growth

 

-J. Black (1970). “Trade and the Natural Rate of Growth”. OEP; V.22-#?, pp. 13-23.

 

-W.M. Corden (1971). “The Effects of Trade on the Rate of Growth”. in J. Bhagwati, et al. eds. Trade, Balance of Payments and Growth. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp.

 

2. Dynamics of the Open, Dual Economy

 

a. The Lewis Model

 

-W.A. Lewis (1954). “Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labor”. MS; V.21-#2, pp. 139-191.

 

-W.A. Lewis (1971). “Reflections on Unlimited Labor”. in L. diMarco, ed. International Economics and Development. New York: Academic Press, pp. 75-96.

 

-A. Sen (1966). “Peasants and Dualism With or Without Surplus Labor”. JPE; V.74-#?, pp. 425-450.

 

-J. Hornby (1968). “Investment and Trade in the Dual Economy”. EJ; V.78-#309, pp. 96-107.

 

-A. Dixit (1969). “Marketable Surplus and Dual Development”. JET; V.1-#?, pp. 203-219.

 

-P. Bardhan (1971). “Optimum Trade and Development Policy in a Dual Economy”. in J. Bhagwati, et al. Trade, Balance of Payments and Growth. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 183-

 

-R. Findlay (1982). “Protection and Growth in a Dual Economy”. in M. Gersovitz, ed. The Theory and Experience of Economic Development. New York: Allen and Unwin.

 

-J. McIntosh (1975). “Growth and Dualism in Less Developed Countries”. REStud; V.42-#?, pp. 421-433.

 

-J. McIntosh (1986). “North-South Trade: Export-Led Growth with Abundant Labor”. JDevE; V.24-#?, pp. 141-152.

 

-S.K. Das (1989). “Labour Surplus Economies and the Theory of International Trade”. KES; V.26-#4, pp. 53-64.

 

-A. Bolbol and L. Young (1992). “Development wih Limited and Unlimited Supplies of Capital”. MS; V.50-#3, pp. 307-316.

 

b. The Kaldor Model

 

-N. Kaldor (1975). “What is Wrong with Economic Theory”. QJE; V.

 

-N. Kaldor (1976). “Inflation and Recession in the World Economy”. EJ; V.86-

 

-N. Kaldor (1979). “Equilibrium Theory and Growth Theory” in M. Boskin, ed. Economic and Human Welfare. San Diego: Academic Press.

 

-N. Kaldor (1981). “The Role of Increasing Returns, Technical Progress and Cumulative Causation in the Theory of International Trade and Growth”. Économie Apliquée; V.4-#?, pp.

 

-A.P. Thirlwall (1983). “Foreign Trade Elasticities in Centre-Periphery Models of Growth and Development”. Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review; V.36-#?, pp. 249-301.

 

-F. Targetti (1985). “Growth and Terms of Trade: A Kaldorian Two-Sector Model”. Metroeconomica;

 

-A.P. Thirlwall (1986). “A General Model of Growth and Development on Kaldorian Lines”. OEP; V.38-#?, pp. 199-219.

 

-H. Molana and D. Vines (1989). “North-South Growth and Terms of Trade: A Model on Kaldorian Lines”. EJ; V.99-#?, pp. 443-453.

 

-A.K. Dutt (1992). “A Kaldorian Model of Growth and Development Revisited: A Comment on Thirlwall”. OEP; V.44-#?, pp. 156-168. [Response by Thirlwall follows]

 

-A. Dixit (1984). “Growth and Terms of Trade under Imperfect Competition”. in H. Kierzkowski, ed. Monopolistic Competition and International Trade. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 109-123.

 

-P. Conway and W. Darity (1991). “Growth and Trade with Asymmetric Returns: A Model for Nicholas Kaldor”. SEJ; V.57-#3, pp. 745-759.

 

-W. Chang and D. Smyth (1971). “The Existence and Persistence of Cycles in a Nonlinear Model: Kaldor's 1940 Model Reexamined”. REStud; V.38-#?, pp. 37-44.

 

3. Marxist and Neo-Marxist Models of North-South Trade

 

-P. Baran (1957). The Political Economy of Growth. New York: Monthly Review.

 

-A.G. Frank (1966). “The Development of Underdevelopment”. Monthly Review, V.18-#4, pp. 17-31.

 

-A. Emmanuel (1972). Unequal Exchange: A Study of the Imperialism of Trade. New York: Monthly Review.

 

-S. Amin (1974). Accumulation on a World Scale: A Critique of the Theory of Underdevelopment. New York: Monthly Review.

 

-S. Amin (1977). Imperialism and Unequal Development. New York: Monthly Review.

 

-G. Arrighi (1978). The Geometry of Imperialism. London: New Left Books.

 

-A. Shaikh (1979). “Foreign Trade and the Law of Value”. Science and Society; V.43-#3, pp. 281-302; (1980) V.44-#1, pp.

 

-A. Shaikh (1980). “The Laws of International Exchange”. in E. Nell, ed. Growth, Profits and Prosperity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 204-235.

 

-J. Roemer (1983). “Unequal Exchange, Labor Migration, and International Capital Flows: A Theoretical Synthesis”. in P. Desai, ed. Marxism, Central Planning, and the Soviet Economy. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 34-60.

 

-D. Schweickart (1991). “The Politics and Morality of Unequal Exchange”. Economics and Philosophy; V.7-#1, pp.

 

-D. Evans (1975). “Unequal Exchange and Economic Policies: Some Implications of the Neo-Ricardian Critique of the Theory of Comparative Advantage”. in I. Livingstone, ed. Development Economics and Policy: Readings. London: Allen and Unwin.

 

-L. Mainwaring (1980). “International Trade and the Transfer of Labour Values”. Journal of Development Studies; V.17-#1, pp. 22-31.

 

-P. Samuelson (1976). “The Illogic of the Neo-Marxian Doctrine of Unequal Exchange”. in D. Belsley, et al., eds. Inflation, Trade and Taxes. Columbus: Ohio University Press.

 

-A. DeJanvry and F. Kramer (1979). “The Limits of Unequal Exchange”. Review of Radical Political Economics; V.11-#4, pp. 3-15.

 

-B. Gibson (1980). “Unequal Exchange: Theoretical Issues and Empirical Findings”. Review of Radical Political Economics; V.12-#3, pp. 15-35.

 

-E. Bacha (1978). “An Interpretation of Unequal Exchange from Prebisch-Singer to Emmanuel”. JDevE; V.5-#4, pp. 319-330.

 

-P. Krugman (1981). “Trade, Accumulation and Uneven Development”. JDevE; V.8-#?, pp. 149-161.

 

-D. Evans (1984). “A Critical Assessment of Some Neo-Marxian Trade Theories”. Journal of Development Studies; V.20-#2, pp. 202-226.

 

-A.K. Dutt (1986). “Vertical Trading and Uneven Development”. JDevE; V.20-#?, pp. 339-359.

 

-A.K. Dutt (1988). “Monopoly Power and Uneven Development: Baran Revisited”. Journal of Development Studies; V.24-#2, pp. 161-176.

 

-A.K. Dutt (1989). “Uneven Development in Alternative Models of North-South Trade”. Eastern Economic Journal; V.?-#?, pp. 91-106.

 

-S. Barrientos (1990). “The Classical Foundations of Unequal Exchange: A Critical Analysis”. British Review of Economic Issues; V.13-#29, pp. 61-86.

 

-T. Negishi (1993). “International Exploitation in Marxist and Neo-Marxist Economics”. in H. Herberg and N.V. Long, eds., Trade, Welfare and Economic Policies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 353-364.

 

-M. Barratt Brown (1974). The Economics of Imperialism. Harmmondsworth: Penguin.

 

-A. Brewer (1980). Marxist Theories of Imperialism: A Critical Survey. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

 

4. Structuralist Models of North-South Trade and Growth

 

-H. Singer (1950). “The Distribution of Gains between Investing and Borrowing Countries”. AER; V.40-#2, pp. 473-485.

 

-R. Prebisch (1959). “Commercial Policy in the Underdeveloped Countries”. AER; V.49-#2, pp. 251-273.

 

-O. Rodriguez (1977). “On the Conception of the Centre-Periphery System”. CEPAL Review, pp. 195-239.

 

-R. Prebisch (1981). “The Latin American Periphery in the Global System of Capitalism”. CEPAL Review, pp. 143-150.

 

-M.J. Flanders (1964). “Prebisch on Protectionism: An Evaluation”. EJ; V.?-#?, pp. 305-326.

 

-R. Findlay (1980). “The Terms of Trade and Equilibrium Growth in the World Economy”. AER; V.70-#?, pp. 291-299.

 

-R. Findlay (1981). “The Fundamental Determinants of the Terms of Trade”. in S. Grassman and E. Lundberg, eds. The World Economic Order: Past and Prospects. London: Macmillan, pp. 425-457.

 

-R. Findlay (1989). “North-South Models and the Evolution of Global Interdependence”. in G. Calvo, et al. eds. Debt, Stabilization and Development. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 397-414.

 

-L. Taylor (1981). “South-North Trade: Bleak Prospects from a Structuralist Point of View”. JIE; V.11-#?, pp. 589-601.

 

-W. Darity (1982). “On the Long-Run Outcome of the Lewis-Nurkse Growth Process”. JDevE; V.10-#?, pp. 271-278.

 

-A. Burgstaller (1987). “Industrialization, Deindustrialization and North-South Trade”. AER; V.77-#?, pp. 1017-1018.

 

-W. Darity (1989). “The Terms of Trade from the Long View”. in P. Davidson and J. Kregel, eds. Macroeconomic Problems and Policies of Income Distribution. Hampshire: Gower, pp. 157-173.

 

-W. Darity (1990). “The Fundamental Determinants of the Terms of Trade Reconsidered: Long-Run and Long-Period Equilibrium”. AER; V.80-#4, pp. 816-827.

 

-M. Kemp and M. Ohyama (1978). “On the Sharing of Trade Gains by Resource-Poor and Resource-Rich Countries”. JIE; V.8-#?, pp. 93-115. (Comment by Tower, JIE, 1979, V.9-#?, pp. 423-427)

 

-R. Findlay (1979). “Economic Development and the Theory of International Trade”. AER; V.69-#2, pp. 186-190.

 

-M. Kiguel and I. Wooton (1985). “Tariff Policy and Equilibrium Growth in the World Economy”. JDevE; V.19-#?, pp. 187-198.

 

-T.D. Chaudhuri and M.A. Khan (1986). “Commercial Policy in an Asymmetric World Economy”. ZfN; V.46-#2, pp. 143-161.

 

-T.D. Chaudhuri, M.A. Khan and M. Tang (1987). “Technical Progress and Structural Change”. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics; V.143-#?, pp. 310-323.

 

-G. Chichilnisky (1981). “Terms of Trade and Domestic Distribution: Export-Led Growth with Abundant Labor”. JDevE; V.8-#2, pp. 163-192.

 

-“Symposium on Chichilnisky”. (1984). JDevE; V.15-#?, pp. 89-211.

 

-G. Chichilnisky (1986). “A General Equilibrium Theory of North-South Trade”. in R. Heller et al. eds. Equilibrium Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 3-56.

 

-F. Lysy (1985). “Graciela Chichilnisky's Model of North-South Trade”. JDevE; V.18-#?, pp. 503-539.

 

-H. Mahran and S. Lahiri (1990). “Elasticity of Substitution and the Perverse Export Supply Response”. JDevE; V.33-#?, pp. 371-375.

 

5. Capital Mobility in North-South Trade Models

 

-M.A. Khan (1984). “International Trade and Foreign Investment: A Model with Asymmetric Production”. Pakistan Development Review; V.23-#4, pp. 509-530.

 

-T.D. Chaudhuri and M.A. Khan (1984). “Sector-Specific Capital, Interconnectedness in Production and Welfare”. CJE; V.17-#3, pp. 489-507. (Comment by Young, CJE, 1986, V19-#4, pp. 678-684)

 

-S. Ranney (1984). “International Capital Transfers and the Choice of Production Technique: A Simple Two-Country Model”. JIE; V.17-#?, pp. 85-99.

 

-A. Burgstaller and N. Saveedra-Rivano (1984). “Capital Mobility and Growth in a North-South Model”. JDevE; V.15-#?, pp. 213-237.

 

-A. Burgstaller (1985). “North-South Trade and Capital Flows in a Ricardian Model of Capital Accumulation”. JIE; V.18-#?, pp. 241-260.

 

-A. Burgstaller (1987). “Europe's Industrialization and Colonial Underdevelopment in the Light of Ricardo's Corn Model”. JIE; V.22-#?, pp. 157-169.

 

B. Empirical Research on the Trade-Growth Link

 

1. Patterns of Trade

 

-S. Hirsch (1974). “Hypotheses Regarding Trade between Developing and Industrial Countries”. in H. Giersch, ed. The International Division of Labor: Problems and Prospects. Tubingen: J.C.B Mohr, pp. 65-82.

 

-G. Helleiner (1976). “Industry Characteristics and the Competitiveness of Manufactures from Less Developed Countries”. WA; V.112-#3, pp. 507-523.

 

-C. Hamilton and M. Kreinin (1980). “The Structural Pattern of LDCs' Trade in Manufactures with Individual and Groups of DCs”. WA; V.116-#2, pp. 264-279.

 

-A. Amsden (1980). “The Industry Characteristics of Intra-Third World Trade in Manufactures”. EDCC; V.28-#4, pp. 1-19.

 

-O. Havrylyshyn and M. Wolf (1983). “Recent Trends in Trade Among Developing Countries”. EER; V.21-#3, pp. 333-362.

 

-O. Havrylyshyn (1985). “The Direction of Developing Country Trade: Empirical Evidence of South-South Trade”. JDevE; V.19-#?, pp. 255-283.

 

-D. Greenaway and C. Milner (1990). “South-South Trade: Theory, Evidence, and Policy”. WBRO; V.5-#1, pp. 47-68.

 

-M. Syrquin and S. Urata (1986). “Sources of Change in the Factor Intensity of Trade”. JDevE; V.24-#?, pp. 225-237.

 

2. Terms of Trade and Growth

 

a. Long-run Trends in Terms-of-Trade and the Prebisch-Singer Hypothesis

 

-R. Baldwin (1955). “Secular Movements in the Terms of Trade”. AER; V.45-#2, pp. 259-269.

 

-D. Sapsford (1988). “The Debate Over Trends in the Terms of Trade”. in D. Greenaway, ed. Economic Development and International Trade. London: Macmillan, pp. 117-131.

 

-J. Spraos (1980). “The Stastical Debate on the Net Barter Terms of Trade between Primary Products and Manufactures”. EJ; V.90-#?, pp. 107-128. (Comment by Sapsford and response, EJ, 1985, V.95-#?, pp. 781-789)

 

-J. Spraos (1983) Inequalizing Trade. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 

-D. Sapsford (1985). “The Prebisch-Singer Terms of Trade Hypothesis: Some New Evidence”. EcLets; V.18-#?, pp. 229-232.

 

-P. Sarkar (1986). “The Singer-Prebisch Hypothesis: A Statistical Evaluation”. Cambridge Journal of Economics; V.10-#?, pp. 355-371.

 

-P. Sarkar (1987). “The Long-term Behaviour of Terms Trade between Primary Products and Manufacturers: From the Classical Idea to the Prebisch-Singer Hypothesis”. Indian Economic Journal; V34-#3, pp. 34-42.

 

-D. Evans (1987). “The Long-run Determinants of the Terms of Trade and Some Recent Evidence”. World Development; V.15-#?, pp. 657-671.

 

-E. Grilli and M.C. Yang (1988). “Primary Commodity Prices, Manufactured Goods Prices and the Terms of Trade of Developing Countries: What the Long Run Shows”. WBER; V.2-#1, pp. 1-47.

 

-J. Cuddington and C. Urzua (1989). “Trends and Cycles in the Net Barter Terms of Trade: A New Approach”. Economic Journal; V.99-#396, pp. 426-42.

 

-J. von Hagen (1989). “Relative Commodity Prices and Cointegration”. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics; V7-#4, pp. 497-503.

 

-D. Sapsford (1990). “Primary Commodity Prices and the Terms of Trade”. Economic Record; V.66-#195, pp. 342-56.

 

-D. Diakosavvas and P. Scandizzo (1991). “Trends in the Terms of Trade of Primary Commodities, 1900-1982: The Controversy and Its Origins”. EDCC; V.39-#?, pp. 231-264.

 

-R. Helg (1991). “A Note on the Stationarity of the Primary Commodities Relative Price Index”. Economics Letters; V.36-#1, pp. 55-60.

 

-A. Powell (1991). “Commodity and Developing Country Terms of Trade: What Does the Long Run Show?”. EJ, V.101-#409, pp. 1485-96.

 

-P. Ardeni and B. Wright (1992). “The Prebisch-Singer Hypothesis: A Reappraisal Independent of Stationarity Hypotheses”. Economic Journal; V.102-#413, pp. 803-12.

 

-J. Cuddington (1992). “Long-run Trends in 26 Primary Commodity Prices: A Disaggregated Look at the Prebisch-Singer Hypothesis”. Journal of Development Economics; V.39-#2, pp. 207-27.

 

-P. Sarkar and H. Singer (1991). “Manufactured Exports of Developing Countries and Their Terms of Trade since 1965". World Development; V.19-#4, pp. 333-40.

 

-P. Athukorala (1993). “Manufactured Exports from Developing Countries and Their Terms of Trade: A Reexamination of the Sarkar-Singer Results”. World Development; V.21-#10, pp. 1607-13.

 

-M. Bleaney (1993). “Manufactured Exports of Developing Countries and Their Terms of Trade since 1965: A Comment”. World Development; V.21-#10, pp. 1615-16

 

-P. Sarkar and H. Singer (1993). “Manufacture--Manufacture Terms of Trade Deterioration: A Reply”. World Development; V.21-#10, pp. 1617-20.

 

-M. Bleaney amd D. Greenaway (1993). “Long-Run Trends in the Relative Price of Primary Commodities and in the Terms of Trade of Developing Countries”. OEP; V.45-#3, pp. 349-63.

          

-T. Haavisto and C. Nalin (1993). “Do Terms of Trade Matter? Terms of Trade and Economic Performance in Central America”. In G. Hansson, ed. Trade, Growth and Development: The role of politics and institutions. New York: Routledge, pp. 71-85.

 

-Arize, A. C. (1996). “Cointegration Test of a Long-Run Relation between the Trade Balance and the Terms of Trade in Sixteen Countries”; North American Journal of Economics and Finance; V7-#2, pp. 203-15.

 

-H. Bloch and D. Sapsford (1996). “Trend in the International Terms of Trade between Primary Producers and Manufacturers”. Journal of International Development; V.8-#1, pp. 53-67.

 

-E. Grilli and M.-C. Yang (1992). “Primary Commodity Prices, Manufactured Goods Prices, and the Terms of Trade of Developing Countries: What the Long Run Shows”. In D. Lal, ed. Development economics. V.3. Brookfield, Vermont: Elgar, pp. 125-71.

 

-P.-C. Athukorala (1995). “Terms of Trade for Manufactured Exports from Developing Countries”. Economia Internazionale; V48-#2, pp. 179-95.

 

-M. Lucke (1993). “Developing Countries' Terms of Trade in Manufactures, 1967-87: A Note”. Journal of Development Studies; V.29-#3, pp. 588-95.

 

b. Terms-of-Trade, Export Volatility and Growth

 

-A. Macbean and D. Nguyen (1988). “Export Instability and Growth Performance”. in D. Greenaway, ed. Economic Development and International Trade. London: Macmillan, pp. 95-116.

 

-J.A. Ocampo (1993). “Terms of Trade and Center-Periphery Relations”. in O. Sunkel, ed. Development from within: Toward a Neostructuralist Approach for Latin America. Boulder: Rienner, pp. 333-57.

 

-H. Singer and J. Edstrom (1993). “The Impact of Trends and Volatility in Terms of Trade on GNP Growth”. In M. Nissanke and A. Hewitt, eds. Economic crisis in Developing Countries: New perspectives on Commodities, Trade and Finance. London: Pinter; pp. 23-45.

 

-M. Lutz and H. Singer (1994). “The Link between Increased Trade Openness and the Terms of Trade: An Empirical Investigation”. World Development; V.22-#11, pp. 1697-1709.

 

-M. Lutz (1994). “The Effects of Volatility in the Terms of Trade on Output Growth: New Evidence”. World Development; V22-#12, pp. 1959-75.

 

-M. Bahmani-Oskooee and J. Alse (1995). “Is There Any Long-Run Relation between the Terms of Trade and Trade Balance? Economic Note”. Journal of Policy Modeling; V.17-#2, pp. 199-205.

 

3. Trade and Growth

 

a. Is Trade an “Engine” or a “Handmaiden” of Growth?

 

(1) Vent-for-Surplus and 19th Century Export-Led Growth

 

(a) The Vent-for-Surplus (or Staples) Theory

 

-D. North (1955). “Location Theory and Regional Economic Growth”. JPE; V.62-#3, pp. 243-258.

 

-R. Baldwin (1956). “Patterns of Development in Newly Settled Regions”. MS; V.24-#?, pp. 161-179.

 

-R. Baldwin (1963). “Export Technology and Development from a Subsistence level”. EJ; V.63-#?, pp. 80-92.

 

-H. Myint (1958). “The ‘Classical Theory’ of International Trade and the Underdeveloped Countries”. EJ; V.68-#?, pp. 317-337.

 

-M. Watkins (1963). “A Staple Theory of Economic Growth”. CJEPS; V.29-#?, pp. 141-158.

 

-R. Caves (1965). “Vent for Surplus Models of Trade and Growth”. in R. Caves, H.G. Johnson, and P. Kenen, eds. Trade, Growth and the Balance of Payments. Chicago: Rand McNally, pp. 95-115.

 

-A. Hirschman (1977). “A Generalized Linkage Approach to Economic Development, with Special Reference to Staples”. in M. Nash, ed. Essays on Economic Development and Cultural Change in Honor of Bert F. Hoselitz. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 67-98.

 

-G. di Tella (1982). “The Economics of the Frontier”. in C. Kindleberger and G. di Tella, eds. Economics in the Long View. New York: NYU Press, pp. 210-227.

 

-S. Easton and C. Reed (1980). “The Staple Model”. ms.: Simon Fraser University.

 

-R. Findlay and M. Lundahl (1992). “Natural Resources, Vent for Surplus and the Staple Theory”. in G. Meier, ed. From Classical Economics to Development Economics. New York: St. Martins, pp. 68-93.

 

-R. Findlay (1993). “International Trade and Factor Mobility with an Endogenous Land Frontier”. in W. Ethier, E. Helpman and J.P. Neary, eds. Theory, Policy and Dynamics in International Trade. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 38-54.

 

(b) US

 

-D. North (1956). “International Capital Flows and the Development of the American West”. Journal of Economic History; V.16-#4, pp. 493-505.

 

-D. North (1958). “Ocean Freight Rates and Economic Development, 1750-1913". Journal of Economic History; V.18-#4, pp. 537-555.

 

-D. North (1961). The Economic Growth of the United States, 1790-1860. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

 

-I. Kravis (1970). “The Role of Exports in Ninetheenth-Century US Growth”. EDCC; V.20-#3, pp. 387-405.

 

-F. Fisher and P. Temin (1970). “Regional Specialization and the Supply of Wheat in the US, 1867-1914". REStat; V.52-#?, pp. 134-149.

 

-C. Goldin and F. Lewis (1980). “The Role of Exports in American Economic Growth during the Napoleonic Wars, 1793-1807". Explorations in Economic History; V.17-#1, pp. 6-25.

 

-J. Williamson (1980). “Greasing the Wheels of Sputtering Export Engines: Midwestern Grains and American Growth”. Explorations in Economic History; V.17-#3, pp. 189-217.

 

-C.K. Harley (1978). “Western Settlement and the Price of Wheat, 1872-1913". Journal of Economic History; V.38-#4, pp. 865-878.

 

-C.K. Harley (1980). “Transportation, the World Wheat Trade, and the Kuznets Cycle, 1850-1913". Explorations in Economic History; V.17-#3, pp. 218-250.

 

-C.K. Harley (1982). “Oligopoly Agreement and the Timing of American Railroad Construction”. Journal of Economic History; V.42-#?, pp. 797-823.

 

-C.K. Harley (1986). “Late Nineteenth Century Transportation, Trade and Settlement”. in W. Fischer, R.M. McInnis, and J. Schneider eds. The Emergence of a World Economy, 1500-1914. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, pp. 593-617.

 

-G. Wright (1990). “The Origins of American Industrial Success, 1879-1940". AER; V.80-#4, pp. 651-668.

 

(c) Canada

 

-G. Bertram (1963). “Economic Growth in Canadian Industry, 1870-1915: The Staple Model and the Take-Off Hypothesis”. CJEPS; V.29-#?, pp. 159-184.

 

-E. Chambers and D. Gordon (1966). “Primary Products and Economic Growth: An Empirical Measurement”. JPE; V.74-#4, pp. 315-332. [comment and response, V.75: 876-885]

 

-R. Caves (1971). “Export-Led Growth and the New Economic History”. in J. Bhagwati, et al. eds. Trade, Balance of Payments, and Growth. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp.

 

-G. Bertram (1973). “The Relevance of the Wheat Boom in Canadian Economic Growth”. CJE; V.6-#?, pp. 545-566.

 

-D. Grant (1974). “The Staple Theory and Its Empirical Measurement”. JPE; V.82-#6, pp.

 

-F. Lewis (1975). “The Canadian Wheat Boom and per capita Income: New Estimates”. JPE; V.83-#?, pp. 1249-1257.

 

-R. Ankli (1980). “The Growth of the Canadian Economy, 1896-1920". Explorations in Economic History; V.17-#3, pp. 251-274.

 

-T. Dick (1980). “Canadian Wheat Production and Trade 1896-1930". Explorations in Economic History; V.17-#3, pp. 275-302.

 

(d) Other

 

-M.B. McAlpin (1980). “The Impact of Trade on Agricultural Development: Bombay Presidency, 1855-1920". Explorations in Economic History; V.17-#1, pp. 26-47.

 

-M. Olson and C. Harris (1959). “Free Trade in ‘Corn’: A Statistical Study of the Prices and Production of Wheat in Great Britain from 1873-1914". QJE; V.73-#1, pp. 145-168.

 

-M. Olson (1974). “The United Kingdom and the World Market in Wheat and Other Primary Products, 1885-1914". Explorations in Economic History; V.11-#?, pp. 325-335.

 

-F. Crouzet (1980). “Toward an Export Economy: British Exports during the Industrial Revolution”. Explorations in Economic History; V.17-#1, pp. 48-93.

 

-D. McCloskey (1980). “Magnanimous Albion: Free Trade and British National Income, 1841-1881". Explorations in Economic History; V.17-#3, pp. 303-320.

 

(2) Export-Led Growth in the 20th Century

 

(a) Modern Theory of Export-Led Growth

 

-R. Nurkse (1961). Equilibrium Growth in the World Economy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

 

-D. Keesing (1967). “Outward Looking Policies and Economic Development”. EJ; V.77-#306, pp. 303-320.

 

-C. Diaz-Alejandro (1975). “Trade Policies and Economic Development”. in R. Stern, ed. International Trade and Finance: Frontiers for Research. Cambridge: CUP,pp. 93-150.

 

-J. Bhagwati and T.N. Srinivasan (1978). “Trade Policy and Development”. in R. Dornbusch and J. Frenkel, eds. International Economic Policy: Theory and Evidence. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, pp. 1-38.

 

-P. Streeten (1982). “A Cool Look at 'Outward-Looking' Strategies for Development”. World Economy; V.5-#2, pp. 159-169.

 

-B. Balassa (1983). “Outward vs. Inward Orientation Once Again”. World Economy; V.6-#2, pp. 215-218.

 

-H. Singer (1988). “The World Development Report, 1987 on the Blessings of 'Outward Orientation': A Necessary Correction”. Journal of Development Studies; V.24-#2, pp. 232-236.

 

-J. Bhagwati (1988). “Export-Promoting Trade Strategy: Issues and Evidence”. WBER; V.3-#1, pp. 27-57.

 

-A. Krueger (1988). “The Relationship between Trade, Employment, and Development”. in G. Ranis and T.P. Schultz, eds. The State of Development Economics. New York: Blackwell, pp. 357-385.

 

-D. Evans (1989). Comparative Advantage and Growth: Trade and Development in Theory and Practice. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester-Wheatsheaf.

 

-J. Riedel (1990). “The State of the Debate on Trade and Industrialisation in Developing Countries”. in C. Pearson and J. Riedel, eds. The Direction of Trade Policy. Oxford: Blackwell.

 

-C. Colclough (1991). “Structuralism versus Neo-liberalism: An Introduction”. in C. Colclough and J. Manor, eds. States or Markets: Neo-liberalism and the Development Policy Debate. Oxford: OUP/IDS, pp. 1-25.

 

-D. Evans (1991). “Visible and Invisible Hands in Trade Policy Reform”. in C. Colclough and J. Manor, eds. States or Markets: Neo-liberalism and the Development Policy Debate. Oxford: OUP/IDS, pp. 48-77.

 

-P. Collier and J.W. Gunning (1994). “Trade and Development: Protection, Shocks and Liberalization”. in D. Greenaway and L.A. Winters, eds. Surveys in International Trade. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 206-233.

 

(b) Post-War European Export Performance and Growth

 

-W. Beckerman (1962). “Projecting Europe’s Growth”. EJ; V.72-#?, pp. 912-925.

 

-B. Balassa (1963). “Some Observations on Mr. Beckerman’s ‘Export-Propelled’ Growth Model”. EJ; V.73-#?, pp. 781-785. [Response by Beckerman, pp. 785-787; V.74: 240-242; V.75: 738-742]

 

-W. Beckerman (1966). “The Determinants of Economic Growth”. in P. Henderson, ed. Economic Growth in Britain. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, pp. 55-83.

 

-J. Cornwall (1968). “Postwar Growth in Western Europe: A Re-Evaluation”. REStat; V.50-#?, pp. 361-368.

 

-R. Caves (1970). “Export-Led Growth: The Post-War Industrial Setting”. in W. Eltis, M.F.G. Scott and J. Wolfe, eds. Induction, Growth and Trade. Oxford: OUP, pp. 234-254.

 

-R. Lubitz (1973). “Export-Led Growth in the Industrial Economies”. KYKLOS; V.26-#?, pp. 307-320.

 

(c) On LDC’s Export Performance and Growth

 

-I. Kravis (1970). “Trade as a Handmaiden of Growth: Similarities Between the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries”, EJ, V.80-#320, pp. 850-873.

 

-I. Kravis (1970). “External Demand and Internal Supply Factors in LDC Export Performance”. Banca del Lavoro Quarterly Review; #93, pp.

 

-N. Crafts (1973). “Trade as a Handmaiden of Growth: An Alternative View”. EJ; V.83-#?, pp. 875-884.

 

-W.A. Lewis (1980). “The Slowing Down of the Engine of Growth”. AER; V.70-#4, pp. 555-564.

 

-H. Hughes and J. Waelbroeck (1981). “Can Developing Country Exports Keep Growing in the 1980's?” World Economy; V.4-#2, pp. 127-149.

 

-O. Havrylyshyn and J. Riedel (1982). “Is There Cause for Export Optimism? An Inquiry into the Existence of a Second Generation of Successful Exporters”. WA; V.118-#4, pp. 650-662.

 

-J. Riedel (1984). “Trade as an Engine of Growth, Revisited”. EJ; V.94-#?, pp. 56-73.

 

-S. Gutiérrez de Piñeres and M. Ferrantino (1997). “Export Diversification and Structural Dynamics in the Growth Process”. JDevE; V.52-#?, pp. 375-391.

 

b. Cross-Section Analysis

 

(1) Bivariate regression analysis

 

-K. Deutsch, C. Bliss and A. Eckstein (1962). “Population, Sovereignty, and the Share of Foreign Trade”. EDCC; V.10-#?, pp. 353-366.

 

-R. Emery (1967). “The Relation of Exports and Economic Growth”. KYKLOS; V.20-#?, pp. 470-486.

 

-A. Severn (1968). “Exports and Economic Growth: Comment”. KYKLOS; V.21-#3, pp. 546-548.

 

-R. Syron and B. Walsh (1968). “The Relations of Exports and Economic Growth: A Note”. KYKLOS; V.21-#3, pp. 541-545.

 

-M. Michaely (1977). “Exports and Growth: An Empirical Investigation”. JDevE; V.4-#1, pp. 49-53.

 

-P. Heller and R. Porter (1978). “Exports and Growth: An Empirical Reinvestigation”. JDevE; V.5-#2, 191-193.

 

-J. Poon (1994). “Effects of World Demand and Competitiveness on Exports and Economic Growth”. Growth and Change; V.25-#?, pp. 3-24.

 

-R. Sundrum (1994). “Exports and Economic Growth”. in G. Meier, ed. From Classical Economics to Development Economics. New York: St. Martins, pp. 104-120.

 

-J. Frankel and D. Romer (1999). “Does Trade Cause Growth?”. AER; V.89-#3, pp. 379-399.

 

(2) One-Sector Production Function Analysis

 

-C. Michalopoulos and K. Jay (1973). “Growth of Exports and Income in the Developing World: A Neoclassical View”. USAID Discussion Paper, #28.

 

-B. Balassa (1978). “Exports and Economic Growth: Further Evidence”. JDevE; V.5-#2, pp. 181-189.

 

-W. Tyler (1981). “Growth and Export Expansion in Developing Countries”. JDevE; V.9-#3, pp. 121-130.

 

-R. Ram (1985). “Exports and Economic Growth: Some Additional Evidence”. EDCC; V.33-#2, pp. 415-425.

 

-D. Moschos (1989). “Export Expansion, Growth and Level of Economic Development”. JDevE; V.30-#1, pp. 93-102.

 

-A. Fosu (1990). “Exports and Economic Growth: The African Case”. World Development; V.18-#6, pp. 831-835.

 

(3) Two-Sector Production Function Analysis

 

-G. Feder (1982). “On Exports and Economic Growth”. JDevE; V.12-#?, pp. 59-73.

 

-R. Kavoussi (1984). “Export Expansion and Economic Growth: Further Empirical Evidence”. JDevE; V.14-#1/2, pp. 241-250.

 

-H. Esfahani (1991). “Exports, Imports and Economic Growth in Semi-Industrialized Economies”. JDevE; V.35-#1, pp. 93-116.

 

-E.J. Sheehey (1991). “Exports and Growth: A Flawed Framework”. JDevtStud; V.27-#1, pp. 111-116.

 

c. Time Series Analysis

 

-K. Deutsch and A. Eckstein (1961). “National Industrialization and the Decline of the International Economic Sector, 1890-1957". World Politics; V.13-#2, pp. 267-299.

 

-R. Cooper (1964). “Growth and Trade: Some Long-term Trends”. Journal of Economic History; V.24-#?, pp. 609-628.

 

-S. Kuznets (1967). “Quantitative Aspects of the Economic Growth of Nations, X: Level and Structure of Foreign Trade: Long Term Trends”. EDCC; V.15-#2, part II, pp. 1-140.

 

(1) LDCs

 

(a) Traditional Time Series Analysis

 

-A. Maizels (1968). Exports and Economic Growth of Developing Countries. Cambridge: CUP.

 

-O. Fajana (1979). “Trade and Growth: The Nigerian Experience”. World Development; V.7-#?, pp. 1-13.

 

-J. Love (1984). “External Market Conditions, Competitiveness, Diversification and LDC Exports”. JDevE; V.16-#?, pp. 279-291.

 

-R. Ram (1987). “Exports and Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Evidence from Time-Series and Cross-Section Data”. EDCC; V.36-#1, pp. 51-72.

 

-A. Levin and L. Raut (1997). “Complementarities between Exports and Human Capital in Economic Growth: Evidence from the Semi-industrialized Countries”. EDCC; V.46-#1, pp. 155-174.

 

(b) Causality Testing

 

-W.S. Jung and P.J. Marshall (1985). “Exports, Growth and Causality in Developing Countries”. JDevE; V.18-#2, pp. 1-12.

 

-P. Chow (1987). “Causality Between Exports, Growth and Industrial Development: Empirical Evidence from the NICs”. JDevE; V.26-#1, pp. 55-63. [comment by P. Sephton and response, 1989, V.31-#2, pp. pp. 413-417.

 

-M.W. Hsiao (1987). “Tests of Causality and Exogeneity between Exports and Economic Growth: The Case of the Asian NICs”. Journal of Economic Development; V.12-#2, pp. 143-159.

 

-A. Darrat (1986). “Trade and Development: The Asian Experience”. Cato Journal; V.6-#2, pp. 695-699.

 

-A. Darrat (1987). “Are Exports an Engine of Growth? Another Look at the Evidence”. Applied Economics; V.19-#2, pp. 277-283.

 

-S. Ni, B. Biswas and G. Tribedy (1990). “Causality between Exports and Economic Growth: An Empirical Study”. JEconDevt; V.15-#1, pp. 47-61.

 

-A. Kwan and J. Cotsomitis (1991). “Economic Growth and the Expanding Export Sector: China 1952-1985". International Economic Journal; V.5-#1, pp. 105-116.

 

-J. Ahmad and A. Kwan (1991). “Causality between Exports and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Africa”. EcLets; V.37-#3, pp. 243-248.

 

-M. Bahmani-Oskooee, H. Montandi, and G. Shabsigh (1991). “Exports, Growth and Causality in LDCs: A Re-examination”. JDevE; V.36-#2, pp. 405-415.

 

-E. Ghartey (1993). “Causal Relationship between Exports and Economic Growth: Some Empirical Evidence in Taiwan, Japan and the US”. Applied Economics; V.25-#9, pp. 1145-1152.

 

-S. Dodaro (1993). “Exports and Growth: A Reconsideration of Causality”. Journal of Developing Areas; V.27-#2, pp. 227-244.

 

-A. Khan and N. Saqib (1993). “Exports and Economic Growth: The Pakistan Experience”. International Economic Journal; V.7-#3, pp. 53-64.

 

-M. Hutchinson and N. Singh (1994). “Exports, Non-Exports, and Externalities: A Granger Causality Approach”. International Economic Journal; V.6-#2, pp. 79-94.

 

-V. Ukpolo (1994). “Export Composition and Growth of Selected Low-income African Countries: Evidence from Time Series Data”. Applied Economics; V.26-#5, pp. 445-449.

 

-J. Love (1994). “Engines of Growth: the Export and Government Sectors”. World Economy; V.17-#2, pp. 203-218.

 

-R. Riezman, C. Whiteman, and P. Summers (1996). “The Engine of Growth or its Handmaiden? A Time Series Assessment of Export-Led Growth”. Empirical Economics; V.21-#1, pp. 77-110.

 

-T. Sinha and D. Sinha (1996). “An Empirical Investigation into the Relationship between Openness and Economic Growth: Evidence from Asia”. Rivista Internazinale di Scienze Economiche e Comerciali; V.43-#2, pp. 359-370.

 

-A. Pereira and Z. Xu (2000). “Export Growth and Domestic Performance”. RIE; V.8-#1, pp. 60-73.

 

(c) Unit Roots, Cointegration, and Causality

 

-M. Bahmani-Oskooee and J. Alse (1993). “Export Growth and Economic Growth: An Application of Cointegration and Error-Correction Modeling”. Journal of Developing Areas; V.27-#4, pp. 535-542.

 

-D. Giles, J. Giles and E. McCann (1993). “Causality, Unit Roots and Export-led Growth: The New Zealand Experience”. Journal of International Trade and Economic Development; V.1-#1, pp. 195-218.

 

-P. Kugler and J. Dridi (1993). “Growth and Exports in LDCs: A Multivariate Time Series Study”. Rivista Internazinale di Scienze Economiche e Comerciali; V.40-#9, pp. 759-767.

 

-J. Sengupta and J. Espana (1994). “Exports and Economic Growth in Asian NICs: An Econometric Analysis for Korea”. Applied Economics; V.26-#1, pp. 41-51.

 

-H. van den Berg and J. Schmidt (1994). “Foreign Trade and Economic Growth: Time Series Evidence from Latin America”. Journal of International Trade and Economic Development; V.3-#3, pp. 249-268.

 

-S. Dutt and D. Ghosh (1994). “An Empirical Investigation of the Export Growth-Economic Growth Relationship”. Applied Economics Letters; V.1-#3, pp. 44-48.

 

-V. Muscatelli, T. Srinivasan, and D. Vines (1994). “The Empirical Modelling of NIE Exports: An Evaluation of Different Approaches”. Journal of Development Studies; V.30-#2, pp. 279-302.

 

-J. Ahmad and S. Harnhirun (1995). “Unit Root and Cointegration in Estimating Causality between Exports and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from the ASEAN Countries”. EcLets; V.49-#?, pp. 329-334.

 

-Z. Xu (1996). “On the Causality between Export Growth and GDP Growth: An Empirical Reinvestigation”. RIE; V.4-#2, pp. 172-184.

 

-J. Thornton (1996). “Cointegration, Causality and Export-led Growth in Mexico, 1895-1992". EcLets; V.50-#?, pp. 413-416.

 

-S. Ghatak and U. Utkulu (1996). “Trade Liberalisation and Endogenous Growth: The Experience of Some Asian Countries”. in V. Balasubramanyam and D. Greenaway, eds. Trade and Development. London: Macmillan, pp. 81-116.

 

-S. Ghatak, C. Milner, and U. Utkulu (1995). “Trade Liberalisation and Endogenous Growth: Some Evidence for Turkey”. Economics of Planning, V.28-#2/3, pp. 147-167.

 

-S. Ghatak, C. Milner, and U. Utkulu (1997). “Exports, Export Composition and Economic Growth: Cointegration and Causality Evidence for Malaysia”. Applied Economics; V.29-#2, pp. 213-223.

 

-S. Ghatak and S.W. Price (1997). “Export Composition and Economic Growth: Cointegration and Causality Evidence for India”. WA; V.133-#3, pp. 538-553.

 

-J. Ahmad, S. Harnhirun and J. Yang (1997). “Exports and Economic Growth in the ASEAN Countries: Cointegration and Causality Tests”. Rivista Internazinale di Scienze Economiche e Comerciali; V.44-#2, pp. 419-430.

 

-Z. Xu (1998). “Export and Income Growth in Japan and Taiwan”. RIE; V.6-#2, pp. 220-233.

 

-M. Islam (1998). “Export Expansion and Economic Growth: Testing for Cointegration and Causality”. Applied Economics; V.30-#?, pp. 415-425.

 

-D. Ben-David and D. Papell (1997). “International Trade and Structural Change”. JIE; V.43-#3/4, pp. 513-512.

 

-K. Krishna, A. Ozyildirim, and N. Swanson (1998). “Trade, Investment and Growth: Nexus, Analysis, and Prognosis”. NBER Working Paper, #6861.

 

-J. Ahmad (2001). “Causality Between Exports and Economic Growth: What do the Econometric Studies Tell Us?”. Pacific Economic Review; V.6-#1, pp. 147-167.

 

(2) Industrial Countries

 

-R. Kunst and D. Marin (1989). “On Exports and Productivity: A Causal Analysis”. REStat; V.71-#?, pp. 699-703.

 

-P. Kugler (1991). “Growth, Exports and Cointegration: An Empirical Investigation”. WA; V.127-#2, pp. 73-81.

 

-P. Afxentiou and A. Serelitis (1991). “Exports and GNP Causality in the Industrial Countries”. KYKLOS; V.44-#2, pp. 167-179.

 

-D. Marin (1992). “Is the Export-led Growth Hypothesis Valid for Industrialized Countries?”. REStat; V.74-#?, pp. 678-688.

 

-H. Yamada (1998). “A Note on the Causality between Export and Productivity: An Empirical Reexamination”. Economics Letters; 61-#?, pp. 111-114.

 

-A. Serelitis (1992). “Export Growth and Canadian Economic Development”. JDevE; V.38-#1, pp. 133-145.

 

-I. Henriques and P. Sadorsky (1996). “Export-led Growth or Growth-driven Exports? The Canadian Case”. CJE; V.29-#3, pp. 540-555.

 

-P. Bodman (1996). “On Export-led Growth in Australia and Canada: Cointegration, Causality and Structural Stability”. Australian Economic Papers; V.35-#?, pp. 282-299.

 

-T. Awokuse (2003). “Is the Export-led Growth Hypothesis Valid for Canada?”. Canadian Journal of Economics; V.36-#1, pp. 126-136.

 

-D. Coe and R. Moghadam (1993). “Capital and Trade as Engines of Growth in France: An Application of Johansen’s Cointegration Methodology”. IMFSP; V.40-#3, pp. 542-566.

 

-L. Oxley (1993). “Cointegration, Causality and Export-led Growth in Portugal, 1865-1985". EcLets; V.43-#?, pp. 163-166.

 

-F.H. Ribero Ramos (2001). “Exports, Imports and Economic Growth in Portugal: Evidence from Causality and Cointegration Analysis”. Economic Modelling; V.8-#?, pp. 613-623.

 

-E. Ghartey (1993). “Causal Relationship Between Exports and Economic Growth: Some Empirical Evidence in Taiwan, Japan, and the US”. Applied Economics; V.25-#?, pp. 1145-1152.

 

-A. Boltho (1996). “Was Japanese Growth Export-Led?”. Oxford Economic Papers; V.48-#3, pp. 415-432.

 

-Abdulnasser Hatemi-J (2002). “Export Performance and Economic Growth Nexus in Japan: A Bootstrap Approach”. Japan and The World Economy; V.14-#1, pp. 25-33.

 

-H. S. Atesoglu and J. Vilasuso (1999). “A Band Spectral Analysis of Exports and Economic Growth in the United States”. RIE; V.7-#1, pp. 140-152.

 

-J. Thornton (1997). “Exports and Economic Growth: Evidence from 19th Century Europe”. EcLets; V.55-#?, pp. 235-240.

 

4. Trade Strategies and Macroeconomic Performance

 

a. Issues in Trade Regime Analysis

 

-D. Lal and S. Rajapatirana (1987). “Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Development”. WBER; V.2-#2, pp. 189-217.

 

-C. Milner (1988). “Trade Strategies and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence”. in D. Greenaway, ed. Economic Development and International Trade. London: Macmillan, pp. 55-76.

 

-O. Havrylyshyn (1990). “Trade Policy and Productivity Gains in Developing Countries: A Survey of the Literature”. World Bank Research Observer; V.5-#1, pp. 1-24.

 

-G. Helleiner (1990). “Trade Strategy in Medium Term Adjustment”. World Development; V.18-#6, pp. 879-897.

 

-S. Edwards (1994). “Openness, Trade Liberalization, and Growth in Developing Countries”. JEL; V.31-#3, pp. 1358-1393.

 

-V. Thomas and J. Nash (1991). “Reform of Trade Policy: Recent Evidence from Theory and Practice”. World Bank Research Observer; V.6-#2, pp. 219-240.

 

-V. Thomas, J. Nash, and Associates (1991). Best Practices in Trade Reform. New York: Oxford.

 

b. Multicountry Studies of Trade Orientation and Economic Performance

 

(1) Institutional Comparative Studies

 

-I. Little, T. Scitovsky and M. Scott (1970). Industry and Trade in Some Developing Countries: A Comparative Study. Oxford: Oxford University Press\OECD.

 

-J. Donges (1976). “A Comparative Survey of Industrialization Policies in Fifteen Semi-Industrial Countries”. WA; V.112-#4, pp. 626-657.

 

-J. Donges and J. Riedel (1977). “The Expansion of Manufactured Exports in Developing Countries: An Empirical Assessment of Supply and Demand Issues”. WA; V.113-#1, pp. 58-85.

 

-R. Blackhurst, N. Marian and J. Tumlir (1977). Trade Liberalization, Protectionism and Interdependence. Geneva: GATT.

 

-R. Blackhurst, N. Marian and J. Tumlir (1978). Adjustment, Growth and Trade in Developed and Developing Countries. Geneva: GATT.

 

-A. Krueger (1978). Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Development: Liberalization Attempts and Consequences. New York: Columbia University Press/NBER.

 

-J. Bhagwati (1978). Anatomy and Consequences of Exchange Control Regimes. New York: Columbia University Press/NBER.

 

-H. Chenery (1980). “Interactions between Industrialization and Exports”. AER; V.70-#2, pp. 281-287.

 

-B. Balassa (1978). “Export Incentives and Economic Performance in Developing Countries: A Comparative Analsis”. WA; V.114-#1, pp. 24-60.

 

-B. Balassa (1980). “The Process of Industrial Development and Alternative Development Strategies”, Princeton Essays in International Finance, #141.

 

-B. Balassa, et al. (1982). Development Strategies in Semi-Industrial Economies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

 

-Y. Kubo, J. deMelo and S. Robinson (1986). “Trade Strategies and Growth Episodes”. in H. Chenery, S. Robinson, and M. Syrquin Industrialization and Growth: A Comparative Study. New York: Oxford University Press/World Bank, pp. 148-187.

 

-A. Choksi, M. Michaely and D. Papageorgiou (1991). Liberalizing Foreign Trade: Lessons of Experience in the Developing World. Oxford: Blackwell.

 

-P. Collier (1993). “Higgledy-Piggledy Liberalisation”. World Economy; V.16-#?, pp. 503-512.

 

-D. Greenaway (1993). “Liberalising Foreign Trade Through Rose Tinted Glasses”. EJ; V.103-#?, pp. 208-223.

 

-S. Rajapatirana (1996). “Trade Policies, Macroeconomic Adjustment, and Manufactured Exports: The Latin American Experience”. WA; V.132-#3, pp. 558-585.

 

-A. Taylor (1996). “On the Costs of Inward-Looking Development: Historical Perspectives on Price Distortions, Growth, and Divergence in Latin America from the 1930s to the 1980s”. NBER Working Paper, #5432.

 

-A. Krueger (1998). “Why Trade Liberalisation is Good for Growth”. EJ; V.108-#450, pp. 1513-1522.

 

-J.A. Ocampo and L. Taylor (1998). “Trade Liberalisation in Developing Economies: Modest Benefits but Problems with Productivity Growth, Macro Policies, and Income Distribution”. EJ; V.108-#450, pp. 1523-1546.

 

(2) Econometric Studies

 

-B. Balassa (1985). “Exports, Policy Choices and Economic Growth in Developing Countries After the 1973 Oil Shock”. JDevE; V.18-#?, pp. 23-35. [Comment by P. Rana, 1988, V.28-#2, pp. 261-264]

 

-R. Kavoussi (1985). “International Trade and Economic Development: The Recent Experience of Developing Countries”. Journal of Developing Areas; V.19-#?, pp. 379-392.

 

-H. Singer and H.P. Gray (1988). “Trade Policy and Growth of Developing Countries: Some New Data”. World Development; V.16-#3, pp. 395-403.

 

-G. Helleiner (1986). “Outward Orientation, Import Instability and African Economic Growth”. in S. Lall and F. Stewart, eds. Theory and Reality in Economic Development. London: Macmillan, pp. 139-153.

 

-B. Heitger (1987). “Import Protection and Export Performance: Their Impact on Economic Growth”. WA; V.123-#2, pp. 249-261.

 

-I. Kohli and N. Singh (1989). “Exports and Growth: Critical Minimum Effort and Diminishing Returns”. JDevE, V.30-#2, pp. 391-400.

 

-D. Salvatore and T. Hatcher (1991). “Inward and Outward Oriented Trade Strategies”. Journal of Development Studies; V.27-#3, pp. 7-25.

 

-D. Greenaway and C. Nam (1991). “Industrialisation and Macroeconomic Performance in the Developing Countries under Alternative Liberalisation Scenarios”. KYKLOS; V.41-#3, pp. 419-435.

 

-D. Dollar (1992). “Outward-Oriented Developing Countries Really Do Grow More Rapidly: Evidence from 95 LDCs, 1976-1985”. EDCC; V.40-#3, pp. 523-544.

 

-R. Falvey and N. Gemmell (1999). “Factor Endowments, Nontradables Prices and Measures of ‘Openness’”. Journal of Development Economics; V.58-#?, pp. 101-122.

 

-S. Edwards (1992). “Trade Orientation, Distortions and Growth in Developing Countries”. JDevE, V.39-#1, pp. 31-57.

 

-S. Edwards (1993). “Openness, Trade Liberalization, and Growth in Developing Countries”. JEL; V.31-#3, pp. 1358-1393.

 

-H. Wolf (1993). “Trade Orientation: Measurement and Consequences”. Estudios de Economía; V.20-#3, pp. 51-86.

 

-J.-W. Lee (1993). “International Trade, Distortions, and Long-Run Economic Growth”. IMFSP; V.40-#2, pp. 299-321.

 

-D. Greenaway and D. Sapsford (1994). “Exports, Growth and Liberalization: An Evaluation”. Journal of Policy Modelling; V.16-#2, pp. 165-186.

 

-D. Greenaway and D. Sapsford (1994). “What Does Liberalization Do for Exports and Growth”. WA; V.130-#1, pp. 152-173.

 

-J. Sachs and A. Warner (1995). “Economic Reform and the Process of Global Integration”. BPEA; #1 (25th Anniversary Issue), pp. 1-118.

 

-A. Harrison (1996). “Openness and Growth: A Time-Series, Cross-Country Analysis for Developing Countries”. JDevE; V.48-#2, pp. 419-447.

 

-Z. Eusufzai (1996). “Openness, Economic Growth and Development: Some Further Results”. EDCC; V.44-#2, pp. 333-350.

 

-P. Klenow and A. Rodriguez-Clare (1997). “The Neoclassical Revival in Growth Economics: Has It Gone Too Far”. in B. Bernanke and J. Rotemberg, eds. NBER Macroeconomics Annual, 1997. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 73-103.

 

-S. Edwards (1997). “Trade Policy, Growth, and Income Distribution”. AER; V.87-#2, pp. 205-210.

 

-D. Ben-David and A. Bohara (1997). “Evidence on the Contribution of Trade Reform Towards International Income Equalization”. RIE; V.5-#2, pp. 246-255.

 

-W. Easterly, N. Loayza, and P. Montiel (1997). “Has Latin America’s Post-reform Growth Been Disappointing”. JIE; V.43-#3/4, pp. 287-311.

 

-D. Greenaway, S. Leybourne, and D. Sapsford (1997). “Modeling Growth (and Liberalization) Using Smooth Transitions Analysis”. Economic Inquiry; V.35-#4, pp. 798-814.

 

-D. Greenaway, W. Morgan, and P. Wright (1997). “Trade Liberalization and Growth in Developing Countries: Some New Evidence”. World Development; V.25-#11, pp. 1885-1892.

 

-D. Greenaway, W. Morgan, and P. Wright (1998). “Trade Reform, Adjustment and Growth: What Does the Evidence Tell Us?”. EJ; V.108-#450, pp. 1547-1561.

 

-S. Edwards (1998). “Openness, Productivity and Growth: What Do We Really Know?”. EJ; V.108-#447, pp. 383-398.

 

-J. Proudman and S. Redding, eds. (1998). Openness and Growth. London: Bank of England.

 

-A. Harrison and G. Hanson (1999). “Who Gains from Trade Reform? Some Remaining Puzzles”. Journal of Development Economics; V.59-#1, pp. 125-154.

 

-D. Weinhold and J. Rauch (1999). “Openness, Specialization, and Productivity Growth in Less Developed Countries”. Canadian Journal of Economics, V.32-#4, pp. 1009-1027.

 

-M. Bleaney (1999). “Trade Reform, Macroeconomic Performance and Export Growth in Ten Latin American Countries, 1979-95”. Journal of International Trade and Economic Development; V.8-#1, pp. 89-105.

 

-S. Miller and M. Upadhyay (2000). “The Effects of Openness, Trade Orientation, and Human Capital on Total Factor Productivity”. Journal of Development Economics; V.63-#?, pp. 399-423.

 

-F. Rodríguez and D. Rodrik (2001). “Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Skeptic’s Guide to the Cross-National Evidence”. NBER Macroeconomics Annual–2001. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 261-325.

 

-J. Bhagwati and T.N. Srinivasan (2001). “Outward-Orientation and Development: Are Revisionists Right?”. in Deepak K. Lal and Richard Snape, eds. Trade, Development, and Political Economy: Essays in Honour of Anne Krueger. London, Palgrave. pp. 3-26.

 

-G. Jonsson and A. Subramanian (2001). “Dynamic Gains from Trade: Evidence from South Africa”. IMF Staff Papers; V.48-#1, pp. 197-224.

 

-Romain Wacziarg (2001). “Measuring the Dynamic Gains from Trade”. WBER; V.15-#3, pp. 393-429

 

-D. Greenaway, W. Morgan, and P. Wright (2002). “Trade Liberalisation and Growth in Developing Countries”. Journal of Development Economics; V.67-#1, pp. 229-244.

 

-N. Benjamin and M. Ferrantino (2001). “Trade Policy and Productivity Growth in OECD Manufacturing”. International Economic Journal; V.15-#4, pp. 95-115.

 

-H. Yannikkaya (2003). “Trade Openness and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Investigation”. Journal of Development Economics; V.72-#1, pp. 57-89.

 

-J.D. Richardson and P. Smith (1995). “Sectoral Growth Across US States: Factor Content, Linkages, and Trade”. NBER Working Paper, #5094.

 

-A. Harrison and A. Revenga (1995). “The Effects of Trade Policy Reform: What Do We Really Know”. NBER Working Paper, #5225.

 

-R. Baldwin and E. Seghezza (1996). “Testing for Trade-Induced Investment-Led Growth”. NBER Working Paper # 5416.

 

-R. Baldwin and F. Sbergami (2001). “Non-Linearity in Openness and Growth Links: Theory and Evidence”.

 

-I. Adelman (1984). “Beyond Export-Led Growth”. World Development; V.12-#9, pp. 937-949.

 

-M. Nishimizu and S. Robinson (1984). “Trade Policies and Productivity Change in Semi-Industrialized Countries”. JDevE; V.16-#?, pp 177-206.

 

-D. Rodrik (1988). “Import Competition, Scale Economies and Trade Policy in Developing Countries”. in R. Baldwin, ed. Trade Policy Issues and Emprical Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press/NBER,

 

-J. DeMelo and A. Sapir, eds. (1990). Trade Theory and Economic Reform: North, South and East. Oxford: Blackwell.

 

c. Government Intervention, Trade and the East Asian Miracle

 

(1) General Analysis

 

-W. Cline (1982). “Can the East Asian Export Model of Development be Generalized”. World Development; V.10-#2, pp. 81-90.

 

-G. Ranis (1985). “Can the East Asian Model of Development be Generalized?”. World Development; V.13-#4, pp. 543-545.

 

-R. Findlay (1984). “Trade and Development: Theory and Asian Experience”. Asian Development Review; V.2-#2, pp. 23-42.

 

-A. Krueger (1985). “The Experience and Lessons of Asia’s Super Exporters”. in V. Corbo, A. Krueger, and F. Ossa, eds. Export Oriented Development Strategies: The Success of Five Newly Industrialized Countries. Boulder: Westview, pp. 187-212.

 

-J. DeMelo (1985). “Sources of Growth and Structural Change in the Republics of Korea and Taiwan: Some Comparisons”. in V. Corbo, A. Krueger, and F. Ossa, eds. Export Oriented Development Strategies: The Success of Five Newly Industrialized Countries. Boulder: Westview, pp. 213-248.

 

-A. Krueger (1990). “Asian Trade and Growth Lessons”. AER; V.80-#2, pp. 108-112.

 

-L. Lau (1990). Models of Development: A Comparative Study of Economic Growth in South Korea and Taiwan. San Francisco: ICS Press.

 

-A. Amsden (1991). “Diffusion of Development: The Late Industrializing Model and Greater East Asia”. AER; V.81-#2, pp.282-286.

 

-R. Wade (1992). “East Asia’s Economic Success: Conflicting Perspectives, Partial Insights, Shaky Evidence”. WP; V.44-#2, pp. 270-320.

 

-R. Wade (1993). “Managing Trade: Taiwan and South Korea as Challenges to Economics and Political Science”. Comparative Politics; V.25-#?, pp. 47-67.

 

-World Bank (1993). The East Asian Miracle: Economic Growth and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

 

-World Development (1994). “Symposium on The East Asian Miracle”. World Development; V.22-#4, pp. 615-670. [papers by: Amsden, Kwon, Page, Perkins, and Yanaghira]

 

-D. Rodrik (1994). “King Kong meets Godzilla: The World Bank and The East Asian Miracle”. in A. Fishlow, et al. Miracle or Design?: Lessons from the East Asian Experience. New York: Overseas Development Council, pp. 13-53.

 

-R. Wade (1994). “Selective Industrial Policies in East Asia: Is The East Asian Miracle Right?”. in A. Fishlow, et al. Miracle or Design?: Lessons from the East Asian Experience. New York: Overseas Development Council, pp. 55-79.

 

-S. Haggard (1994). “Politics and Institutions in the World Bank’s East Asia”. in A. Fishlow, et al. Miracle or Design?: Lessons from the East Asian Experience. New York: Overseas Development Council, pp. 81-109.

 

-P. Krugman (1994). “The Myth of East Asia’s Miracle”. Foreign Affairs; V.73-#6, pp. 62-78.

 

-J. Page (1994). “The East Asian Miracle: Four Lessons for Development Policy”. NBER Macroeconomics Annual--1994. Cambridge: MIT/NBER, pp. 219-269.

 

-H. Pack and J. Page (1994). “Accumulation, Exports, and Growth in the High-Performing Asian Economies”. Carnegie-Rochester Series on Public Policy; #40, pp. 199-236.

 

-I.M.D. Little (1994). “Trade and Industrialisation Revisited”. Pakistan Development Reveiw; V.33-#4(Part 1), pp. 359-389.

 

-C. Bradford (1994). From Trade-Driven Growth to Growth-Driven Trade: Reappraising the East Asian Development Experience. Paris: OECD.

 

-J. Helliwell (1994). “International Gowth Linkages: Evidence from Asia and the OECD”. in T. Ito and A. Krueger, eds. Macroeconomic Linkage: Savings, Exchange Rates and Capital Flows. Chicago: University of Chicago Press/NBER, pp. 7-28.

 

-D. Rodrik (1995). “Getting Interventions Right: How South Korea and Taiwan Grew Rich”. Economic Policy; #20, pp. 55-107.

 

-D. Rodrik (1995). “Trade Strategy, Investment and Exports: Another Look at East Asia”. NBER Working Paper; #5339.

 

-A. Krueger (1995). “The Role of Trade in Growth and Development: Theory and Lessons from Experience”. in R. Garnaut, E. Grilli, and J. Riedel, eds. Sustaining Export-Oriented Development: Ideas from East Asia. New York: Cambridge, pp. 1-30.

 

-E. Grilli and J. Riedel (1995). “The East Asian Growth Model: How General Is It?”. in R. Garnaut, E. Grilli, and J. Riedel, eds. Sustaining Export-Oriented Development: Ideas from East Asia. New York: Cambridge, pp. 31-61.

 

-T. Ito and A. Krueger, eds. (1995). Growth Theories in the Light of the East Asian Experience. Chicago: University of Chicago Press/NBER.

 

-J. Stiglitz (1996). “Some Lessons from the East Asian Miracle”. WBRO; V.11-#2, pp. 151-177.

 

-V. Thomas and Y. Wang (1996). “Distortions, Interventions, and Productivity Growth: Is East Asia Different?”. EDCC; V.?-#?, pp. 265-288.

 

-M. Noland (1997). “Has Asian Export Performance Been Unique?”. JIE; V.43-#1/2, pp. 79-101.

 

-J. Helliwell (1996). “Economic Growth and Social Capital in Asia”. NBER Working Paper, #5470.

 

-J. Frankel, D. Romer and T. Cyrus (1996). “Trade and Growth in East Asian Countries: Cause and Effect?”. NBER Working Paper, # 5732.

 

-A. Young (1994). “Lessons from the East Asian NICs: A Contrarian View”. EER; V.38-#3/4, pp. 964-973.

 

(2) The Korean Case

 

-C. Frank, K. Kim and L Westphal (1975). Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Development: South Korea. New York: Columbia University Press.

 

-A. Krueger (1980). The Development of the Foreign Sector and Aid. Cambridge: Harvard.

 

-E. Mason and others (1980). The Economic and Social Modernization of the Republic of Korea. Cambridge: Harvard.

 

Y. Lim (1981). Government Policy and Private Enterprise: Korean Experience with Industrialization. Berkeley: Instiute of East Asian Studies.

 

-L. Jones and I. Sakong (1980). Government, Business and Entrepreneurship in Economic Development: The Korean Case. Cambridge: Harvard.

 

-Y.W. Rhee, B. Ross-Larson, and G. Pursell (1984). Korea’s Competitive Edge. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins/World Bank.

 

-R. Dornbusch and Y. Park (1987). “Korean Growth Policy”. BPEA; #2, pp. 389-444.

 

-K.S. Kim (1988). Economic Effects of Import Liberalization and Industry Adjustment Policies. Seoul: KDI.

 

-D. Dollar and K. Sokoloff (1990). “Patterns of Productivity Growth in South Korean Manufacturing Industries”. JDevE; V.33-#?, pp. 309-327.

 

-A. Amsden (1990). Asia’s Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

-S.G. Young (1992). “Import Liberalization and Industrial Adjustment in Korea”. in V. Corbo and S. Suh, eds. Structural Adjustment in a Newly Industrialized Country: The Korean Experience. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press/World Bank, pp.

 

-J. Lee (1996). “Government Interventions and Productivity Growth in Korean Manufacturing Industries”. Journal of Economic Growth; V1-#3, pp. 391-414.

 

(3) The Taiwanese Case

 

-C. Lin (1973). Industrialization in Taiwan, 1946-1972: Trade and Import Substitution Policies for Developing Countries. New York: Praeger.

 

-S. Kuo (1980). The Taiwan Economy in Transition. Boulder: Westview.

 

-W.-W. Chu (1988). “Export-Led Growth and Import Dependence: the Case of Taiwan, 1969-1981". JDevE; V.28-#?, pp. 265-276.

 

-R. Wade (1990). Governing the Market: Economic Theory and the Role of Government in East Asian Industrialisation. Princeton: PUP.

 

5. Trade and Sectoral Competitiveness/Efficiency

 

-L. Esposito and F. Esposito (1971). “Foreign Competition and Domestic Industry Profitability”. REStat; V.53-#?, pp. 343-353.

 

-E. Pagoulatos and R. Sorensen (1976). “International Trade, International Investment and Industrial Profitability of US Manufacturing”. SEJ; V.42-#3, pp. 425-434.

 

-E. Pagoulatos and R. Sorenson (1976). “Foreign Trade, Concentration and Profitability in Open Economies”. EER; V.8-#?, pp. 255-267.

 

-R. Caves and J. Khalilzadeh-Shirazi (1977). “International Trade and Industrial Organization: Some Statistical Evidence”. in A. Jaquemin and H. deJong, eds. Welfare Aspects of Industrial Markets. Leiden: Martinius Nijhoff.

 

-T. Pugel (1980). “Foreign Trade and Market Performance”. Journal of Industrial Economics; V.29-#?, pp. 119-129.

 

-H. Marvel (1980). “Foreign Trade and Domestic Competition”. EcInq; V.18-#1, pp. 103-122.

 

-A. Jacquemin, E. de Ghellinck and C. Huveneers (1980). “Concentration and Profitability in a Small Open Economy”. Journal of Industrial Economics; V.28-#?, pp. 131-144.

 

-P. Geroski and A. Jacquemin (1981). “Imports as Competitive Discipline”. Recherches Economiques de Louvain; V.47-#?, pp. 197-208.

 

-D. DeRosa and M. Goldstein (1981). “Import Discipline in the US Manufacturing Sector”. IMFSP; V.28-#?, pp. 600-634.

 

-B. Lyons (1981). “Price-Cost Margins, Market Structure and International Trade”. In D. Currie, D. Peel and W. Peters, eds. Microeconomic Analysis. London: Croom Helm.

 

-G. Grossman (1982). “Import Competition from Developed and Developing Countries”. REStat; V.?-#?, pp. 271-281.

 

-S. Rhoades (1984). “Wages, Concentration, and Import Penetration: An Analysis of the Interrelationships”. Atlantic Economic Journal; V.12-#2, pp. 23-31.

 

-R. Caves (1985). “International Trade and Industrial Organization: Problems Solved and Unsolved”. EER; V.28-#?, pp. 377-395.

 

-M. Neumann, I. Bobel and A. Haid (1985). “Domestic Concentration, Foreign Trade and Economic Performance”. IJIO; V.3-#1, pp. 1-19.

 

-J. deMelo and S. Urata (1986). “The Influence of Increased Foreign Competition on Industrial Concentration and Profitability”. IJIO; V.4-#?, pp. 287-304.

 

-H. Yamawki (1986). “Exports, Foreign Market Structure, and Profitability in Japanese and US Manufacturing”. REStat; V.68-#?, pp. 618-627.

 

-E. deGhellinick, P. Geroski and A. Jacpuemin (1988). “Interindustry Variations in the Effect of Trade on Industry Performance”. Journal of Industrial Economics; V.37-#?, pp. 1-19

 

-R. Caves (1988). “Trade Exposure and Changing Structures of US Manufacturing Industrie”. in A.M. Spence and H. Hazard, eds. International Competitiveness. Cambridge: Ballinger, pp. 1-26.

 

-M. Katics and B. Petersen (1994). “The Effect of Rising Import Competition on Market Power: A Panel Data Study of US Manufacturing”. Journal of Industrial Economics; V.42-#3, pp. 277-286.

 

-M. Nishimizu and J. Page (1990). Trade Policy, Market Orientation, and Productivity Change in Industry”. in J. deMelo and A. Sapir, eds. Trade Theory and Economic Reform: North, South and East. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 246-264.

 

-D. Rodrik (1990). “Closing the Technology Gap: Does Trade Liberalization Really Help?”. in G. Helleiner, ed. New Trade Theory and Industrialization and Industrialization in Developing Countries. New York: OUP.

 

-H. Pack (1990). “Industrialization and Trade”. In H. Chenery and T.N. Srinivasan, ed. Handbook of Development Economics, Vol. 1. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

 

-J. DeMelo and S. Urata (1996). “The Influence of Increased Foreign Competition on Industrial Concentration and Profitability”. IJIO; V.4-#3, pp. 287-304.

 

-T. İşcan (1998). “Trade Liberalisation and Productivity: A Panel Study of the Mexican Manufacturing Industry”. Journal of Development Studies; V.34-#5, pp. 123-148.

 

-P. Krishna and D. Mitra (1998). “Trade Liberalization, Market Discipline, and Productivity Growth: New Evidence from India”. Journal of Development Economics; V.560#2, pp. 447-462.

 

6. Trade and Firm Efficiency

 

a. Trade and Technical Efficiency

 

(1) Overviews

 

-J. Tybout (1992). “Linking Trade and Productivity: New Research Directions”. WBER; V.6-#2, pp. 189-211.

 

-J. Tybout (2000). “Manufacturing Firms in Developing Countries: How Well Do they Do and Why”. JEL; V.38-#1, pp. 11-44.

 

-J. Tybout (2002). “Plant- and Firm-Level Evidence on “New” Trade Theories”. In E.K. Choi and J. Harrigan, eds. Handbook of International Economics. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 388-415.

 

-P. Schmidt (1985). “Frontier Production Functions”. Econometric Reviews; V.4-#?, pp. 289-328.

 

-J. Tybout (1992). “Making Noisy Data Sing: Estimating Production Technologies in Developing Countries”. Journal of Econometrics; V.53-#1/2/3, pp. 25-44.

 

-D. Westbrook and J. Tybout (1993). “Estimating Returns to Scale with Large, Imperfect Panels: An Application to Chilean Manufacturing Industries”. WBER; V.7-#1, p. 85-112.

 

(2) Theory

 

-S. Jean (2002). “International Trade and Firms: Heterogeneity under Monopolistic Competition”. Open Economies Review; V.13-#2, pp. 291-311.

 

-A. Bernard, J. Eaton, J.B. Jenson and S. Kortum (2003). “Plants and Productivity in International Trade”. American Economic Review; V.93-#4, pp. 1268-1290.

 

-M. Melitz (2003). “The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity”. Econometrica; V.71-#6, pp. 1695-1725.

 

-E. Erdem and J. Tybout (2003). “Trade Policy and Industrial Sector Responses: Using Evolutionary Models to Interpret the Evidence”. Brookings Trade Forum 2003; pp. 1-43.

 

-E. Helpman, M. Melitz and S. Yeaple (2004). “Export verus FDI with Heterogeneous Firms”. American Economic Review; V94-#1, pp. 300-316.

 

(3) Empirics

 

-H.P. Gray (1985). “Domestic Efficiency, International Efficiency and Gains from Trade”. WA; V.121-#?, pp. 460-470.

 

-K. Zimmerman (1987). “Trade and Dynamic Efficiency”. KYKLOS; V.40-#1, pp. 73-87.

 

-Chen, T.J. and D. Tang (1987). “Comparing Technical Efficiency between Import-Substituting and Export-Oriented Foreign Firms in a Developing Country”. JDevE; V.26-#, pp. 277-289.

 

-J. Tybout, J. deMelo and V. Corbo (1991). “The Effects of Trade Reforms on Scale and Technical Efficiency: New Evidence from Chile”. JIE; V.31-#3/4, pp. 231-250.

 

-M. Roberts and J. Tybout (1991). “Size Rationalization and Trade Exposure in Developing Countries”. in R. Baldwin, ed. Empirical Studies of Commercial Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press/NBER, pp. 169-193.

 

-A. Harrison (1994). “Productivity, Imperfect Competition and Trade Reform: Theory and Evidence”. JIE; V.36-#1/2, pp. 53-73.

 

-J. Tybout and M.D. Westbrook (1995). “Trade Liberalization and the Dimensions of Efficiency Change in Mexican Manufacturing Industries”. JIE; V.39-#1/2, pp. 53-78.

 

-M. Roberts and J. Tybout (1996). Industrial Evolution in Developing Countries: Micro Patterns of Turnover, Productivity, and Market Structure. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

-M. Roberts and J. Tybout (1997). “The Decision to Export in Colombia: An Empirical Model of Entry with Sunk Costs”. AER; V.87-#4, pp. 545-564.

 

-B. Aitken, G. Hanson, and A. Harrison (1997). “Spillovers, Foreign Investment, and Export Behavior”. JIE; V.43-#1/2, pp. 103-132.

 

-A. Bernard and J.B. Jensen (1995). “Exporters, Jobs and Wages in U.S. Manufacturing, 1976-87". BPEA: Microeconomics; pp. 67-112.

 

-A. Bernard and J.B. Jensen (1999). “Exceptional Exporter Performance: Cause, Effect, or Both?”. JIE; V.47-#1, pp. 1-25.

 

-A. Bernard and J. Wagner (1997). “Exports and Success in German Manufacturing”. WA; V.133-#1, pp. 134-157.

 

-A. Bernard and J. Wagner (2001). “Export Entry and Exit by German Firms”. WA; V.137-#1, pp. 105-123.

 

-J. Wagner (2002). “The Causal Effect of Exports on Firm Size and Labour Productivity”. EcLets; V.77-#2, pp. 287-292.

 

-J. Wagner (2003). “Unobserved Firm Heterogeneity and the Size-Export Nexus”. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv; V.139-#1, pp. 161-172.

 

-D. Castellani (2002). “Export Behaviour and Productivity Growth: Evidence from Italian Manufacturing”. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv; V.138-#4, pp. 605-628.

 

-M. Delgado, J. Fariñas, and S. Ruano (2002). “Firm Productivity and Export Markets: A Non-Parametric Approach”. JIE; V.57-#2, pp. 397-422.

 

-S. Clerides, S. Lach and J. Tybout (1998). “Is ‘Learning-by-Exporting’ Important? Micro-Dynamic Evidence from Colombia, Mexico, and Morocco”. QJE; V.113-#3, pp. 903-948.

 

-B.Y. Aw, S. Chung and M. Roberts (2000). “Productivity and Turnover in the Export Market: Micro-Level Evidence from the Republic of Korea and Taiwan (China)”. World Bank Economic Review; V.14-#?, pp. 65-90.

 

-N. Pavcnik (2002). “Trade Liberalization, Exit and Productivity Improvements: Evidence from Chilean Plants”. Review of Economic Studies; V.69-#1, pp. 245-276.

 

-D. Davis and D. Weinstein (2003). “Why Do Countries Trade? Insights from Firm-Level Data”. Journal of the Japanese and International Economies; V.17-#4, pp. 432-447.

 

-K. Head and J. Ries (2003). “Heterogeneity and the FDI versus Export Decision of Japanese Firms”. Journal of the Japanese and International Economies; V.17-#4, pp. 448-467.

 

-J. Damijan, M. Knell, B. Majcen and M. Rojec (2003). “The Role of FDI, R&D, Accumulation, and Trade in Transferring Technology to Transition Countries: Evidence from Firm Panel Data for Eight Transition Countries”. Economic Systems; V.27-#?, pp. 189-204.

 

-A. Bernard and J.B. Jenson (2004). “Why Some Firms Export”. Review of Economics and Statistics; V.86-#2, pp. 561-569.

 

-A. Bernard and J.B. Jenson (2004). “Entry, Expansion, and Intensity in the US Export Boom, 1987-1992”. Review of International Economics; V.12-#4, pp. 662-675.

 

-A. Bernard (2004). “Exports and Productivity in the USA”. Oxford Review of Economic Policy; V.20-#3, pp. 343-357.

 

-J. Eaton, S. Kortum, and F. Kramarz (2004). “Dissecting Trade: Firms, Industries, and Export Destinations”. American Economic Review; V.94-#2, pp. 150-154.

 

-M. Bleaney and K. Wakelin (2002). “Efficiency, Innovation and Exports”. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics; V.64-#1, pp. 3-15.

 

-S. Girma, D. Greenaway, and R. Kneller (2003). “Export Market Exit and Performance Dynamics: A Causality Analysis of Matched Firms”. EcLets; V.80-#2, pp. 181-187.

 

-S. Girma, D. Greenaway, and R. Kneller (2004). “Does Exporting Increase Productivity? A Microeconometric Analysis of Matched Firms”. RIE; V.12-#5, pp. 855-866.

 

-D. Greenaway and Z. Yu (2004). “Firm-Level Interactions between Exporting and Productivity: Industry-Specific Evidence”. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv; V.140-#3, pp. 376-392.

 

-D. Greenaway and R. Kneller (2004). “Exports and Productivity in the UK”. Oxford Review of Economic Policy; V.20-#3, pp. 429-439.

 

-J. Baldwin and W. Gu (2004). “Trade Liberalization: Export Market Participation, Productivity Growth and Innovation”. Oxford Review of Economic Policy; V.20-#3, pp. 372-392.

 

-C. Criscuolo (2004). “Import Competition, Productivity, and Restructuring in UK Manufacturing”. Oxford Review of Economic Policy; V.20-#3, pp. 393-408.

 

-B. Hoekman, H.L. Kee, and M. Olarreaga (2004). “Tariffs, Entry Regulation and Markups: Country Size Matters”. Contributions to Macroeconomics; V.4-#1, Article 8.

 

-R. Caves and D. Barton (1990). Efficiency in US Manufacturing Industry. Cambridge: MIT Press.

 

b. Trade and X-Efficiency

 

-J.P. Martin (1978). “X-Efficiency, Managerial Effort and Protection”. Eca; V.45-#?, pp. 273-286.

 

-N. Vousden (1993). “Variable Specific Factors and the ‘Xefficiency Cost’ of Protection”. RIE; V.1-#?, pp. 234-242.

 

-N Vousden and N. Cambell (1994). “The Organizational Cost of Protection”. JIE; V.37-#3/4, pp. pp. 219-238.

 

-H. Horn, H. Lang and S. Lundgren (1995). “Managerial Effort Incentives, X-Inefficiency and International Trade”. EER; V.39-#1, pp. 117-138.

 

-S. Das (1997). “Strategic Managerial Delegation and Trade Policy”. JIE; V.43-#1/2, pp. 173-188.

 

-H. Leibenstein (1966). “Allocative Efficiency vs. `X-efficiency`”. AER; V.56-#?, pp. 392-415.

 

-H. Leibenstein (1987). Inside the Firm. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

 

-G. Stigler (1974). “The Xistence of X-efficiency”. AER; V.64-#?, pp. 213-216.

 

-D. Scharfstein (1988). “Product Market Competition and Managerial Slack”. RJE; V.19-#?, pp. 147-155.

 

-K. Button and T. Weyman-Jones (1992). “Ownership Structure, Institutional Organization and Measured X-Efficiency”. AER; V.82-#2, pp. 439-445.

 

-R. Frantz (1988). X-Eficiency: Theory, Evidence and Applications. Boston: Kluwer.

 

-J. Dearden, B. Ickes and L. Samuelson (1990). “To Innovate or Not to Innovate: Incentives and Motivation in Hierarchies”. AER; V.80-#?, pp. 1105-1124.

 

-R. McAfee and J. McMillan (1991). “Organizational Diseconomies of Scale”. ms: UT Austin.

 

-T. Sjostrom and M. Weitzman (1996). “Competition and the Evolution of Efficiency”. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization; V.30-#1, pp. 25-43.