PECN 6000

Networks in Modern Social Life


Professor: Douglas Nelson

Office: Tilton 108 (Murphy Institute), Phone: 865-5317

Office Hours: Tuesday and Thursday, 3:30-5:30

Phone: 865-5317

email: dnelson@tulane.edu

Webpage: http://www.tulane.edu/~dnelson/


Networks of people in interaction are essential building blocks of sociality. The study of social networks has long been a central concern of demography, epidemiology and sociology; while in economics, political science and anthropology the concern has never been as central, but recent work has produced increasing interest. As all of these fields have converged on a common language and set of tools, it has become possible to conceive of a kind of interdisciplinarity that transcends disciplinary special pleading (e.g. “economics imperialism” and many forms of “political economy”). This course seeks to develop familiarity with the basic language and methods of modern network analysis, and its application to a range of topics, among them: spread of epidemic disease; spread of fads; immigration; trade across cultural boundaries; and job search.


Capstone courses. This course is a senior seminar for the Murphy Institute. 1) Prerequisites. In addition to the exposure to a broad range of perspectives in the Murphy core courses, I will presume familiarity with microeconomics at the intermediate level (i.e. Economics 3010) and a level of familiarity (and comfort) with formal and statistical analysis at the same level. 2) Participation. This course will be run as a seminar which means attendance and active participation are mandatory. I will expect all members of the seminar to have read, and be prepared to discuss, all the assigned readings before the date on which we discuss them. To aid us in preparation for a given topic, I will assign weekly homework that will take a number of forms either of two forms: exercises from the text; and or reaction papers.


Evaluation: Your performance in this course will be evaluated on the basis of 10 weekly assignments (worth 10 points each) and 1 term paper (worth 100 points each). To receive an A, you must earn at least 90 percent of the points available. 20% of your final marks will be determined by your participation. To pass the course you must earn at least 60 percent of the points available. Grades between these limits will be determined on the basis of your performance relative to that of the class as a whole.


Readings: One sign of the emergence of stable interdisciplinarity is the appearance of texts, aimed at undergraduates, that seek a genuine synthesis. The core text for the course is one of these:

 

David Easley and Jon Kleinberg (2010). Networks, Crowds and Markets: Reasoning about a Highly Connected World. New York: Cambridge University Press. [Easley & Kleinberg]

 

Duncan Watts (2003). Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age. New York: Norton.


The text will be supplemented with a small number of additional readings. Required readings are marked by a bold “dot”, optional readings with an open circle.


Supplementary reading. There are a number of good, more-or-less popular, books on networks. Two particularly good ones are:

 

Albert-Laszlo Barabasi (2003). Linked: How Everything is Connected to Everything Else and What it Means. Plume.

 

Christakis, Nicholas A. and James H. Fowler (2009). Connected: The Surprising Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our Lives. New York: Little, Brown and Co.

 

Watts, Duncan J. (2011). Everything Is Obvious: Once You Know the Answer. New York: Crown Business.


At a somewhat more technical level, interesting books include:

 

Duncan Watts (1999). Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Networks between Order and Randomness. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

 

Knoke, David (1990). Political Networks: The Structural Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

Nan Lin (2002). Social Capital: A Theory of Social Structure and Action. New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

Harrison White (2008, 2nd Ed.). Identity and Control: How Social Formations Emerge. Princeton: Princeton University Press.


At a considerably more technical level, see:

 

Stanley Wasserman and Katherine Faust (1994). Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

Peter Carrington, John Scott and Stanley Wasserman, eds. (2005). Models and Methods in Social Network Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

Sanjeev Goyal (2007). Connections: An Introduction to the Economics of Networks. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

 

Fernando Vega-Redondo (2007). Complex Social Networks. New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

Matthew Jackson (2008). Social and Economic Networks. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

 

Newman, Mark E. J. (2010). Networks : An Introduction. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.

 

Newman, Mark E. J.; Albert-László Barabási and Duncan J. Watts eds. (2006). The Structure and Dynamics of Networks. Princeton: Princeton University Press.


Applications. At the end of the syllabus, there is a list of several research areas in which network techniques have been applied, and a number of readings on each topic. Because the text tends to focus on the main lines of theoretical argument, we will try to draw on some of these areas to provide additional course content. In addition, these may provide a starting point for possible paper topics.


Homework. The syllabus that follows this course description lists the reading that you are expected to have done for the lecture on the listed date. In the first half of the course, for each date, in addition to the reading, the syllabus lists several homework problems and/or reaction papers. Homework is due on or before the first class in which that material is discussed. Late homework will not be accepted, and will receive a score of 0. The percent of total available homework credit will be taken as your homework score. For example, if you answer 90% of the homework questions correctly, your homework score is 90.


Reaction papers. A reaction paper is a short paper discussing some aspect of the relevant reading, it is not a book report. In the reaction paper you must explicitly discuss the relevant reading and evaluate some central aspect of its discussion. Note: “evaluate” means that you must identify some central aspect of the books analysis, explain why you think this aspect is interesting/important, and present your evaluation of the author’s position (note that you must make an argument, simply asserting your agreement or disagreement will not be sufficient for a passing grade). The reaction papers are due in class on the first date scheduled for discussion of the readings (see syllabus), late papers will not be accepted and will earn a grade of zero.


Research papers. Every member of the seminar is required to produce a research paper applying social network analysis. These papers must be original work, plagiarism will not be tolerated. Broadly speaking, I expect papers in the 15 page range. To ensure that topics are well-established and suitable for the course, I require a proposal due no later than the fifth meeting of the course (25 February). Late proposals will result in a 10 point penalty to be assessed on the paper’s final score. Research papers are due at the last regular meeting of the course (last day of class, 29 April). Late papers will not be accepted, and will earn a score of 0 points.


Honor Code: All students are responsible for knowing and adhering to Tulane University’s Honor Code, available at http://www.tulane.edu/~jruscher/dept/Honor.Code.html.




SACS-Related Material


I am aware that Tulane students are able to read a standard university syllabus and determine the content of the course and its relation to the major and the individual student’s course of study. However, the administration of Tulane University, along with the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS–which “accredits” primary and secondary schools as well as all varieties of 2 and 4 year undergraduate programs [with very little in the way of adjustment in rubrics, metrics, etc.]), has determined that you require additional information. I collect this material in a separate section so that you can refer to it, or discard it, as you consider appropriate.


STUDENT OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES: By the end of the course, the student should be able to think, speak, and write fluently and competently about the ideas and issues covered in the course (as reflected in the course description and the syllabus). The student should have a solid understanding of the social, political, economic, and philosophical significance of ideas and concepts in the analysis of social networks and they should be familiar with major ideas and theories regarding explanations, interpretations, applications, and criticisms of work on social networks. The student should be able to formulate critical views concerning these issues and respond fluently and competently to questions concerning these views.


1. Students will be able to identify and recognize major themes, ideas, and concepts.

2. Students will analyze, interpret, and discuss these ideas in a scholarly and coherent manner.

3. Students will construct, formulate, and develop creative and critical scholarly assessments.

4. Students will appraise, evaluate, and appreciate the values and consequences of these ideas.



PECN 6000                                    SYLLABUS                                   Spring 2013

 

● 14 January: Course Introduction

 

■ Easley & Kleinberg, Chapters 1

 

■ Watts, Chapter 1

 

○ Watts, D. J. (2004). “The ‘New’ Science of Networks.” Annual Review of Sociology, V.30, 243-70.


Topic II. Tools of Network Analysis

 

● 28 January: Introduction to Graphs

 

■ Easley & Kleinberg, Chapter 2

 

■ Watts, Chapter 2

 

♦Homework: Exercises 1-3.

 

■ Harris, John M. and Michael J. Mossinghoff. (1998). “The Eccentricities of Actors.” Math Horizons, V.5-#3, 23-25.

 

■ De Castro, Rodrigo and Jerrold Grossman. (1999). “Famous Trails to Paul Erdős.” The Mathematical Intelligencer, V.21-#3, 51-53.

 

■ Bearman, Peter S; James Moody and Katherine Stovel. (2004). “Chains of Affection: The Structure of Adolescent Romantic and Sexual Networks.” American Journal of Sociology, V.110-#1, 44-91.

 

○ Berge, Claude. (1964). “Graph Theory.” The American Mathematical Monthly, V.71-#5, 471-81.

 

○ Cole, J. P. (1973). “Topology & Networks in Geography.” Mathematics in School, V.2-#2, 2-6.

 

● 4 February: Strong Ties, Weak Ties, Structural Holes and Social Capital

 

■ Easley & Kleinberg, Chapter 3

 

♦Exercises, 1-5

 

■ Granovetter, Mark. (1973). “Strength of Weak Ties.” American Journal of Sociology, V.78-#6, 1360-80.

 

○ Montgomery, J. D. (1992). “Job Search and Network Composition - Implications of the Strength-of-Weak-Ties Hypothesis.” American Sociological Review, V.57-#5, 586-96.

 

○ Carpenter, D. P.; K. M. Esterling and D. M. J. Lazer. (1998). “The Strength of Weak Ties in Lobbying Networks - Evidence from Health Care Politics in the United States.” Journal of Theoretical Politics, V.10-#4, 417-44.

 

○ Aral, Sinan and Marshall Van Alstyne. (2011). “The Diversity-Bandwidth Trade-Off.” American Journal of Sociology, V.117-#1, 90-171.

 

○ Portes, Alejandro. (1998). “Social Capital: Its Origins and Applications in Modern Sociology.” Annual Review of Sociology, V.24, 1-24.

 

■ Burt, Ronald S. (2000). “The Network Structure of Social Capital,” in R. I. Sutton and B. M. Staw eds, Research in Organizational Behavior. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 345-423.

 

○ Burt, Ronald (2001). “Structural Holes v. Network Closure as Social Capital”. In Lin, Nan; Karen S. Cook and Ronald S. Burt (2001). Social Capital: Theory and Research. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, pp. 31-56.

 

○ Burt, Ronald S. (2002). “The Social Capital of Structural Holes,” in M. F. Guillén ed. The New Economic Sociology: Developments in an Emerging Field. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 148-90.

 

● 18 February: Networks in Their Surrounding Contexts

 

■ Easley & Kleinberg, Chapter 4

 

♦Exercises 1-4

 

○ McPherson, Miller; Lynn Smith-Lovin and James M. Cook. (2001). “Birds of a Feather: Homophily in Social Networks.” Annual Review of Sociology, V.27, 415-44.

 

○ Kmec, Julie A. (2007). “Ties That Bind? Race and Networks in Job Turnover.” Social Problems, V.54-#4, 483-503.

 

○ Kossinets, Gueorgi and Duncan J Watts. (2009). “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology, V.115-#2, 405-50.

 

○ Zhou, Min. (2011). “Intensification of Geo-Cultural Homophily in Global Trade: Evidence from the Gravity Model.” Social Science Research, V.40-#1, 193-209.

 

■ Schelling, Thomas C. (1971). “Dynamic Models of Segregation.” Journal of Mathematical Sociology, V.1-#2, 143-86.

 

○ Granovetter, Mark. (1978). “Threshold Models of Collective Behavior.” American Journal of Sociology, V.83-#6, 1420-43.

 

○ Chwe, Michael Suk-Young. (1999). “Structure and Strategy in Collective Action.” American Journal of Sociology, V.105-#1, 128-56.

 

○ Bruch, Elizabeth E and Robert D Mare. (2006). “Neighborhood Choice and Neighborhood Change.” American Journal of Sociology, V.112-#3, 667-709.

 

○ Card, David; Alexandre Mas and Jesse Rothstein. (2008). “Tipping and the Dynamics of Segregation.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, V.123-#1, 177-218.

 

● 25 February: Positive and Negative Relationships

 

■ Easley & Kleinberg, Chapter 5

 

♦Exercises 1-4

 

○ Harary, Frank. (1961). “A Structural Analysis of the Situation in the Middle East in 1956.” Journal of Conflict Resolution, V.5-#2, 167-78.

 

○ Healy, Brian and Arthur Stein. (1973). “The Balance of Power in International History: Theory and Reality.” The Journal of Conflict Resolution, V.17-#1, 33-61.

 

○ McDonald, H. Brooke and Richard Rosecrance. (1985). “Alliance and Structural Balance in the International System: A Reinterpretation.” The Journal of Conflict Resolution, V.29-#1, 57-82.

 

○ Kim, Chae-Han. (2007). “Explaining Interstate Trust/Distrust in Triadic Relations.” International Interactions, V.33-#4, 423-39.

 

○ Redner, Sidney; Tibot Antal and Paul L. Krapivsky. (2006). “Social Balance on Networks: The Dynamics of Friendship and Enmity.” Physica D-Nonlinear Phenomena, V.224-#1-2, 130-36.

 

○ Schwartz, T. (2010). “The Friend of My Enemy Is My Enemy, the Enemy of My Enemy Is My Friend: Axioms for Structural Balance and Bi-Polarity.” Mathematical Social Sciences, V.60-#1, 39-45.

 

● 4 March: Intro to Game Theory and Auctions

 

■ Easley & Kleinberg, Chapter 6.1-6.9, 9.1-9.6

 

♦Exercises: 6.1-6.7 & 9.1-9.3

 

○ Gibbons, Robert. (1997). “An Introduction to Applicable Game Theory.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, V.11-#1, 127-49.

 

○ Milgrom, Paul. (1989). “Auctions and Bidding: A Primer.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, V.3-#3, 3-22.


Topic III. Markets and Strategic Interaction in Networks

 

● 11 March: Matching Markets

 

■ Easley & Kleinberg, Chapter 10

 

○ Baïou, Mourad and Michel Balinski. (2003). “Admissions and Recruitment.” The American Mathematical Monthly, V.110-#5, 386-99.

 

○ Petrongolo, Barbara and Christopher A. Pissarides. (2001). “Looking into the Black Box: A Survey of the Matching Function.” Journal of Economic Literature, V.39-#2, 390-431.

 

○ Rogerson, Richard; Robert Shimer and Randall Wright. (2005). “Search-Theoretic Models of the Labor Market: A Survey.” Journal of Economic Literature, V.43-#4, 959-88.

 

○ White, Harrison C. (1970). “Matching, Vacancies, and Mobility.” Journal of Political Economy, V.78-#1, 97-105.

 

○ Fontaine, Francois. (2007). “A Simple Matching Model with Social Networks.” Economics Letters, V.94-#3, 396-401.

 

○ Diamond, Peter. (2011). “Unemployment, Vacancies, Wages.” American Economic Review, V.101-#4, 1045-72.

 

○ Chapman, Kenneth S. and Lawrence Southwick, Jr. (1991). “Testing the Matching Hypothesis: The Case of Major-League Baseball.” American Economic Review, V.81-#5, 1352-60.

 

○ Roth, Alvin E. and Marilda A. Oliveira Sotomayor (1990). Two-Sided Matching: A Study in Game-Theoretic Modeling and Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

○ Roth, Alvin E. (2008). “What Have We Learned from Market Design?.” The Economic Journal, V.118-#527, 285-310.

 

○ Mongell, Susan and Alvin E. Roth. (1991). “Sorority Rush as a Two-Sided Matching Mechanism.” American Economic Review, V.81-#3, 441-64.

 

○ Roth, Alvin E. (1984). “The Evolution of the Labor Market for Medical Interns and Residents: A Case Study in Game Theory.” Journal of Political Economy, V.92-#6, 991-1016.

 

○ Roth, A. E. (1990). “New Physicians: A Natural Experiment in Market Organization.” Science, V.250-#4987, 1524-28.

 

○ Roth, A. E. (1991). “A Natural Experiment in the Organization of Entry-Level Labor-Markets - Regional Markets for New Physicians and Surgeons in the United-Kingdom.” American Economic Review, V.81-#3, 415-40.

 

○ Roth, Alvin E. and Elliott Peranson. (1999). “The Redesign of the Matching Market for American Physicians: Some Engineering Aspects of Economic Design.” The American Economic Review, V.89-#4, 748-80.

 

○ Roth, A. E. (2003). “The Origins, History, and Design of the Resident Match.” Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, V.289-#7, 909-12.

 

○ Roth, Alvin E.; Tayfun Sonmez and M. Utku Unver. (2007). “Efficient Kidney Exchange: Coincidence of Wants in Markets with Compatibility-Based Preferences.” American Economic Review, V.97-#3, 828-51.

 

○ Satterthwaite, Mark A. (2001). “Strategy-Proofness and Markets.” Social Choice and Welfare, V.18-#1, 37-58.

 

○ Costinot, Arnaud and Jonathan Vogel. (2010). “Matching and Inequality in the World Economy.” Journal of Political Economy, V.118-#4, 747-86.

 

● 18 March: Intermediaries

 

■ Easley & Kleinberg, Chapter 11

 

■ Watts, Chapter 5

 

■ J. Rauch (2001). “Business and Social Networks in International Trade”. Journal of Economic Literature; V.39-#4, pp. 1177-1203.

 

○ Bonacich, Edna. (1973). “Theory of Middleman Minorities.” American Sociological Review, V.38-#5, 583-94.

 

○ Geertz, Clifford. (1978). “Bazaar Economy: Information and Search in Peasant Marketing.” American Economic Review, V.68-#2, 28-32.

 

○ Landa, Janet T. (1981). “A Theory of the Ethnically Homogeneous Middleman Group: An Institutional Alternative to Contract Law.” Journal of Legal Studies, V.10-#2, 348-62.

 

○ Curtin, Philip D. (1984). Cross-Cultural Trade in World History. Cambridge Cambridgeshire ; New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

○ Greif, Avner. (1993). “Contract Enforceability and Economic Institutions in Early Trade: The Maghribi Traders Coalition.” American Economic Review, V.83-#3, 525-48.

 

○ Fafchamps, Marcel. (2003). “Ethnicity and Networks in African Trade.” Contributions to Economic Analysis & Policy, V.2-#1, Article 14.

 

○ Feenstra, Robert C. and Gordon H. Hanson. (2004). “Intermediaries in Entrepot Trade: Hong Kong Re-Exports of Chinese Goods.” Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, V.13-#1, 3-35.

 

○ Bernard, Andrew B.; J. Bradford Jensen; Stephen J. Redding and Peter K. Schott. (2010). “Wholesalers and Retailers in Us Trade.” American Economic Review, V.100-#2, 408-13.

 

○ Blum, Bernardo S.; Sebastian Claro and Ignatius Horstmann. (2010). “Facts and Figures on Intermediated Trade.” American Economic Review, V.100-#2, 419-23.

 

○ Antrás, Pol and Arnaud Costinot. (2010). “Intermediation and Economic Integration.” American Economic Review, V.100-#2, 424-28.

 

○ Antràs, Pol and Arnaud Costinot. (2011). “Intermediated Trade.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, V.126-#3, 1319-74.

 

○ Ahn, JaeBin; Amit K. Khandelwal and Shang-Jin Wei. (2011). “The Role of Intermediaries in Facilitating Trade.” Journal of International Economics, V.84-#1, 73-85.

 

○ Krissman, Fred. (2005). “Sin Coyote Ni Patron: Why the "Migrant Network" Fails to Explain International Migration.” International Migration Review, V.39-#1, 4-44.

 

● 1 April: Bargaining and Power in Networks

 

■ Easley & Kleinberg, Chapter 12

 

○ Burt, Ronald S. (1977). “Power in a Social Topology.” Social Science Research, V.6-#1, 1-83.

 

■ Marsden, Peter V. (1981). “Introducing Influence Processes into a System of Collective Decisions.” American Journal of Sociology, V.86-#6, 1203-35.

 

■ Marsden, Peter V. (1983). “Restricted Access in Networks and Models of Power.” American Journal of Sociology, V.88-#4, 686-717.

 

○ Cook, Karen S.; Richard M. Emerson; Mary R. Gillmore and Toshio Yamagishi. (1983). “The Distribution of Power in Exchange Networks: Theory and Experimental Results.” American Journal of Sociology, V.89-#2, 275-305.

 

○ Yamagishi, Toshio; Mary R. Gillmore and Karen S. Cook. (1988). “Network Connections and the Distribution of Power in Exchange Networks.” American Journal of Sociology, V.93-#4, 833-51.

 

○ Yamaguchi, Kazuo. (1996). “Power in Networks of Substitutable and Complementary Exchange Relations: A Rational-Choice Model and an Analysis of Power Centralization.” American Sociological Review, V.61-#2, 308-32.

 

○ Markovsky, Barry; David Willer; Brent Simpson and Michael J. Lovaglia. (1997). “Power in Exchange Networks: Critique of a New Theory.” American Sociological Review, V.62-#5, 833-37.

 

○ Molm, Linda D.; Gretchen Peterson and Nobuyuki Takahashi. (1999). “Power in Negotiated and Reciprocal Exchange.” American Sociological Review, V.64-#6, 876-90.

 

○ Melbeck, Christian. (1998). “Comparing Local Policy Networks.” Journal of Theoretical Politics, V.10-#4, 531-52.

 

○ Camerer, Colin and Richard H. Thaler. (1995). “Anomalies: Ultimatums, Dictators and Manners.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives, V.9-#2, 209-19.

 

○ Fehr, Ernst and Klaus M. Schmidt (2006). “The Economics of Fairness, Reciprocity and Altruism: Experimental Evidence and New Theories,” in K. Serge-Christophe and Y. Jean Mercier eds, Handbook on the Economics of Giving, Reciprocity and Altruism. Elsevier, 615-91.

 

○ Fehr, Ernst and Klaus Schmidt. (1999). “A Theory of Fairness, Competition, and Cooperation.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, V.114-#3, 817-68.

 

○ Fehr, Ernst and Gächter Simon. (2000). “Fairness and Retaliation: The Economics of Reciprocity.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives, V.14-#3, 159-81.

 

○ Gächter, Simon and Benedikt Herrmann. (2009). “Reciprocity, Culture and Human Cooperation: Previous Insights and a New Cross-Cultural Experiment.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, V.364-#1518, 791-806.


Topic IV. Network Dynamics: Population Models

 

● 8 April: Information Cascades

 

■ Easley & Kleinberg, Chapter 16

 

○ Bikhchandani, Sushil; David Hirshleifer and Ivo Welch. (1998). “Learning from the Behavior of Others: Conformity, Fads, and Informational Cascades.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives, V.12-#3, 151-70.

 

○ Chamley, Christophe P. (2004). Rational Herds: Economic Models of Social Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

○ Bikhchandani, Sushil; David Hirshleifer and Ivo Welch. (1992). “A Theory of Fads, Fashion, Custom, and Cultural Change as Informational Cascades.” Journal of Political Economy, V.100-#5, 992-1026.

 

○ Bikhchandani, Sushil and Sunil Sharma. (2000). “Herd Behavior in Financial Markets.” IMF Staff Papers, V.47-#3, 279-310.

 

○ Hirshleifer, David and Siew Hong Teoh. (2003). “Herd Behaviour and Cascading in Capital Markets: A Review and Synthesis.” European Financial Management, V.9-#1, 25-66.

 

○ Chari, V.V. and Patrick J Kehoe. (2003). “Hot Money.” Journal of Political Economy, V.111-#6, 1262-92.

 

○ Kehoe, Patrick J. and V.V. Chari. (2004). “Financial Crises as Herds: Overturning the Critiques.” Journal of Economic Theory, V.119-#1, 128-50.

 

○ Lohmann, Susanne. (1994). “The Dynamics of Informational Cascades: The Monday Demonstrations in Leipzig, East Germany, 1989-91.” World Politics, V.47-#1, 42-101.

 

○ Lohmann, Susanne. (2000). “Collective Action Cascades: An Informational Rationale for the Power in Numbers.” Journal of Economic Surveys, V.14-#5, 655-84.

 

○ Hall, H. Keith and Douglas R. Nelson (2004). “The Peculiar Political Economy of Nafta: Complexity, Uncertainty and Footloose Policy Preferences,” in A. Panagariya and D. Mitra eds, The Political Economy of Trade and Foreign Investment Policies. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 91-109.

 

● 15 April: Network Effects

 

■ Easley & Kleinberg, Chapter 17

 

○ Arthur, W. Brian (1989). “Competing Technologies, Increasing Returns, and Lock-In by Small Events”. Economic Journal; V.99-#?, pp. 116-131.

 

○ David, Paul A. (2007). “Path Dependence: A Foundational Concept for Historical Social Science.” Cliometrica, V.1-#2, 91-114.

 

○ David, Paul A. (1985). “Clio and the Economics of QWERTY”. American Economic Review; V.75-#2, pp. 332-37.

 

○ David, Paul and Julie Ann Bunn (1988). “The Economics of Gateway Technologies and Network Evolution: Lessons from Electricity Supply History”. Information Economics and Policy; V.3-#?, pp. 165-202.

 

○ Farrell, Joseph and Garth Saloner (1985). “Standardization, Compatibility, and Innovation”. Rand Journal of Economics; V.16-#1, pp. 70-83.

 

○ Katz, Michael and Carl Shapiro (1985). “Network Externalities, Competition and Compatibilty”. American Economic Review; V.75-#3, pp. 424-440.

 

○ Katz, Michael and Carl Shapiro (1994). “Systems Competition and Network Effects”. Journal of Economic Perspectives; V.8-#2, pp. 93-115.

 

○ Shapiro, Carl and Hal R. Varian (1999). Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.

 

○ Varian, Hal R.; Joseph Farrell and Carl Shapiro (2004). The Economics of Information Technology: An Introduction. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

○ Shy, Oz (2001). The Economics of Network Industries. Cambridge, U.K. New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

○ Gottinger, Hans-Werner (2003). Economies of Network Industries. London ; New York: Routledge.

 

● 22 April: Power Laws and Rich-Get-Richer Phenomena

 

■ Easley & Kleinberg, Chapter 18

 

■ Watts, Chapter 4

 

○ Nitsch, Volker. (2005). “Zipf Zipped.” Journal of Urban Economics, V.57-#1, 86-100.

 

○ Gabaix, Xavier and Yannis M. Ioannides (2004). “The Evolution of City Size Distributions,” in J. V. Henderson and T. Jacques-François eds, Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics. Elsevier, 2341-78.

 

○ Krugman, Paul R. (1996). The Self-Organizing Economy. Cambridge, Mass., USA: Blackwell Publishers.

 

○ Gabaix, Xavier. (1999). “Zipf's Law for Cities: An Explanation.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, V.114-#3, 739-67.

 

○ Brakman, Steven; Harry Garretsen; Charles Van Marrewijk and Marianne van den Berg. (1999). “The Return of Zipf: Towards a Further Understanding of the Rank-Size Distribution.” Journal of Regional Science, V.39-#1, 183-213.

 

○ Ioannides, Yannis M. and Henry G. Overman. (2003). “Zipf's Law for Cities: An Empirical Examination.” Regional Science and Urban Economics, V.33-#2, 127-37.

 

○ Rose, Andrew K. (2006). “Cities and Countries.” Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, V.38-#8, 2225-45.

 

○ Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban and Mark L. J. Wright. (2007). “Urban Structure and Growth.” The Review of Economic Studies, V.74-#2, 597-624.

 

○ Axtell, Robert L. (2001). “Zipf Distribution of U.S. Firm Sizes.” Science, V.293-#5536, 1818-20.

 

○ Fujiwara, Yoshi; Corrado Di Guilmi; Hideaki Aoyama; Mauro Gallegati and Wataru Souma. (2004). “Do Pareto-Zipf and Gibrat Laws Hold True? An Analysis with European Firms.” Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, V.335-#1-2, 197-216.

 

○ Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban and Mark L. J. Wright. (2007). “Establishment Size Dynamics in the Aggregate Economy.” The American Economic Review, V.97-#5, 1639-66.

 

○ Barabási, Albert-László (2002). Linked : The New Science of Networks. Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus Pub.

 

○ Barabási, Albert-László and Réka Albert. (1999). “Emergence of Scaling in Random Networks.” Science, V.286-#5439, 509-12.

 

○ Barabási, A. L.; H. Jeong; Z. Néda; E. Ravasz; A. Schubert and T. Vicsek. (2002). “Evolution of the Social Network of Scientific Collaborations.” Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, V.311-#3-4, 590-614.

 

○ Redner, S. (1998). “How Popular Is Your Paper? An Empirical Study of the Citation Distribution.” The European Physical Journal B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, V.4-#2, 131-34.

 

○ Liljeros, Fredrik; Christofer R. Edling; Luis A. Nunes Amaral; H. Eugene Stanley and Yvonne Aberg. (2001). “The Web of Human Sexual Contacts.” Nature, V.411-#6840, 907-08.


Topic V. Network Dynamics: Structural Models

 

● 29 April: Cascading Behavior in Networks

 

■ Easley & Kleinberg, Chapter 19

 

■ Watts, Chapters 7 & 8

 

○ Coleman, James; Elihu Katz and Herbert Menzel. (1957). “The Diffusion of an Innovation among Physicians.” Sociometry, V.20-#4, 253-70.

 

○ Chwe, Michael Suk-Young. (2000). “Communication and Coordination in Social Networks.” Review of Economic Studies, V.67-#1, 1-16.

 

■ DeVany, A. and W. D. Walls. (1996). “Bose-Einstein Dynamics and Adaptive Contracting in the Motion Picture Industry.” Economic Journal, V.106-#439, 1493-514.

 

○ De Vany, Arthur and Cassey Lee. (2001). “Quality Signals in Information Cascades and the Dynamics of the Distribution of Motion Picture Box Office Revenues.” Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, V.25-#3-4, 593-614.

 

○ Watts, Duncan J. (2002). “A Simple Model of Global Cascades on Random Networks.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, V.99-#9, 5766-71.

 

○ Watts, Duncan J and Peter Sheridan Dodds. (2007). “Influentials, Networks, and Public Opinion Formation.” Journal of Consumer Research, V.34-#4, 441-58.

 

○ Rossman, Gabriel; Ming Ming Chiu and Joeri M. Mol. (2008). “Modeling Diffusion of Multiple Innovations Via Multilevel Diffusion Curves: Payola in Pop Music Radio.” Sociological Methodology, V.38, 201-30.

 

● Alternate topic: The Small World Phenomenon

 

■ Easley & Kleinberg, Chapter 20

 

■ Watts, Chapter 3

 

○ The Oracle of Kevin Bacon: http://oracleofbacon.org/

 

○ Harris, John M. and Michael J. Mossinghoff. (1998). “The Eccentricities of Actors.” Math Horizons, V.5-#3, 23-25.

 

○ De Castro, Rodrigo and Jerrold Grossman. (1999). “Famous Trails to Paul Erdős.” The Mathematical Intelligencer, V.21-#3, 51-53.

 

○ Watts, Duncan J. (2003). Six Degrees : The Science of a Connected Age. New York: Norton.

 

○ Milgram, Stanley (1967). “The Small World Problem”. Psychology Today; V.1-#1, pp. 61-67.

 

○ Kleinfeld, Judith. (2002). “The Small World Problem.” Society, V.39-#2, 61-66.

 

○ Schnettler, Sebastian. (2009). “A Structured Overview of 50 Years of Small-World Research.” Social Networks, V.31-#3, 165-78.

 

○ Watts, Duncan J. (1999). “Networks, Dynamics, and the Small-World Phenomenon.” American Journal of Sociology, V.105-#2, 493-527.

 

○ Watts, Duncan J. (1999). Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Networks between Order and Randomness. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

 

○ Watts, Duncan J.; Peter Sheridan Dodds and M. E. J. Newman. (2002). “Identity and Search in Social Networks.” Science, V.296-#5571, 1302-05.

 

○ Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Muhamad Roby and Duncan J. Watts. (2003). “An Experimental Study of Search in Global Social Networks.” Science, V.301-#5634, 827-29.

 

○ Granovetter, Mark. (2003). “Ignorance, Knowledge, and Outcomes in a Small World.” Science, V.301-#5634, 773-74.

 

○ Kleinberg, Jon (2000). “The Small-World Phenomenon: An Algorithmic Perspective,” Proceedings of the 32nd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing.

 

○ Kogut, Bruce and Gordon Walker (2001). “The Small World of Germany and the Durability of National Networks”. American Sociological Review, V.66-#3, pp. 317-35.

 

○ Ramon Ferrer i, Cancho and Ricard V. Solé. (2001). “The Small World of Human Language.” Proceedings: Biological Sciences, V.268-#1482, 2261-65.

 

○ Uzzi, Brian and Jarrett Spiro. (2005). “Collaboration and Creativity: The Small World Problem.” American Journal of Sociology, V.111-#2, 447-504.

 

○ Jackson, Matthew O. and Brian W. Rogers. (2005). “The Economics of Small Worlds.” Journal of the European Economic Association, V.3-#2/3, 617-27.

 

○ Fleming, Lee; Charles King, III and Adam I. Juda. (2007). “Small Worlds and Regional Innovation.” Organization Science, V.18-#6, 938-54.

 

○ Stafsudd, Anna (2009). “Corporate Networks as Informal Governance Mechanisms: A Small Worlds Approach to Sweden”. Corporate Governance-an International Review, V.17-#1, pp. 62-76.

 

● Alternate topic: Epidemics

 

■ Easley & Kleinberg, Chapter 21

 

■ Watts, Chapter 6

 

○ Watts, Duncan J. (2003). “Epidemics and Failures”. Chapter 6 in Six Degrees : The Science of a Connected Age. New York: Norton.

 

○ Watts, Duncan J. (1999). “The Spread of Infectious Disease in Structured Populations”. Chapter 6 in Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Networks between Order and Randomness. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

 

○ Bearman, Peter S; James Moody and Katherine Stovel. (2004). “Chains of Affection: The Structure of Adolescent Romantic and Sexual Networks.” American Journal of Sociology, V.110-#1, 44-91.



Final Paper Due: Monday, 5 December.



Topic VI. Applications

 

● Job Search

 

○ Ioannides, Yannis M. and Linda Datcher Loury. (2004). “Job Information Networks, Neighborhood Effects, and Inequality.” Journal of Economic Literature, V.42-#4, 1056-93.

 

○ White, Harrison C. (1970). Chains of Opportunity; System Models of Mobility in Organizations. Cambridge, Mass.,: Harvard University Press.

 

○ Granovetter, Mark. (1973). “Strength of Weak Ties.” American Journal of Sociology, V.78-#6, 1360-80.

 

○ Granovetter, Mark (1974/1995). Getting a Job: A Study of Contracts and Careers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

 

○ Boorman, Scott (1975). “A Combinatorial Optimization Model for Transmission of Job Information through Contact Networks”. Bell Journal of Economics; V.6-#1, pp. 216-249.

 

○ Bridges, William and Wayne Villemez (1986). “Informal Hiring and Income in the Labor Market”. American Sociological Review; V.51-#4, pp. 574-582.

 

○ Montgomery, James D. (1991). “Social Networks and Labor Market Outcomes: Toward an Economic Analysis”. American Economic Review; V.81-#5, pp. 1408-1418.

 

○ Montgomery, James D. (1992). “Job Search and Network Composition: Implications of the Strength-of-Weak-Ties Hypothesis.” American Sociological Review, V.57-#5, 586-96.

 

○ Montgomery, James D. (1994). “Weak Ties, Employment, and Inequality: An Equilibrium Analysis”. American Journal of Sociology; V.99-#5, pp. 1212-1236.

 

○ Podolny, Joel M. and James N. Baron. (1997). “Resources and Relationships: Social Networks and Mobility in the Workplace.” American Sociological Review, V.62-#5, 673-93.

 

○ Bian, Yanjie. (1997). “Bringing Strong Ties Back In: Indirect Ties, Network Bridges, and Job Searches in China.” American Sociological Review, V.62-#3, 366-85.

 

○ Reingold, David A. (1999). “Social Networks and the Employment Problem of the Urban Poor.” Urban Studies, V.36-#11, 1907-32.

 

○ Topa, Giorgio (2001). “Social Interactions, Local Spillovers and Unemployment”. Review of Economic Studies; V.68-#2, pp. 261-295.

 

○ Conley, Timothy G. and Giorgio Topa. (2003). “Identification of Local Interaction Models with Imperfect Location Data.” Journal of Applied Econometrics, V.18-#5, 605-18.

 

○ Conley, Timothy G. and Giorgio Topa. (2007). “Estimating Dynamic Local Interactions Models.” Journal of Econometrics, V.140-#1, 282-303.

 

○ Ioannides, Yannis M. and Giorgio Topa. (2010). “Neighborhood Effects: Accomplishments and Looking Beyond Them.” Journal of Regional Science, V.50-#1, 343-62.

 

○ Bayer, Patrick; Stephen L Ross and Giorgio Topa. (2008). “Place of Work and Place of Residence: Informal Hiring Networks and Labor Market Outcomes.” Journal of Political Economy, V.116-#6, 1150-96.

 

○ Menczer, Filippo and Troy Tassier (2001). “Emerging Small-World Referral Networks in Evolutionary Labor Markets”. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation (Special Issue on Computational Economics),V.5-#5, pp. 482-492.

 

○ Tassier, Troy. (2005). “A Markov Model of Referral-Based Hiring and Workplace Segregation.” Journal of Mathematical Sociology, V.29-#3, 233-62.

 

○ Tassier, Troy. (2006). “Labor Market Implications of Weak Ties.” Southern Economic Journal, V.72-#3, 704-19.

 

○ Tassier, Troy and Filippo Menczer. (2008). “Social Network Structure, Segregation, and Equality in a Labor Market with Referral Hiring.” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, V.66-#3-4, 514-28.

 

○ Mouw, Ted. (2003). “Social Capital and Finding a Job: Do Contacts Matter?American Sociological Review, V.68-#6, 868-98.

 

○ Fernandez, Roberto M. and Isabel Fernandez-Mateo. (2006). “Networks, Race, and Hiring.” American Sociological Review, V.71-#1, 42-71.

 

○ Kmec, Julie A. (2007). “Ties That Bind? Race and Networks in Job Turnover.” Social Problems, V.54-#4, 483-503.

 

○ Kmec, Julie A. and Lindsey B. Trimble. (2009). “Does It Pay to Have a Network Contact? Social Network Ties, Workplace Racial Context, and Pay Outcomes.” Social Science Research, V.38-#2, 266-78.

 

○ Luke, Nancy; Kaivan Munshi and Mark Rosenzweig. (2004). “Marriage, Networks, and Jobs in Third World Cities.” Journal of the European Economic Association, V.2-#2-3, 437-46.

 

○ Calvó-Armengol, Antoni (2004). “Job Contact Networks”. Journal of Economic Theory; V.115-#1, pp. 191-206.

 

○ Calvo-Armengol, Antoni and Yves Zenou. (2005). “Job Matching, Social Network and Word-of-Mouth Communication.” Journal of Urban Economics, V.57-#3, 500-22.

 

○ Calvó-Armengol, Antoni and Matthew Jackson (2004). “The Effect of Social Networks on Employment and Inequality”. American Economic Review; V.94-#3, pp. 426-454.

 

○ Calvó-Armengol, Antoni and Matthew O. Jackson. (2007). “Networks in Labor Markets: Wage and Employment Dynamics and Inequality.” Journal of Economic Theory, V.132-#1, 27-46.

 

○ Calvo-Armengol, Antoni; Thierry Verdier and Yves Zenou. (2007). “Strong and Weak Ties in Employment and Crime.” Journal of Public Economics, V.91-#1-2, 203-33.

 

○ Fontaine, Francois. (2007). “A Simple Matching Model with Social Networks.” Economics Letters, V.94-#3, 396-401.

 

○ Fontaine, Francois. (2008). “Do Workers Really Benefit from Their Social Networks?” Recherches Economiques de Louvain/Louvain Economic Review, V.74-#1, 5-31.

 

○ Fontaine, Francois. (2008). “Why Are Similar Workers Paid Differently? The Role of Social Networks.” Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, V.32-#12, 3960-77.

 

○ Cahuc, Pierre and Francois Fontaine. (2009). “On the Efficiency of Job Search with Social Networks.” Journal of Public Economic Theory, V.11-#3, 411-39.

 

○ Bentolila, Samuel; Claudio Michelacci and Javier Suarez. (2010). “Social Contacts and Occupational Choice.” Economica, V.77-#305, 20-45.

 

○ Battu, Harminder; Paul Seaman and Yves Zenou. (2011). “Job Contact Networks and the Ethnic Minorities.” Labour Economics, V.18-#1, 48-56.

 

● International Migration

 

○ P. Nelson (1959). “Migration, Real Income, and Information”. Journal of Regional Science; V.1-#2, pp. 43-74.

 

○ J. Reichert and D. Massey (1979). “Patterns of Migration from a Central Mexican Town: A Comparison of Legal and Illegal Migrants”. International Migration Review; V.13-#?, pp. 599-623.

 

○ J. Reichert (1981). “The Migrant Syndrome: Seasonal U.S. Wage Labor and Rural Development in Central Mexico”. Human Organization; V.40-#1, pp. 56-66.

 

○ G. Hugo (1981). “Village-Community Ties, Village Norms, and Ethnic and Social Networks: A Review of the Evidence from the Third World”. in G. DeJong and R. Gardner, eds. Migration Decision Making: Multidisciplinary Approaches to Microlevel Studies in Developed and Developing Countries. New York: Pergamon Press, pp. 186-225.

 

○ H. Browning and N. Rodríguez (1985). “The Migration of Mexican Indocumenatdos as a Settlement Process: Implications for Work”. in G. Borjas and M. Tienda, eds. Hispanics in the U.S. Economy. Orlando: Academic Press, pp. 277-289.

 

○ Taylor, J. Edward (1986): “Differential Migration, Networks, Information, and Risk”. in O. Stark, ed. Migration, Human Capital and Development, Research in Human Capital and Development, New York: JAI Press, 141-173.

 

○ Massey, Douglas and Felipe García España (1987). “The Social Process of International Migration”. Science; 237(4816), pp. 733-738.

 

○ D. Massey, R. Alarcón, J. Durand, and H. González (1987). Return to Aztlan: The Social Process of International Migration from Western Mexico. Berkeley: University of California Press.

 

○ Fawcett, James T. 1989. “Networks, Linkages, and Migration Systems”. International Migration Review, 23(3), pp. 671-80.

 

○ Boyd, Monica. 1989. “Family and Personal Networks in International Migration: Recent Developments and New Agendas”. International Migration Review, 23(3), pp. 638-70.

 

○ D. Massey (1990). “The Social and Economic Origins of Migration”. Annals AAPSS, #510, pp. 60-72.

 

○ Massey, Douglas S. 1990. “Social Structure, Household Strategies, and the Cumulative Causation of Migration”. Population Index, 56(1), pp. 3-26.

 

○ C. Tilly (1990). “Transplanted Networks”. in V. Yans-McLaughlin, ed. Immigration Reconsidered: History, Sociology, and Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 79-95.

 

○ D. Gurak and F. Caces (1992). “Migration Networks and the Shaping of Migration Systems”. in M. Kritz, L.L. Lim, and H. Zlotnik, eds. International Migration Systems: A Global Approach. Oxford: OUP, pp. 150-176.

 

○ R. Alarcón (1992). “Norteñización: Self-Perpetuating Migration from a Mexican Town”. in J. Bustamente, R. Hinojosa, and C. Reynolds, eds. U.S.-Mexico Relations: Labor Market Interdependence. Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp. 302-318.

 

○ H. Hagan (1994). Deciding to Be Legal: A Maya Community in Houston. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

 

○ Böcker, Anita G.M. 1994. “Chain Migration over Legally Closed Borders: Settled Immigrants as Bridgeheads and Gatekeepers”. The Netherlands Journal of Social Sciences, 30(2), pp. 87-106.

 

○ D. Massey and K. Espinosa (1997). “What’s Driving Mexico-U.S. Migration? A Theoretical, Empirical, and Policy Analysis”. American Journal of Sociology; V.102-#4, pp. 939-999.

 

○ Wilson, Tamar D. (1998). “Weak Ties, Strong Ties: Network Principles in Mexican Migration.” Human Organization, V.57-#4, 394-403.

 

○ Wegge, Simone A. (1998). “Chain Migration and Information Networks: Evidence from Nineteenth-Century Hesse-Cassel”. Journal of Economic History; V.58-#4, pp. 957-986.

 

○ Wegge, Simone A. (2008). “Network Strategies of Nineteenth Century Hesse-Cassel Emigrants.” The History of the Family, V.13-#3, 296-314.

 

○ D.S. Massey, J. Arango, G. Hugo, A. Kouaouci, A. Pellegrino, and J.E. Taylor (1999). Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millenium. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

 

○ Helmenstein, Christian and Yury Yegorov (2000). “The Dynamics of Migration in the Presence of Chains”. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control; V.24-#2, pp. 307-323.

 

○ A. Palloni, D. Massey, M. Ceballos, K. Espinosa, and M. Spittel (2001). “Social Capital and International Migration: A Test Using Information on Family Networks”. American Journal of Sociology; V.106-#5, pp. 1262-1298.

 

○ Phillips, J. A. and D. S. Massey. 2000. “Engines of Immigration: Stocks of Human and Social Capital in Mexico”. Social Science Quarterly, 81(1), pp. 33-48.

 

○ Winters, Paul, Alain de Janvry, and Elisabeth Sadoulet (2001). “Family and Community Networks in Mexico-US Migration”. Journal of Human Resources, 36(1), pp. 159-84.

 

○ Davis, Benjamin; Guy Stecklov and Paul Winters. (2002). “Domestic and International Migration from Rural Mexico: Disaggregating the Effects of Network Structure and Composition.” Population Studies, V.56-#3, 291-309.

 

○ Curran, Sara R. and Estela Rivero-Fuentes. (2003). “Engendering Migrant Networks: The Case of Mexican Migration.” Demography, V.40-#2, 289-307.

 

○ Garip, Filiz. (2008). “Social Capital and Migration: How Do Similar Resources Lead to Divergent Outcomes?Demography, V.45-#3, 591-617.

 

○ Light, Ivan and Elsa von Scheven. (2008). “Mexican Migration Networks in the United States, 1980–2000.” International Migration Review, V.42-#3, 704-28.

 

○ Jewell, R. Todd and David J. Molina. (2009). “Mexican Migration to the U.S.: A Comparison of Income and Network Effects.” Eastern Economic Journal, V.35-#2, 144-59.

 

○ Krissman, Fred. (2005). “Sin Coyote Ni Patron: Why the "Migrant Network" Fails to Explain International Migration.” International Migration Review, V.39-#1, 4-44.

 

○ Dolfin, Sarah and Garance Genicot. (2010). “What Do Networks Do? The Role of Networks on Migration and 'Coyote' Use.” Review of Development Economics, V.14-#2, 343-59.

 

○ Tilly, Charles. (2007). “Trust Networks in Transnational Migration.” Sociological Forum, V.22-#1, 3-25.

 

○ McKenzie, David and Hillel Rapoport. 2007. “Network Effects and the Dynamics of Migration and Inequality: Theory and Evidence from Mexico”. Journal of Development Economics, 84(1), pp. 1-24.

 

○ Roberts, Kenneth and Michael Morris (2003). “Fortune, Risk, and Remittances: An Application of Option Theory to Participation in Village-Based Migration Networks”. International Migration Review; 37(4), pp. 1252-1281

 

○ Pedersen, Peder J., Mariola Pytlikova and Nina Smith. 2008. “Selection and Network Effects: Migration Flows into OECD Countries 1990-2000”. European Economic Review, 52(7), pp. 1160-86.

 

○ Beine, Michel; Frederic Docquier and Caglar Ozden. (2010). “Diaspora Effects in International Migration: Key Questions and Methodological Issues.” Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Volkswirtschaft und Statistik/Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics, V.146-#4, 639-59.

 

○ Beine, Michel; Frederic Docquier and Caglar Ozden (2011). “Dissecting Network Externalities in International Migration,” CESifo Group Munich, CESifo Working Paper Series: 3333,

 

○ Moretto, Michele and Sergio Vergalli. (2008). “Migration Dynamics.” Journal of Economics, V.93-#3, 223-65.

 

● International Trade

 

○ J. Rauch (2001). “Business and Social Networks in International Trade”. Journal of Economic Literature; V.39-#4, pp. 1177-1203.

 

○ Ben-Porath, Yoram. (1980). “The F-Connection: Families, Friends, and Firms and the Organization of Exchange.” Population and Development Review, V.6-#1, 1-30.

 

○ Landa, Janet T. (1981). “A Theory of the Ethnically Homogeneous Middleman Group: An Institutional Alternative to Contract Law.” Journal of Legal Studies, V.10-#2, 348-62.

 

○ Greif, Avner. (1993). “Contract Enforceability and Economic Institutions in Early Trade: The Maghribi Traders Coalition.” American Economic Review, V.83-#3, 525-48.

 

○ G. Hamilton and N. Biggart (1988). “Market, Culture, and Authority: A Comparative Analysis of Management and Organization in the Far East”. American Journal of Sociology, V.94-supplement, pp. S52-S94.

 

○ Tain-Jy Chen and Meng-Chun Liu (1998). “Production Networks and the Pattern of Trade: Evidence From Taiwan”. Pacific Economic Review; V.3-#1, pp. 49-69.

 

○ Homin Chen and Tain-Jy Chen (1998). “Network Linkages and Location Choice in Foreign Direct Investment”. Journal of International Business Studies; V.29-#3, pp. 445-467.

 

○ Rauch, James (1999). “Networks versus Markets in International Trade”. Journal of International Economics; V.48-#1, pp. 7-35.

 

○ G. Gereffi (1999). “International Trade and Industrial Upgrading in the Apparel Commodity Chain”. Journal of International Economics; V.48-#1, pp.37-70.

 

○ R. Feenstra, T.-H. Yang, and G. Hamilton (1999). “Business Groups and Product Variety in Trade: Evidence from South Korea, Taiwan and Japan”. Journal of International Economics; V.48-#1, pp. 71-100.

 

○ Y.-t. Hsing (1999). “Trading Companies in Taiwan's Fashion Shoe Networks”. Journal of International Economics; V.48-#1, pp. 101-120.

 

○ J. McLaren (1999). “Supplier Relations and the Market Context: A Theory of Handshakes”. Journal of International Economics; V.48-#1, pp. 121-138.

 

○ H. Schmitz (1999). “From Ascribed to Earned Trust in Exporting Clusters”. Journal of International Economics; V.48-#1, pp. 139-150.

 

○ R. Feenstra, D.-S. Huang, and G. Hamilton (1997). “Business Groups and Trade in East Asia, Part 1: Product Variety”. NBER Working Paper, #5886.

 

○ R. Feenstra, D.-S. Huang, and G. Hamilton (1997). “Business Groups and Trade in East Asia, Part 2: Networked Equilibria”. NBER Working Paper, #5887.

 

○ R. Feenstra, G. Hamilton and D.-S. Huang (2001). “The Organization of Taiwanese and South Korean Economies: A Comparative Equilibrium Analysis”. In J. Rauch and A. Casella, eds. Networks and Markets. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, pp. 86-142.

 

○ A. Deardorff (2001). “Trade and Welfare Implications of Networks”. Journal of Economic Integration; V.16-#4, pp. 485-499.

 

○ A. Casella and J. Rauch (2002). “Anonymous Market and Group Ties in International Trade”. Journal of International Economics; V.58-#1, pp. 19-47.

 

○ J. Rauch and A. Casella (2003). “Overcoming Informational Barriers to International Resource Allocation: Prices and Ties”. Economic Journal; V.113-#484, pp. 21-42.

 

○ J. Rauch and V. Trinidade (2002). “Ethnic Chinese Networks in International Trade”. Review of Economics and Statistics; V.84-#1, pp. 116-130.

 

○ J. Rauch and V. Trinidade (2003). “Information, International Substitutability and Globalization”. American Economic Review; V.93-#3, pp. 686-708.

 

○ T. Greaney (2003). “Reverse Importing and Asymmetric Trade and FDI: A Networks Explanation”. Journal of International Economics; V.61-#2, pp. 453-465.

 

○ S. Evennett (2003). “Do All Networks Facilitate Economic Commerce?: US Law Firms and the International Market for Corporate Control”. Journal of the Japanese and International Economies; V.17-#4, pp. 520-537.

 

○ Marcel Fafchamps (2003). “Ethnicity and Networks in African Trade”. Contributions to Economic Analysis & Policy; V.2-#1, Article 14. (http://www.bepress.com/bejeap/contributions/vol2/iss1/art14).

 

○ Robert Feenstra, Gordon H. Hanson, and Songhua Lin (2004). “The Value of Information in International Trade: Gains to Outsourcing through Hong Kong”; Advances in Economic Analysis & Policy; V.4-#1, Article 7. (http://www.bepress.com/bejeap/advances/vol4/iss1/art7)

 

○ Rauch, James and Joel Watson (2004). “Network Intermediaries in International Trade”. Journal of Economics and Management Strategy; V.16-#?, pp. 69-93.

 

○ Smith, David A. and Douglas R. White. (1992). “Structure and Dynamics of the Global Economy Network Analysis of International Trade 1965-1980.” Social Forces, V.70-#4, 857-93.

 

○ Sangmoon, Kim and Shin Eui-Hang. (2002). “A Longitudinal Analysis of Globalization and Regionalization in International Trade: A Social Network Approach.” Social Forces, V.81-#2, 445-68.

 

○ Combes, Pierre-Philippe, Miren Lafourcade and Thierry Mayer (2005). “The Trade Creating Effects of Business and Social Networks: Evidence from France”. Journal of International Economics; V.66-#1, pp. 1-29.

 

○ Lewer, Joshua J. and Hendrik Van den Berg. (2007). “Religion and International Trade: Does the Sharing of a Religious Culture Facilitate the Formation of Trade Networks?American Journal of Economics & Sociology, V.66-#4, 765-94.

 

○ Mahutga, Matthew C. (2006). “The Persistence of Structural Inequality? A Network Analysis of International Trade, 1965-2000.” Social Forces, V.84-#4, 1863-89.

 

○ M. Orru, N. Biggart, and G. Hamilton (1997). The Economic Organization of East Asian Capitalism. Sage Publications.

 

○ R. Feenstra and G. Hamilton (forth.). Emergent Economies, Divergent Paths: Business Groups and Economic Organization in South Korea and Taiwan. Cambridge: CUP.

 

○ Bhattacharya, K.; G. Mukherjee and S. S. Manna (2007). “The International Trade Network,” in A. Chatterjee and B. K. Chakrabarti eds, Econophysics of Markets and Business Networks. Berlin: Springer, 139-47.

 

○ Bhattacharya, K.; G. Mukherjee; J. Saramaki; K. Kaski and S. S. Manna. (2008). “The International Trade Network: Weighted Network Analysis and Modelling.” Journal of Statistical Mechanics-Theory and Experiment, V.2008-#02, P02002.

 

○ Serrano, M. Ángeles. (2008). “Rich-Club Vs Rich-Multipolarization Phenomena in Weighted Networks.” Physical Review E, V.78-#2, 026101.

 

○ Fagiolo, G.; J. Reyes and S. Schiavo. (2009). “World Trade Web: Topological Properties, Dynamics, and Evolution.” Physical Review E, V.79-#3.

 

○ Fagiolo, Giorgio; Javier Reyes and Stefano Schiavo. (2010). “The Evolution of the World Trade Web: A Weighted-Network Analysis.” Journal of Evolutionary Economics, V.20-#4, 479-514.

 

○ Fagiolo, G. (2010). “The International Trade Network: Gravity Equations and Topological Properties.” Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination, V.5-#1, 1-25.

 

○ De Benedictis, Luca and Lucia Tajoli. (2010). “Comparing Sectoral International Trade Networks.” Aussenwirtschaft, V.65-#2, 167-89.

 

○ De Benedictis, Luca and Lucia Tajoli. (2009). “The World Trade Network.” World Economy, V.34-#8, pp. 1417–1454.

 

○ He, J. K. and M. W. Deem. (2010). “Structure and Response in the World Trade Network.” Physical Review Letters, V.105-#19.

 

○ Barigozzi, M.; G. Fagiolo and D. Garlaschelli. (2010). “Multinetwork of International Trade: A Commodity-Specific Analysis.” Physical Review E, V.81-#4.

 

○ Barigozzi, M.; G. Fagiolo and G. Mangioni. (2011). “Identifying the Community Structure of the International Trade Multi-Network.” Physica a-Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications, V.390-#11, 2051-66.

 

○ Zhou, Min. (2010). “Multidimensionality and Gravity in Global Trade, 1950-2000.” Social Forces, V.88-#4, 1619-43.

 

○ Zhou, Min. (2011). “Intensification of Geo-Cultural Homophily in Global Trade: Evidence from the Gravity Model.” Social Science Research, V.40-#1, 193-209.

 

● Social Capital

 

○ Portes, Alejandro. (1998). “Social Capital: Its Origins and Applications in Modern Sociology.” Annual Review of Sociology, V.24, 1-24.

 

○ Mouw, Ted. (2006). “Estimating the Causal Effect of Social Capital: A Review of Recent Research.” Annual Review of Sociology, V.32, 79-102.

 

○ Durlauf, Stephen N. and Marcel Fafchamps (2006). “Social Capital,” in P. Aghion and S. N. Durlauf eds, Handbook of Economic Growth. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1639-99.

 

○ Bourdieu, Pierre (1986). “Forms of Capital,” in J. G. Richardson ed Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 241-60.

 

○ Anheier, Helmut K.; Jurgen Gerhards and Frank P. Romo. (1995). “Forms of Capital and Social Structure in Cultural Fields: Examining Bourdieu's Social Topography.” American Journal of Sociology, V.100-#4, 859-903.

 

○ Breiger, Ronald L. (2000). “A Tool Kit for Practice Theory.” Poetics, V.27-#2-3, 91-115.

 

○ Coleman, James S. (1988). “Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital.” American Journal of Sociology, V.94-#Supplement, S95-S120.

 

○ Marsden, Peter V. (2005). “The Sociology of James S. Coleman.” Annual Review of Sociology, V.31-#1, 1-24.

 

○ Sandefur, Rebecca L. and Edward O. Laumann. (1998). “A Paradigm for Social Capital.” Rationality and Society, V.10-#4, 481-501.

 

○ Putnam, Robert D. (1993). “The Prosperous Community: Social Capital and Public Life.” The American Prospect, V.13-#44, 35-42.

 

○ Putnam, Robert D. (2001). “Social Capital: Measurement and Consequences.” Canadian Journal of Policy Research, V.2-#1, 41-51.

 

○ Lin, Nan (1999). “Building a Network Theory of Social Capital”. Connections; V.22-#1, pp. 28-51.

 

○ Burt, Ronald (2001). “Structural Holes v. Network Closure as Social Capital”. In Lin, Nan; Karen S. Cook and Ronald S. Burt (2001). Social Capital: Theory and Research. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, pp. 31-56.

 

○ Burt, Ronald S. (2002). “The Social Capital of Structural Holes,” in M. F. Guillén ed. The New Economic Sociology: Developments in an Emerging Field. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 148-90.

 

○ Ostrom, Elinor and T.K. Ahn (2009). “The Meaning of Social Capital and Its Link to Collective Action,” in G. T. Svendsen and G. L. H. Svendsen eds, Handbook of Social Capital: The Troika of Sociology, Political Science and Economics. Northampton: Edward Elgar, 17–35.

 

○ Akerlof, George A. (1997). “Social Distance and Social Decisions.” Econometrica, V.65-#5, 1005-27.

 

○ Manski, Charles F. (1993). “Identification of Endogenous Social Effects: The Reflection Problem.” The Review of Economic Studies, V.60-#3, 531-42.

 

○ Manski, Charles F. (2000). “Economic Analysis of Social Interactions.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, V.14-#3, 115-36.

 

○ Brock, William A. and Steven N. Durlauf. (2001). “Discrete Choice with Social Interactions.” The Review of Economic Studies, V.68-#2, 235-60.

 

○ Ioannides, Yannis M. (2006). “Topologies of Social Interactions.” Economic Theory, V.28-#3, 559-84.

 

○ Bowles, Samuel and Herbert Gintis. (2002). “Social Capital and Community Governance.The Economic Journal, V.112-#483, F419-F36.

 

○ Glaeser, Edward L.; David Laibson and Bruce Sacerdote. (2002). “An Economic Approach to Social Capital.” Economic Journal, V.112-#483, F437-F58.

 

○ Durlauf, Steven (1999). “The Case “Against” Social Capital,” Focus, V.20-#3, pp. 1-4.

 

○ Durlauf, Steven (2002). “Bowling Alone: A Review Essay,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization; V.47-#3, pp. 259-273

 

○ Durlauf, Steven (2002). “On the Empirics of Social Capital,” Economic Journal, V.112-#483, pp. 459-479.

 

○ Sobel, Joel. (2002). “Can We Trust Social Capital?Journal of Economic Literature, V.40-#1, 139-54.

 

○ Aguilera, Michael B. and Douglas S. Massey. (2003). “Social Capital and the Wages of Mexican Migrants: New Hypotheses and Tests.” Social Forces, V.82-#2, 671-701.

 

○ Finsveen, Ellen and Wim van Oorschot. (2008). “Access to Resources in Networks: A Theoretical and Empirical Critique of Networks as a Proxy for Social Capital.” Acta Sociologica, V.51-#4, 293-307.

 

○ Iversen, Roberta Rehner and Annie Laurie Armstrong. (2008). “Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans: What Might a Sociological Embeddedness Perspective Offer Disaster Research and Planning?Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, V.8-#1, 183-209.

 

○ Elliott, James R.; Timothy J. Haney and Petrice Sams-Abiodun. (2010). “Limits to Social Capital: Comparing Network Assistance in Two New Orleans Neighborhoods Devastated by Hurricane Katrina.” Sociological Quarterly, V.51-#4, 624-48.

 

○ Aldrich, Daniel P. (2011). “The Externalities of Strong Social Capital: Post-Tsunami Recovery in Southeast India.” Journal of Civil Society, V.7-#1, 81-99.

 

○ Geys, Benny and Zuzana Murdoch. (2010). “Measuring the 'Bridging' Versus 'Bonding' Nature of Social Networks: A Proposal for Integrating Existing Measures.” Sociology, V.44-#3, 523-40.

 

○ Saijun, Zhang; Steven G. Anderson and Zhan Min. (2011). “The Differentiated Impact of Bridging and Bonding Social Capital on Economic Well-Being: An Individual Level Perspective.” Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, V.38-#1, 119-42.

 

○ Lin, Nan (2001). Social Capital: A Theory of Social Structure and Action. New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

○ Lin, Nan; Karen S. Cook and Ronald S. Burt (2001). Social Capital: Theory and Research. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

 

○ Burt, Ronald S. (2005). Brokerage and Closure: An Introduction to Social Capital. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.

 

● Immigration, Again: Neighborhoods, Networks and Assimilation

 

○ Portes, Alejandro and J. Sensenbrenner. 1993. “Embeddedness and Immigration: Notes on the Social Determinants of Economic Action”. American Journal of Sociology, 98(6), pp. 1320-50.

 

○ Wilson, Kenneth L. and Alejandro Portes (1980). “Immigrant Enclaves: An Analysis of the Labor Market Experiences of Cubans in Miami”. American Journal of Sociology, V.86-#2, pp. 295-319.

 

○ Tienda, Marta (1983). “Market Characteristics and Hispanic Earnings: A Comparison of Natives and Immigrants”. Social Problems, V.31-#1, pp. 59.

 

○ Nelson, Candace and Marta Tienda (1985). “The Structuring of Hispanic Ethnicity: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives”. Ethnic & Racial Studies, V.8-#1, pp. 49.

 

○ Zai, Liang (1994). “Social Contact, Social Capital, and the Naturalization Process: Evidence from Six Immigrant Groups”. Social Science Research, V.23-#4, pp. 407-37.

 

○ Baker, Susan Gonzalez and Marilyn Espitia (2000). “From Latin American Immigrants to "Hispanic" Citizen: The Role of Social Capital in Seeking U.S.Citizenship”. Social Science Quarterly, V.81-#4, pp. 1053-63.

 

○ Raijman, Rebeca and Marta Tienda (2003). “Ethnic Foundations of Economic Transactions: Mexican and Korean Immigrant Entrepreneurs in Chicago”. Ethnic & Racial Studies, V.26-#5, pp. 783.

 

○ Brettell, Caroline B. (2005). “Voluntary Organizations, Social Capital, and the Social Incorporation of Asian Indian Immigrants in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex”. Anthropological Quarterly, V.78-#4, pp. 853-83.

 

○ Reitz, Jeffrey (2007). “Immigrant Employment Success in Canada, Part I: Individual and Contextual Causes”. Journal of International Migration & Integration, V.8-#1, pp. 11-36.

 

○ Ryabov, Igor (2009). “The Role of Peer Social Capital in Educational Assimilation of Immigrant Youths”. Sociological Inquiry, V.79-#4, pp. 453-80.

 

○ Borjas, George J. 1992. “Ethnic Capital and Intergenerational Mobility.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 107(1), pp. 123-50.

 

○ Borjas, George J. 1994. “Immigrant Skills and Ethnic Spillovers.” Journal of Population Economics, 7(2), pp. 99-118.

 

○ Borjas, George J. 1995. “Ethnicity, Neighborhoods, and Human-Capital Externalities.” American Economic Review, 85(3), pp. 365-90.

 

○ Lazear, Edward P. 1999. “Culture and Language.” Journal of Political Economy, 107(6), pp. S95-S126.

 

○ Lazear, Edward P. 2000. “Diversity and Immigration,” In Issues in the Economics of Immigration, ed. G. J. Borjas, 117-42. Chicago: University of Chicago Press/NBER.

 

○ Cutler, David M and Edward L. Glaeser. 1997. “Are Ghettos Good or Bad?Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112(3), 827-72.

 

○ Munshi, Kaivan. 2003. “Networks in the Modern Economy: Mexican Migrants in the Us Labor Market.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118(2), 549-99.

 

○ Edin, Per-Anders, Peter Fredriksson, Olof Åslund (2003) “Ethnic enclaves and the economic success of immigrants: evidence from a natural experiment”. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118(1), pp. 329-357.

 

○ Chiswick, Barry R. and Paul W. Miller(2005). “Do enclaves matter in immigrant adjustment?City and Community; 4(1), pp. 5-35.

 

○ Hatton, Timothy J. and Andrew Leigh. forth. “Immigrants Assimilate as Communities, Not Just as Individuals.” Journal of Population Economics, forthcoming.

 

● Market Structure

 

○ White, Harrison (1981). “Production Markets as Induced Role Structures”. in S. Leinhardt, ed. Sociological Methodology--1981. San Francisco: Jossey Bass, pp. 1-57.

 

○ White, Harrison (1981). “Where Do Markets Come From?”. American Journal of Sociology; V.87-#3, pp. 517-547.

 

○ White, Harrison and Eric Leifer (1985). “A Structural Approach to Markets”. in M. Schwartz and M. Mizruchi, eds. Intercorporate Relations: The Structural Analysis of Business. New York: Academic Press, pp. 85-108.

 

○ White, Harrison C. (1988). “Varieties of Markets,” in B. Wellman and S. D. Berkowitz eds, Social Structures: A Network Approach. New York: Cambridge University Press, 226-60.

 

○ Leifer, Eric (1985). “Markets as Mechanisms: Using a Role Structure”. Social Forces; V.64-#2, pp. 442-472.

 

○ Baker, Wayne (1984). “The Social Structure of a National Securities Market”. American Journal of Sociology, V.89-4, pp. 775-811.

 

○ Baker, Wayne (1990). “Market Networks and Corporate Behavior”. American Journal of Sociology, V.96-#3, pp. 589-625.

 

○ Baker, Wayne and Anath Iyer (1992). “Information Networks and Market Behavior”. Journal of Mathematical Sociology; V.16-#4, pp. 305-322.

 

○ Berkowitz, Stephen D. (1988). “Markets and Market Areas: Some Preliminary Formulations,” in B. Wellman and S. D. Berkowitz eds, Social Structures: A Network Approach. New York: Cambridge University Press, 261-303.

 

○ Burt, Ronald (1988). “The Stability of American Markets”. American Journal of Sociology; V.94-#2, pp. 356-395.

 

○ Burt, Ronald S. and Debbie S. Carlton. (1989). “Another Look at the Network Boundaries of American Markets.” American Journal of Sociology, V.95-#3, 723-53.

 

○ Burt Ronald (1992). Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

 

○ Davis, Gerald F. (1991). “Agents without Principles? The Spread of the Poison Pill through the Intercorporate Network.” Administrative Science Quarterly, V.36-#4, 583-613.

 

○ Lincoln, James R.; Michael L. Gerlach and Peggy Takahashi. (1992). “Keiretsu Networks in the Japanese Economy: A Dyad Analysis of Intercorporate Ties.” American Sociological Review, V.57-#5, 561-85.

 

○ Walker, Gordon; Bruce Kogut and Weijian. Shan. (1997). “Social Capital, Structural Holes and the Formation of an Industry Network.” Organization Science, V.8-#2, 109-25.

 

○ White, Harrison (1995). “Social Networks can Resolve Actor Paradoxes in Economics and In Psychology”. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics; V.151-#1, pp. 58-74.

 

○ White, Harrison (2001). Markets from Networks. Princeton: PUP.

 

○ Fligstein, Neil (2001). The Architecture of Markets: An Economic Sociology of Twenty-First-Century Capitalist Societies. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

 

○ Kranton, Rachel and Deborah Minehart (2001). “A Theory of Buyer-Seller Networks”. American Economic Review; V.91-#3, pp. 485-508.

 

○ Podolny, Joel M.; E. Stuart Toby and Michael T. Hannan. (1996). “Networks, Knowledge, and Niches: Competition in the Worldwide Semiconductor Industry, 1984-1991.” American Journal of Sociology, V.102-#3, 659-89.

 

○ Benjamin, Beth A. and Joel M. Podolny. (1999). “Status, Quality, and Social Order in the California Wine Industry.” Administrative Science Quarterly, V.44-#3, 563-89.

 

○ Podolny, Joel (2001). “Networks as the Pipes and Prisms of the Market”. American Journal of Sociology; V.107-#1, pp. 33-60.

 

○ Knoke, David. (2009). “Playing Well Together: Creating Corporate Social Capital in Strategic Alliance Networks.” American Behavioral Scientist, V.52-#12, 1690-708.

 

○ Caldarelli, Guido; Stefano Battiston; Diego Garlaschelli and Michele Catanzaro (2004). “Emergence of Complexity in Financial Networks,” in E. Ben-Naim, H. Frauenfelder and Z. Toroczkai eds, Complex Networks. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 399-423.

 

○ Garlaschelli, Diego; Stefano Battiston; Maurizio Castri; Vito D. P. Servedio and Guido Caldarelli. (2005). “The Scale-Free Topology of Market Investments.” Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, V.350-#2-4, 491-99.

 

○ Weisbuch, Gérard and Stefano Battiston. (2007). “From Production Networks to Geographical Economics.” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, V.64-#3-4, 448-69.

 

○ Battiston, Stefano; Domenico Delli Gatti; Mauro Gallegati; Bruce Greenwald and Joseph E. Stiglitz. (2007). “Credit Chains and Bankruptcy Propagation in Production Networks.” Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, V.31-#6, 2061-84.

 

● Board Structure and Corporate Governance

 

○ Herman, Edward S. (1981). Corporate Control, Corporate Power. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

○ Burt, Ronald S. (1983). Corporate Profits and Cooptation : Networks of Market Constraints and Directorate Ties in the American Economy. New York: Academic Press.

 

○ Mintz, Beth and Michael Schwartz (1985). The Power Structure of American Business. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

 

○ Mizruchi, Mark S. (1996). “What Do Interlocks Do? An Analysis, Critique, and Assessment of Research on Interlocking Directories.” Annual Review of Sociology, V.22-#1, 271.

 

○ Galaskiewicz, Joseph; Stanley Wasserman; Barbara Rauschenbach; Wolfgang Bielefeld and Patti Mullaney. (1985). “The Influence of Corporate Power, Social Status, and Market Position on Corporate Interlocks in a Regional Network.” Social Forces, V.64-#2, 403-31.

 

○ Davis, Gerald F. (1991). “Agents without Principles? The Spread of the Poison Pill through the Intercorporate Network.” Administrative Science Quarterly, V.36-#4, 583-613.

 

○ Zajac, Edward J. and James D. Westphal. (1996). “Director Reputation, Ceo-Board Power, and the Dynamics of Board Interlocks.” Administrative Science Quarterly, V.41-#3, 507-29.

 

○ Westphal, James D. and Edward J. Zajac. (1997). “Defections from the Inner Circle: Social Exchange, Reciprocity, and the Diffusion of Board Independence in U.S. Corporations.” Administrative Science Quarterly, V.42-#1, 161-83.

 

○ Gulati, Ranjay and James D. Westphal. (1999). “Cooperative or Controlling? The Effects of Ceo-Board Relations and the Content of Interlocks on the Formation of Joint Ventures.” Administrative Science Quarterly, V.44-#3, 473-506.

 

○ Davis, Gerald F.; Mina Yoo and Wayne E. Baker. (2003). “The Small World of the American Corporate Elite, 1982-2001.” Strategic Organization, V.1-#3, 301-26.

 

○ Battiston, Stefano; Eric Bonabeau and Gérard Weisbuch. (2003). “Decision Making Dynamics in Corporate Boards.” Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, V.322, 567-82.

 

○ Battiston, Stefano. (2004). “Inner Structure of Capital Control Networks.” Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, V.338-#1-2, 107-12.

 

○ Battiston, Stefano and M. Catanzaro. (2004). “Statistical Properties of Corporate Board and Director Networks.” The European Physical Journal B - Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, V.38-#2, 345-52.

 

○ Battiston, Stefano; Diego Garlaschelli and Guido Caldarelli (2005). “The Topology of Shareholding Networks,” in T. Lux, E. Samanidou and S. Reitz eds, Nonlinear Dynamics and Heterogeneous Interacting Agents. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 189-99.

 

○ Caldarelli, Guido; Stefano Battiston and Diego Garlaschelli (2006). “The Skeleton of the Shareholders Networks,” in H. Takayasu ed Practical Fruits of Econophysics. Tokyo: Springer 297-301.

 

○ Milaković, Mishael; Simone Alfarano and Thomas Lux. (2010). “The Small Core of the German Corporate Board Network.” Computational & Mathematical Organization Theory, V.16-#2, 201-15.

 

● Elite Networks & Political Organization

 

○ Knoke, David (1986). “Associations and Interest Groups”. Annual Review of Sociology, V.12-1986, pp. 1-21.

 

○ Mills, C. Wright (1956). The Power Elite. New York: Oxford University Press.

 

○ Domhoff, G. William (1970). The Higher Circles: The Governing Class in America. New York,: Random House.

 

○ Domhoff, G. William (1980). Power Structure Research. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications.

 

○ Burch, Philip H. (1980). Elites in American History (3 vols.). New York: Holmes & Meier.

 

○ Laumann, Edward O.; Peter V. Marsden and Joseph Galaskiewicz. (1977). “Community Elite Influence Structures: Extension of a Network Approach.” American Journal of Sociology, V.83-#3, 594-631.

 

○ Moore, Gwen. (1979). “The Structure of a National Elite Network.” American Sociological Review, V.44-#5, 673-92.

 

○ Laumann, Edward O.; J. Galaskiewicz and Peter V. Marsden. (1978). “Community Structure as Interorganizational Linkages.” Annual Review of Sociology, V.4, 455-84.

 

○ Laumann, Edward O. and Peter V. Marsden. (1979). “Analysis of Oppositional Structures in Political Elites - Identifying Collective Actors.” American Sociological Review, V.44-#5, 713-32.

 

○ Laumann, Edward O.; David Knoke and Yong-Hak Kim (1985). “An Organizational Approach to State Policy Formation: A Comparative Study of Energy and Health Domains”. American Sociological Review, V.50-#1, pp. 1-19.

 

○ Salisbury, Robert H.; John P. Heinz; Edward O. Laumann and Robert L. Nelson (1987). “Who Works with Whom? Interest Group Alliances and Opposition”. The American Political Science Review, V.81-#4, pp. 1217-34.

 

○ Laumann, Edward O. and David Knoke (1987). The Organizational State : Social Choice in National Policy Domains. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press.

 

○ Knoke, David (1990). “Networks of Political Action: Toward Theory Construction”. Social Forces, V.68-#4, pp. 1041-63.

 

○ Knoke, David (1990). Political Networks: The Structural Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

○ Heinz, John P.; Edward O. Laumann; Robert H. Salisbury and Robert L. Nelson (1990). “Inner Circles or Hollow Cores? Elite Networks in National Policy Systems”. The Journal of Politics, V.52-#2, pp. 356-90.

 

○ Heinz, John P.; Edward O. Laumann; Robert L. Nelson and Robert H. Salisbury (1993). The Hollow Core: Private Interests in National Policy Making. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

 

○ Zuckerman, Alan S.; Nicholas A. Valentino and Ezra W. Zuckerman (1994). “A Structural Theory of Vote Choice: Social and Political Networks and Electoral Flows in Britain and the United States”. The Journal of Politics, V.56-#4, pp. 1008-33.

 

○ Tassier, Troy. (2004). “A Model of Fads, Fashions, and Group Formation.” Complexity, V.9-#5, 51-61.

 

○ Carpenter, D. P.; K. M. Esterling and D. M. J. Lazer. (1998). “The Strength of Weak Ties in Lobbying Networks - Evidence from Health Care Politics in the United States.” Journal of Theoretical Politics, V.10-#4, 417-44.

 

○ Melbeck, Christian. (1998). “Comparing Local Policy Networks.” Journal of Theoretical Politics, V.10-#4, 531-52.

 

○ Rydgren, Jens. (2005). “Bridging Different Worlds? Economy, Politics and Brokerage Roles in Sweden.” Acta Sociologica, V.48-#2, 117-29.

 

○ Siegel, David A. (2009). “Social Networks and Collective Action.” American Journal of Political Science, V.53-#1, 122-38.

 

○ Siegel, David A. (2011). “Social Networks in Comparative Perspective.” PS: Political Science and Politics, V.44-#1, 51-54.