II. COMPONENTS OF DOCUMENTS

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Chapters/Sections about IDD
Articles about IDD
Presentations at conferences/workshops


CHAPTERS/SECTIONS

 IDD in the Middle East:

1. Introduction
2. Geography of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in the Middle East
3. Increased Political Commitment in Middle Eastern Countries
4. Action by WHO Regional Office
5. National Programmes for the Elimination of IDD.

by K. BAGCHI & A. Verster [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.337-346} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.

Planning and Managing National Programmes for Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders - Africa:

by Pandav, C.S., Haxton, David P. and Viswanathan, Hema [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.400-428} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.

 Partnership to End Hidden Hunger Collaboration of Stakeholders in Sustaining the Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders:

by K. V. BAILEY [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.177-189} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.

Iodine Deficiency Disorders in the Americas:

by E.A. PRETELL and J.T. Dunn[in The Prevention and Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {pp.237-48} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Amsterdam, 1987.

Neonatal and Juvenile Hypothyroidism in Central Africa:

by C.H. THILLY, P. Bourdoux, J.B. Vanderpas, B.A. Swennen, H.P. Deckx, G.K. Luvivila, and F.M. Delange [in Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Congenital Hypothyroidism {pp. 26-33} by GERALDO MEDEIROS NETO, R.M.B. Maciel, and A. Halpern {editors}]; Ache, Brazil, 1986.

Intellectual Assessment in Primitive Societies, With a Preliminary Report of a Study of the Effects of Early Iodine Supplementation on Intelligence:

by F.L. TROWBRIDGE [in Human Development and the Thyroid Gland: Relationship to Endemic Cretinism {pp. 137-49} by J.B.STANBURY and R.L. Kroc {editors}]; Plenum, New York, 1972.

The Prevalence and Geographical Distribution of Endemic Goitre:

by F.C. KELLY and W.W. Snedden [in Endemic Goitre {pp.227-234} by WHO]; Geneva, 1960.

Iodine Deficiency, Thyroid Function, and Reproductive Failure:

by A.J. McMICHAEL, J.D. Potter and B.S. Hetzel [in Endemic Goiter and Endemic Cretinism {pp. 445-60} by B.S. HETZEL, J.T. Dunn, and J.B. Stanbury {editors}]; Willie, New York, 1980.

 Causas Posibles y Aspectos Clinicos de la dismunicion de la Formacion de Hormonas Tiroides:

En Español/In Spanish:

1. Causas posibles y aspectos clinicos de la disminucion de la formacion de hormonas tiroides. Metologias de la evaluacion de la formacion disminuida de tiroides y niveles en suero y circulacion. Tambien, tiene una busqueda de factores etiologicos en la formacion disminuida en tiroides.2.1 Analisis de la economia de iodo por compartimentos
2.2 Autoinmunidad y bocio
2.3 Genetica y bocio
2.4 Bociogenesis
2.5 Exceso de iodo
Concluye con una carta de flujo de diagnostico en la formacion disminuida de tiroides.

by C. BECKERS [in 1er. Curso Taller Internacional sobre Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo y su Control en Latino America (Translation is "First International Workshop-Course on Iodine Deficiency Disorders and their Control in Latin America") by PROYECTO LUCHA CONTRA EL BOCIO ENDEMICO. Ecuador. 1990 de Noviembre.

IDD in Africa - IDD in Western and Central Africa:

1. Introduction
2. Algeria
3. Cameroon
4. Mali
5. Zaire.
by MOULAY BENMILOUD & Lantum [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.242-248} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.
 
 

The Role of Kiwanis International:

by W. BLECHMAN [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.229-232} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-562002-0, 1996.

A Metanalysis of Research on Iodine and its Relationship to Cognitive Development:

by NICO BLEICHRODT & M.Ph. Born [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.195-200} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.

 An Assessment of the Prospects for Virtual Elimination of IDD in Africa:

by Kavishe, Festo [in the Food and Nutrition Bulletin, September 1997, volume 17, no. 3]

 How Salt Iodization Systems Can Break Down:

by Stewart et al. [in the Food and Nutrition Bulletin, September 1997, volume 17, no. 3]

 Measuring Intelligence and Learning Potential in Iodine Deficient and Noniodine Deficient Populations:

by NICO BLEICHRODT & W. Resing [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.37-42} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.

I disordini extra-tiroidei da carenza iodica. Qual e il real fabbisogno di iodio? (Extrathyroid Iodine Deficiency Disorders. What is the real iodine requirement?):

The authors report a recent review of the most important extrathyroid IDD in relation to: stomach, immune system, mammary glands, ovaries, arterial and articular system, epidermis and nervous system. All these organs concentrate about 80% of total body iodine in humans and animals, but the role of this extrathyroid iodine is not known.

The hypothesis is that this iodine might have a specific antioxydant role, from primitive algae, which contain the highest level of iodine, and which were the first living cells to produce oxygen. So we believe that this phylogenetically ancient antioxydant role is important also in animals and humans. In fact, the thyroid gland is only a phylogenetically modern organ, which was improved from primitive Chordates to more recent Mammalia. In the references are reported different studies on the antioxydant ability of iodine in rates and in humans.

by Venturi S, Guidi A, Venturi M. in the Journal of Italian Society of Pharmacology (Le Basi Razioneali Della Terapia), 1996; 16: 267-75.

The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Evidence for a Continuum of Effect on the Population at Risk:

by STEVEN BOYAGES [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.251-257} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.

Endemic Cretinism in Eastern New Guinea: its relation to goitre and iodine deficiency: This chapter includes the following topics:

Methods
Clinical studies of endemic cretinism
Studies of thyroid function in endemic cretins
Studies of Iodine and general nutrition in the endemic area
The effect of iodized oil
Summary
Acknowledgments
References.

by I. H. BUTTFIELD & B.S. Hetzel [in Endemic Cretinism {p.33-54} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {Editors}]; Institute of Human Biology Papua-New Guinea: Melbourne, Australia. December 1971.

Critical Timing of Brain Vulnerability to Iodine Deficiency in Endemic Cretinism: A Repletion Study:

by XUE-YI CAO, T. Ma, J. Xin-Min, K. Amette, D. Zho-Hong, M.A. Rakeman & et al. [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.139-147} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.

The Impact of Iodine Deficiency on Neurological and Cognitive Development: The European Experience:

by L. CHIOVATO, F. Aghini-Lombardi, P. Vitti, G. Ferretti, M. Marcheschi & A. Pinchera [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.293-297} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.

The Role of the International Agencies - WHO:

1. Global Historical Developments
2. Regional Programme
3. Training Programmes and Capacity-building
4. National Programme Implementation
5. Monitoring, Evaluation, and Information Systems
6. Conclusion.
by G. A. CLUGSTON & K.V. Bailey [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.216-228} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.
 
 


Subclinical Effects of Iodine Deficiency: Problems of Assessment:

by K. CONNOLLY & P. Pharoah [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.27-35} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.

Interaction Between Two Trace Elements: Selenium and Iodine. Implications of Both Deficiencies:

by B. CONTEMPRE, M.C. Many, J.B. Vanderpas & J.E. Dumont [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.133-138} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.

Implicaciones Sociales, Economicas y de Salud de Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo(Translation is "Social, Economic and Health Implications of IDD"): En Español/In Spanish: Resumen de los efectos negativos de DI.

by C. H. DAZA [in 1er. Curso Taller Internacional sobre Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo y su Control en Latino America (Translation is "First International Workshop-Course on Iodine Deficiency Disorders and their Control in Latin America") by PROYECTO LUCHA CONTRA EL BOCIO ENDEMICO. Ecuador. 1990 de Noviembre.

Desarrollo Neuromuscular Efecto de la Deficiencia de Yodo (Translation is "Neuromuscular Developmental Effects of Iodine Deficiency"): En Español/In Spanish:Contenidos incluye:

1. Neurologia Descriptiva del Cretinismo Endemico
2. Caracteristicas Especificas de deficits Neurologicos
3. Funcion intelectual
4. Otros Efectos de la Deficiencia de Iodo en Desarrollo y la Funcion Cerebral
5. Tiempo de Desarrollo y Proceso Criticos Afectados
6. Cretinismo Neurologico sin Deficiencia de Iodo.

by R. DE LONG [in 1er. Curso Taller Internacional sobre Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo y su Control en Latino America (Translation is "First International Workshop-Course on Iodine Deficiency Disorders and their Control in Latin America") by PROYECTO LUCHA CONTRA EL BOCIO ENDEMICO. Ecuador. 1990 de Noviembre.

Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Europe:

1. Epidemiology
2. Public Health Consequences
3. Prevention and Therapy of IDD in Europe.

by F. DELANGE [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p. 303-323} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.

Endemic Cretinism in Idwji Island: This chapter includes the following topics:

Subjects and Methods
Results
Discussions
Summary
Acknowledgements
References.

by F. DELANGE, A.M. Ermans, H.L. Vis & J.B. Stanbury [in Endemic Cretinism {p.33-54} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {Editors}]; Institute of Human Biology Papua-New Guinea: Melbourne, Australia. December 1971.

Sistematizacion de los Signos Neurologicos Congenitos (Translation is "Systemization of the Congenital Neurological Symptoms"): En Español/In Spanish.

by DELONG R., J.B. Stanbury & R. Fierro Benitez[in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.99-107} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.

The Neuromotor Deficit in Endemic Cretinism:

by ROBERT DELONG, T. Ma, X. Cao, J. Xin-min, Z. Dou, M.A. Rakeman, Z. Ming-li & R. Heinz [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.9-13} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.

Presentacion Sobre Marketing Social(Translation is "Presentation About Social Marketing"): En Español/In Spanish: ?Que es el Marketing? Algunos conceptos basicos en el marketing social y los diferentes publicos en el proyecto de lucha contra bocio. (Incluye teorias y modelos de cambio social).

by A. D. DOIG [in 1er. Curso Taller Internacional sobre Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo y su Control en Latino America (Translation is "First International Workshop-Course on Iodine Deficiency Disorders and their Control in Latin America") by PROYECTO LUCHA CONTRA EL BOCIO ENDEMICO, Ecuador. 1990 de Noviembre.

Endemic Cretinism: The Myxedematous and Neurological Forms of a Disease Caused by Severe Iodine Deficiency:

by J. E. DUMONT, B. Corvilain & B. Contempre[in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.259-263} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.

Parametros Para el Diagnostico de Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo: Problemas Practicos(Translation is "Parameters for Diagnosing Iodine Deficiency: Practical Problems"): En Español/In Spanish: Esta presentacion ha descrito los valores y limitaciones de varios enfoques o aproximaciones a la estimacion de los desordenes por deficiencia de yodo. Aparte de sus limitaciones ya conocidas, las encuestas de bocio y la determinacion de yodo urinario son en actualidad los medios mas practicos para la estimacion en el campo, y los dos deberian ser incluidos siempre que esto sea posible. Otros enfoques y tecnicas, cuando son disponibles, siempre deberian ser consideradas en cirunstancias particulares.

by J. T. DUNN [in 1er. Curso Taller Internacional sobre Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo y su Control en Latino America (Translation is "First International Workshop-Course on Iodine Deficiency Disorders and their Control in Latin America") by PROYECTO LUCHA CONTRA EL BOCIO ENDEMICO, Ecuador. 1990 de Noviembre.

Societal Implications of Iodine Deficiency and the Value of Its Prevention:

by J. T. DUNN [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.309-314} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.

The Use of Iodized Oil and Other Alternatives for the Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders:

1. Introduction
2. Iodized Oil
3. Iodized Water
4. Direct Iodine Supplements
5. Other Alternatives.

by J. T. DUNN [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.119-128} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}];

Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.

Monitoring and Verification of Progress Towards the Elimination of IDD by the Year 2000 and Beyond:

1. Introduction
2. Proposed Guidelines for Tracking Progress Towards Elimination.

by JOHN T. DUNN, C.S. Pandav & B.S. Hetzel[in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.347-356} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.

Intellectual and Neurological Development of Children Age 12 and 15 with Congenital Hypothyroidism Detected by Neonatal Screening:

by J. G. DUSSAULT, J. Glorieux, J. Puymirat, G. VanVliet, J. Roy & J. Doyon [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.149-151} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.

IDD in Nigeria:

1. The IDD Situation in Nigeria
2. Intervention with Salt Iodization
3. National Policy on IDD
4. Recent Developments in Government Policy on IDD Control
5. Constraints.

by O. L. EKPECHI [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.249-255} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.

Biopatologia y la Historia de los Pueblos Altoandinos: La Situacion en 1962(Translation is "Biopathology of the High Andes: The Situation in 1962"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ [in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.313-314} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Cretinismo en las Americas(Translation is "Cretinism in the Americas"): En Español/In Spanish. by R. FIERRO BENITEZ[in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiency de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.81-86} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Impact of Iodine Deficiency on Development of the Andean World: A Philosophical Perspective:

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.157-172} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo en la Evolucion Historica de las Comunidades Campesinas Andinas(Translation is "The Iodine Deficiency Disorders in the Historic Evolution of the Rural Andean Communities"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ [in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.141-143} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {editor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Resumen Panoramico de los Estudios Realizados de 1962 a 1992 (Translation is "Panoramic Synopsis of Studies from 1962 to 1992"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ [in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.315-327} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Situacion de los Programas de Control de los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo: (Translation is "Situation of Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Programs"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ [in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.159-163} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Vision Historica Retrospectiva(Translation is "An Historical Retrospective"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ [in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andian: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.329-350} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Efectos Sobre la Descendencia de Ratas Mantenidas Bajo Deficiencia de Yodo Antes, Durante y Despues de la Gestacion: (Translation is "Effects of Low-Iodine Diet on Rats Before, During, and After Pregnancy"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ, C.H. Barsano, T.J. Smith, Seiden L., T. Murata & F. Eichfeld[in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo: ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.153-156} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Correccion Temprana de la Deficiencia de Yodo y Efectos Tardios sobre las Capacidades Psicomotoras y la Migracion Campesina(Translation is "Early Correction of Iodine Deficiency and the Delayed Effects on Psychomotor Capabilities and Rural Migration"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ, R. Cazar, H. Sandoval, F. Fierro Renoy, G. Sevilla & et al. [in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.289-304} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Efectos a Largo Plazo de la Correccion de la Deficiencia de Yodo sobre el Desarrollo Intelectual y Psicomotor (Translation is "The Long-Term Effects of Correction of Iodine Deficiency on Intellectual and Psycho-motor Development"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ, R. Cazar, J.B. Stanbury, P. Rodriguez, F. Garces, F. Fierro Renoy & E. Estrella[in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.241-265} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Efectos de la Profilaxis de las Madres con Aceite Yodado sobre la Escolaridad de los Hijos (Translation is "Effects on School Children of the Prophylaxis of Mothers with Iodized Oil"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ, R. Cazar, J.B. Stanbury, P. Rodriguez, F. Garces, F. Fierro Renoy & E. Estrella[in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.267-281} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Efectos de la Correccion de la Deficiencia de Yodo sobre ls Deficiencia Mental Endemica(Translation is "Effects of Iodine Deficiency Correction on Endemic Mental Retardation"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ, R. Cazar & J.B. Stanbury[in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.283-287} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Efectos de la Co-ocurrencia de la Deficiencia de Yodo con la Malnutricion Proteico-Energetica Sobre el Desarrollo Mental, el Lenguaje y la Audicion(Translation is "The Role of the Co-Occurrence of Iodine Deficiency and Protein Energy Malnutrition on Mental Development, Language and Hearing"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ, M. Cruz, E. Estrella, I. Ramirez, J.B. Stanbury, J. Reinhart & J. Suarez [in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.227-239} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Descripcion del Cretinismo Endemico Neurologico (2) (Translation is "Description of Endemic Neurological Cretinism (2)"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ, M.R. Harrison, I. Ramirez, S. Refetoff & J.B. Stanbury [in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.61-70} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Hipotiroidismo Neonatal Endemico(Translation is "Endemic-Neonatal,Hypothyroidism"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ, A. Jijon, J.C. Zevallos, F. Fierro Renoy, C. Alarcon Salazar & et al. [in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.117-120} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Funcion Tiroidea en las Grandes Alturas (Translation is "Thyroid Function at High Altitudes"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ, M. Paredes, W. Penafiel & F. Fierro Renoy [in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.135-140} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Epidemiologia de los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo (Translation is "Epidemiology of Iodine Deficiency Disorders"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ, W. Penafiel, L. DeGroot & I. Ramirez [in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.19-29} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Efecto de la Correcion de la Deficiencia de Yodo, por Medio de la Administracion de Aceite Yodado, Sobre el Desarrollo Intelectual(Translation is "The Role of the Correction of Iodine Deficiency on Intellectual Development through the Administration of Iodized Oil"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ, I. Ramirez, E. Estrella, J.B. Stanbury, J. Suarez, V. Espinoza & J. Reinhart [in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.217-226} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



El Aceite Yodado como Metodo Alternativo de Profilaxis de los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo (Translation is "Iodized Oil as an Alternative Method of Prophylaxis of Iodine Deficiency Disorders"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ & I. Ramirez [in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.191-201} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



La Deficiencia Mental Endemica(Translation is "Endemic Mental Deficiency"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ, I. Ramirez, J. Garces, C. Jaramillo, F. Moncayo & J.B. Stanbury [in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.31-47} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Prevencion del Cretinismo Endemico por medio de la Administracion de Aceite Yodado de Deposito(Translation is "Prevention of Endemic Cretinism through the Administration of Iodized Oil"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ, I. Ramirez, E. Estrella, A. Querido & J.B. Stanbury [in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficienica de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.203-216} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Programa Ecuatoriano de Control de los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo por medio de la Administracion Intramuscular de Aceite Yodado(Translation is "Ecuadoran Program for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders through the Intramuscular Administration of Iodized Oil"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ, I. Ramirez, E. Estrella, C. Jaramillo, C. Dias & J. Urresta [in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.165-189} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Influencia del Estado Nutricional sobre la Eliminacion del Aceite Yodado de Deposito(Translation is "Influence of Nutritional Status on the Elimination of Iodized Oil"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ, H. Sandoval Valencia, B. Sevilla Munoz, E. Rodriguez, E. Gualotuna, G. Fierro Carrion, V. Pacheco Bastidas, J. Andrade, P.H. Wang & J.B. Stanbury [in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.305-309} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Descripcion del Cretinismo Endemico Neurologico (1) (Translation is "Description of Endemic Neurological Cretinism (1)"): En Español/In Spanish.

by R. FIERRO BENITEZ, J.B. Stanbury, A. Querido, L. DeGroot, R. Alban & J. Cordova[in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.49-61} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Goiter and Cretinism in the Uele Zaire Endemia: Studies of an Iodine Deficient Population With Changes Following Intervention. I. Morphological Aspects:

by G. GEELHOES & D. Downing [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.227-231} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



Goiter and Cretinism in the Uele Zaire Endemia: Studies of an Iodine Deficient Population With Changes Following Intervention. II. Functional and Behavioral Aspects:

by G. GEELHOES & D. Downing [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.233-237} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



IDD in Central Asia:

by G. GERASIMOV & D.P. Haxton [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.257-270} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.



Methodological Approaches Used in Kingston, Jamaica to Determine the Effect of Nutrition and Stimulation on Child Development:

by S. GRANTHAM-MCGREGOR, S. Walker & C. Powell[in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.51-57} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



The Role of the International Agencies - UNICEF:

by J. P. GREAVES & D. Alnwick [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.205-215} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.



A Retrospective View of Iodine Deficiency, Brain Development, and Behavior from Studies in Ecuador:

by L. S. GREENE [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.173-185} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



El Valor y Aplicacion de la Ultrasonografia en Epidemiologia y Enfermedades Tiroides(Translation is "The Value and Application of Using Ultrasonograph in Epidemiology and Thyroid ailments") En Español/In Spanish: La ultrasonografia es un metodo practico, seguro, de repencion ilimitada y costo efectivo para estimar la morfologia y tamano de tiroides. Ya que mas del 50% de bocios pertenecen a los estados 1A y 1B las cifras corregidas de prevalencia dependen considerablemente de la calidad del metodo usado para la deteccion de bocio y la sonografia es mucho mejor que la palpacion.

by R. GUTEKUNST [in 1er. Curso Taller Internacional Sobre Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo y su Control en Latino America (Translation is "First International Workshop-Course on Iodine Deficiency Disorders and their Control in Latin America") by PROYECTO LUCHA CONTRA EL BOCIO ENDEMICO, Ecuador Noviembre 1990.



The Neuromotor Deficit in Endemic Cretinism and its Implications for the Pathogenesis of the Disorder:

by JEAN-PIERRE HALPERN [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.15-24} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



Studies of Hearing Abnormality in Endemic Cretinism in Quingai Province, PRC:

by JEAN-PIERRE HALPERN [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.273-277} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



From Knowledge to Policy to Practice:

by DAVID P. HAXTON [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.147-164} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.



The Process of Communicating the Message:

by DAVID P. HAXTON [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.165-176} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.



The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders through a Global Partnership of People, Governments, International Agencies, The Salt Industry, Kiwanis International and Micronutrient Initiative:

by BASIL S. HETZEL [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.57-78} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.



Historical Development of the Concepts of Brain-Thyroid Relationships:

by BASIL S. HETZEL [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.1-8} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



The History of Endemic Cretinism:

by BASIL S. HETZEL [in Endemic Cretinism {p.5-8} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {Editors}]; Institute of Human Biology Papua-New Guinea: Melbourne, Australia. December 1971.



Recent Progress in the Elimination of the Iodine Deficiency Disorders:

1. Introduction
2. Elimination of IDD achieved in Switzerland
3. Elimination of IDD in the USA
4. The Bridging of the Gap - International Action
5. The ICCIDD
6. National IDD Control Programmes
7. Regional Support
8. IDD and the United Nations System
9. Progress Towards Elinimation.
by BASIL S. HETZEL [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.31-55} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.
 
 




S.O.S. for a Billion - The Nature and Magnitude of the Iodine Deficiency Disorders:

1. Introduction
2. The Ecology of Iodine Deficiency
3. The Effects of Iodine Deficiency through the Thyroid Gland on Growth and Development
4. The Development of Goitre
5. Feotal Iodine Deficiency
6. Iodine Deficiency in the Neonate
7. Iodine Deficiency in Childhood
8. Iodine Deficiency in the Adult
9. Effects of Iodine Deficiency in Animals
10. The Costs of Iodine Deficiency
11. The Magnitude of the Problem.
by BASIL S. HETZEL [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.3-29} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.
 
 




Hormone Nurturing of the Brain: Sheep and Marmoset Models:

by BASIL S. HETZEL & M. Mano [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.123-130} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



Neurological Aspects of Endemic Cretinism in Eastern New Guinea:

by R. W. HORNABROOK [in Endemic cretinism {p.105-107} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {Editors}]; Institute of Human Biology Papua-New Guinea: Melbourne, Australia. December 1971.



Endemic Cretinism in Nepal:

This chapter contains the following topics:

Area of Study
Material and Methods
Results: The goitre endemic
Endemic cretinism and deaf mutism
Summary
Acknowledgements
References.

by H. K. IBBERTSON, M. Pearl, J. McKinnon, M.J. Tait, T. Lim & M.B. Gill [in Endemic cretinism {p.71-88} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {Editors}]; Institute of Human Biology Papua-New Guinea: Melbourne, Australia. December 1971.



Desarrollo Esqueletico y Dentario(Translation is "Dental and Skeletal Development"): En Español/In Spanish.

by H. ISRAEL, R. Fierro Benitez & Garces J.[in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.121-134} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {editor}];

Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



IDD in Africa - IDD in Eastern and Southern Africa:

1. Introduction
2. A Historical Perspective
3. The Need for an Institutional Framework
4. The Severity of the IDD Problem
5. The IDD Belt
6. IDD Programmes
7. The Future Challenge.
by FESTO P. KAVISHE [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.235-241} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}];

Oxford University Press: Delhi. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.



IDD in China:

by T. MA & T.Z. Lu [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.293-302} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.



Mental Retardation Other Than Typical Cretinism in IDD Endemias of China:

by T. MA, D. Want & Z.P. Chen [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.265-272} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



The Iodization of Salt for the Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders:

1. Introduction
2. Rationale for Food Fortification
3. Why Iodize Salt?
4. Historical Background
5. The Iodization Process
6. Salt Production and Distribution
7. Support Measures
8. Characteristics of Effective Salt Iodization Programmes
9. Salt Industry Participation in IDD Elimination.

by M. G. VENKATESH MANNAR [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.99-118} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.



Relationship of Neuropsychological Test Scores to Compliance with Treatment in Adolescent Patients with Congenital Hypothyroidism:

by M. L. MITCHELL & The New England Congenital Hypothyroidism Collaborative [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.153-156} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



Hormone Nurturing of the Developing Brain: The Rat Model:

by G. MORREALE DE ESCOBAR, M.J. Obregon, R. Calvo & F. Escobar del Rey [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.103-122} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



Contenido en Yodo de la Tiroglobulina S19 y S27 en Extractos de Tiroides Normales y Tiroides Bociosas por Deficiencia de Yodo(Translation is "Iodine Content of S19 and S27 Thyroglobulin in Extracts from Normal and Endemic Goitrogenic Thyroids due to Iodine Deficiency"): En Español/In Spanish.

by MOURIZ J., R. Fierro Benitez & J.B. Stanbury[in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por la Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.145-151} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



The Partnership for Child Development: An International Initiative to Improve Health and Education of School Children:

by CATHERINE NOKES [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.45-50} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



Congenital Hypothyroid Screening Programs: A Sensitive IDD Surveillance System:

by D. F. NORDENBERG, R. Ratajczak, M. Rybakowa, D. Tylck & G.F. Maberly [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.279-283} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



Iodine Supplementation and Infant Psychological Development in an IDD Endemic Area in China:

by KAREN O'DONNELL, Z. Dou, X. Cao, K. Amette, J. Xin-Min, M.A. Rakeman, Z. Ming-Li, N. DeLong, T. Ma & R. DeLong [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.287-291} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



The Economic Benefits of the Elimination of IDD:

1. Introduction
2. Economic Evaluation
3. Types of Economic Evaluation
4. Economic Evaluation of IDD in Different Countries.

by C. S. PANDAV [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.129-146} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.



IDD in South-East Asia:

by C. S. PANDAV [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.271-291} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.



Planning and Managing National Programmes for Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders - Asia:

by C. S. PANDAV [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.190-199} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.



Partnership to End Hidden Hunger:Collaboration of Stakeholders in Sustaining the Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders:

by C. S. PANDAV, D.P. Haxton & H. Viswanathan[in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.400-428} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.



IDD in Livestock Populations:

1. Introduction
2. Iodine Ecology - A Review
3. Availibility of Iodine
4. Effects on Animals
5. Measuring Iodine Deficiency
6. Requirements of Iodine
7. Iodine Supplementation
8. Human Health and Socioeconomic Impacts of IDD in Animals.

by C. S. PANDAV & V. Mannar [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.375-398} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.



Epidemiological Studies of Endemic Cretinism in the Jimi River Valley in New Guinea:

by PETER O. D. PHAROAH [in Endemic cretinism {p.109-116} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {Editors}]; Institute of Human Biology Papua-New Guinea: Melbourne, Australia. December 1971.



Iodine Deficiency in Papua New Guinea:

by PETER O. D. PHAROAH & K. Connolly [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.299-305} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



Paediatric Manifestations of Endemic Cretinism in Eastern New Guinea:

This chapter contains the following topics:

Case presentation
Discussions
Growth and development
Discussion.

by PETER O. D. PHAROAH & Dr. Paine [in Endemic cretinism {p.89-103} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {Editors}]; Institute of Human Biology Papua-New Guinea: Melbourne, Australia. December 1971.



Impairment of Mental Development by Iodine Deficiency and Its Correction: A Retrospective View of Studies in Peru:

by E. A. PRETELL & A. Caceres [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.187-191} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



IDD in Latin America:

by E. A. PRETELL & J.T. Dunn [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.325-335} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.



Effect of Chronic Iodine on Maternal and Fetal Thyroid Hormone Synthesis:

by E. A. PRETELL & J.B. Stanbury [in Endemic cretinism {p.117-124} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {Editors}]; Institute of Human Biology Papua-New Guinea: Melbourne, Australia. December 1971.



Progress Towards Elimination of IDD - Excerpts from Publications of International Agencies (UNICEF, WHO, World Bank) and International Conference on Nutrition (ICN): [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.429-457} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.



Epidemiology of Cretinism:

This chapter contains the following topics:
Incidence and symptomatology
Nervous cretinism
Dwarfism
Deaf-mutism and cretinism
Heredity of endemic cretinism
Summary
References.

by A. QUERIDO [in Endemic cretinism {p.9-18} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {Editors}]; Institute of Human Biology Papua-New Guinea: Melbourne, Australia. December 1971.



A Retrospective View on Iodine Deficiency From Studies in Irian Djaja (former Dutch New Guinea) and Java (Indonesia) With Special Attention to the Hearing Defect:

by A. QUERIDO [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.201-207} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



General Discussions and Conclusions:

This chapter contains the following topics:
1.The criteria for the diagnosis of endemic cretinism
2.The association of hypothyroidism and endemic cretinism
3.Recommengdations on the future programme of iodised oil administration in relation to endemic cretinism
4.Suggestions for further research.

by A. QUERIDO [in Endemic cretinism {p.125-137} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {Editors}]; Institute of Human Biology Papua-New Guinea: Melbourne, Australia. December 1971.



Challenges and Opportunities:

1. One Vitamin and Two Minerals
2. The Panaroma of Micronutrient Malnutrition
Iron
Iodine
Vitamin A
The World Summit for Children
3. Lessons of the Past
Tecnhology and Society
Technology and the Delivery System
Linkage with EPI
A Pluralistic and Inclusive Approach
Communities
Role of Research
4. Future Strategies
Sustainable Actions
Diversification of diets as a long-term measure
Food fortification
Supplementation
Operational Targets.

by V. RAMALINGASWAMI [in Proceedings of: Ending Hidden Hunger (A Policy Conference on Micronutrient Malnutrition) Montreal, Quebec, Canada, October 10-12, 1991 {page 1 - 12} The Task Force for Child Survival and Development: Atlanta Georgia, USA. 1991.



Antecedentes, Justificacion, Objectivos y Metodologia del Trabajo del Curso(Translation is "Antecedents, Justification, Objectives, and Methodology of the course work"): En Español/In Spanish. El Director Ejecutivo del Proyecto presente los objectivos y Metologias de trabajo por las cinco dias del evento.

by M. A. RIVADENEIRA [in 1er. Curso Taller Internacional sobre Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo y su Control en Latino America (Translation is "First International Workshop-Course on Iodine Deficiency Disorders and their Control in Latin America") by PROYECTO LUCHA CONTRA EL BOCIO ENDEMICO, Ecuador. Noviembre de 1990.



La Glandula Tiroides, Resumen de Anatomia y Fisiologia (Translation is "The Thyroid Gland: Review of Anatomy and Physiology"): En Español/In Spanish: Un resumen general de las funciones de tiroides normal.

by M. A. RIVADENIERA [in 1er. Curso Taller Internacional sobre Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo y su Control en Latino America (Translation is "First International Workshop-Course on Iodine Deficiency Disorders and their Control in Latin America") by PROYECTO LUCHA CONTRA EL BOCIO ENDEMICO, Ecuador. Noviembre de 1990.



Planning and Managing National Programmes for Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders - Latin America:

by MAURO A. RIVADENEIRA [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.200-203} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.



Epidemiologia Sobre Desordenes Por Deficiencia de Yodo - Esquema Explicativo(Translation is "The Epidemiology of IDD - a Schematic Explanation"): En Español/In Spanish: Este esquema tiene por el objecto explicar los factores que conllevan a sufrir problemas como son los desordenes por deficiencia de yodo. Pretende ilustrar sobre las posibles relaciones de causa efecto, en el se quiere demostrar, que la variable dependiente en este caso DDI, es consecuencia de varios factores, lo qual pueden influir de manera independiente o en combinacion.

by E. R. ROMERO [in 1er. Curso Taller Internacional sobre Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo y su Control en Latino America (Translation is "First International Workshop-Course on Iodine Deficiency Disorders and their Control in Latin America") by PROYECTO LUCHA CONTRA EL BOCIO ENDEMICO, Ecuador. Noviembre de 1990.



Effects of Deficiency and Protein-Calorie Malnutrition on Cognitive Behavior and Neurological Function:

by NEVIN S. SCRIMSHAW [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.59-65} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



Role of Iodine in Mental and Psychomotor Development: An Overview:Twenty-two page chapter from a Ramesh Shrestha's Thesis which describes the role of iodine pathways during fetal and child development and describes the interconnectedness of iodine with the thyroid gland, cretinism and mental performance.

by R. M. SHRESTHA & C.E. West [in Effect of Iodine and Iron Supplementation on Physical, Psychomotor and Mental Development in Primary School Children in Malawi {p.59-81} by R. M. SHRESTHA , Wageningen Agricultural University: Den Haag. ISBN 90-5485-234-8, 14 June 1994.



Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo (Translation is "Iodine Deficiency Disorders"): En Español/In Spanish. Resumen de las manifestaciones de la deficiencia de yodo o'(DDI) y la prevalencia global.

by J. B. STANBURY [in 1er. Curso Taller Internacional sobre Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo y su Control en Latino America (Translation is "First International Workshop-Course on Iodine Deficiency Disorders and their Control in Latin America") by PROYECTO LUCHA CONTRA EL BOCIO ENDEMICO, Ecuador. Noviembre de 1990.



The Patterns of Endemic Cretinism:

This chapter contains the following topics:
Endemic cretinism in South Africa
Endemic cretinism in the Republic of Congo
Endemic Cretinism in New Guinea
Discussions
Summary
References.

by JOHN B. STANBURY [in Endemic Cretinism {p.19-32} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {Editors}]; Institute of Human Biology Papua-New Guinea: Melbourne, Australia. December 1971.



Deficiencia de Yodo y Hipotiroidismo Familiar (Translation is "Iodine Deficiency and Familial Hypothyroidism"): En Español/In Spanish.

by JOHN B. STANBURY, R. Fierro Benitez, E. Estrella, P.S. Milutinovic, M.U. Tellez & S. Refetoff [in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.109-115} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



El Cretinismo en El Mundo(Translation is "Endemic Cretinism in the World"): En Español/In Spanish.

by JOHN B. STANBURY, R. Fierro Benitez, F. Delange & A.M. Ermans [in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes de Deficiencias de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.87-95} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Measurement of Iodine Deficiency Disorders:

by JOHN B. STANBURY & A. Pinchera [in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.81-97} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996.



Molecular and Neuroanatomical Substrates of Motor and Cerebral Cortex Abnormalities in Fetal Thyroid Hormone Disorders:

by STUART A. STEIN [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.67-102} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



Iodine Deficiency: What Do We Know and Where Do We Go? An Executive Summary of the Conference:

by C. TAYLOR [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.317-321} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



Maternal, Fetal, and Juvenile Hypothyroidism, Birth Weight and Infant Mortality in the Etiopathogenesis of the IDD Spectra in Zaire and Malawi:

by C. H. THILLY, B. Swennen, R. Moreno-Reyes, J.Y. Hindlet, P. Bourdoux & J.B. Vanderpas [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.241-250} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



Bocio o k'oto - Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo (Also available in English "Goiter or Cretinism-IDD"):

by UNICEF, PAHO & UNESCO [in Para la Vida: Saber para Salvar (In English = Facts for Life) {p. 99-109}, UNICEF, Office of Communication: La Paz, Bolivia. ISBN 4-1-830-93,



Fuentes de Yodo y su Factibilidad de Aplicacion en El Ecuador Como Factores de Control de DDI(Translation is "Sources of Iodine and the Feasibility of Application in Ecuador as Control in IDD"): En Español/In Spanish:

Incluye:
Fuentes Principales y eficacia: Aceite Yodado, Aceite Intramuscular, Aceite Peroral, Alimentos Indispensables,Lugol, Aqua, y Sal.
Fuentes Complimentarias incluye:
silencioso, arroz iodad, pescado enlatado, geologico, iatrogeno, agropecuario.

by J. M. VANDERHEYDEN [in 1er. Curso Taller Internacional sobre Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo y su Control en Latino America (Translation is "First International Workshop-Course on Iodine Deficiency Disorders and their Control in Latin America") by PROYECTO LUCHA CONTRA EL BOCIO ENDEMICO, Ecuador. Noviembre de 1990.



Endemic Neonatal, Infantile, and Juvenile Hypothyroidism in Ubangi, Northern Zaire: Clinical Consequences and Prevention:

by J. B. VANDERPAS & Thilly C.H. [in The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, Educative Aspects {p.209-223} by JOHN B. STANBURY {editor}]; Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York. ISBN 1-882345-03-7, 1993.



Geston Operacional Aplicada al Programa de Control del Bocio (Translation is"Operational Steps Applicable to Goiter Control Programs"): En Español/In Spanish: Uno de los criterios de exito del programa de lucha contra el Bocio ha sido la utilizacion de los metodos de getion operacional. Esto ha permitido lograr buenos resultados en un tiempo menor de lo previsto y disminuir los costos de manera significativa. Expondremos el helice de la gestion y daremos ejemplos concretos de la experiencia del programa para cada etapa del helice.

by K. VANORMELINGEN [in 1er. Curso Taller Internacional sobre Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo y su Control en Latino America (Translation is "First International Workshop-Course on Iodine Deficiency Disorders and their Control in Latin America") by PROYECTO LUCHA CONTRA EL BOCIO ENDEMICO, Ecuador. Noviembre de 1990.



Descripcion del Cretinismo Endemico Neurologico (3) (Translation is "Description of Endemic Neurological Cretinism (3)"): En Español/In Spanish.

by A. L. VICKERY, R. Fierro Benitez & B.A. Kakulas[in Capitulos de la Biopatologia Andina: Los Desordenes por Deficiencia de Yodo ("Chapters of the Andean Biopathology: The Iodine Deficiency Disorders") {p.71-80} by R. FIERRO BENITEZ {revisor}]; Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar: Quito, Ecuador. 1993.



Statement on Safety of Iodized Salt and Iodized Oil: Iodine and Health, Eliminating Iodine Deficiency Disorders Safely through Salt Iodization:

by WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION[in S.O.S. for a Billion: The Conquest of Iodine Deficiency Disorders {p.357-371} by BASIL S. HETZEL et al. {editors}]; Oxford University Press: Delhi, India. ISBN 0-19-564002-0, 1996







ARTICLES




Why Not Children First? This article offers some ideas to help in formulating a new ethos in each country. One of the many issues discussed in relation to services for children is the elimination of Iodine Deficiency Diseases. An immediate focus on elimination of Iodine Deficiency Diseases can build confidence. Consumption of appropriate levels of iodine daily has already prevented millions of cases of mental retardation. Children have a right to reach their genetic potential through elimination of iodine deficiency. The elimination of IDD can be the greatest public health achievement since the eradication of small pox. It affects more people than polio and guinea worm. We know what to do; what it costs; how to do it: iodize common table salt.

by D.P. HAXTON [in Africa Topics 1997]

Letter to the editor: Topical Iodine, Breastfeeding, and Neonatal Hypothyroidism:

by C. ABRASSART, J.P. Chanoine, P. Bourdoux, & F. Delange [in Archives of Disease in Childhood {pages 106-107} vol. 63: 1988.]



Original Articles: Current Status of Endemic Goitre in Some Areas of Sub-Himalayan Belt: The prevalence of endemic goitre was assessed in 4,680 school children of Pilibhit (Uttar Pradesh), Simia, Mandi, Bilaspur and Sundernagar (Himachal Pradesh), Jammu & Kashmir, Champaran (Bilhar), Kamrup (Assam), Kohima (Nagaland) and Imphal (Manipur). The prevalence rate was 67.2% in Champaran, over 50% in Simla with an average figure of 31% for Himachal Pradesh, around 40% in Pilibhit, 25.2% in Imphal, 23.2% in Kamrup and in 5.3% in Kohima. The districts of Pilibhit and Kamrup are not receiving iodised salt as yet. The prevalence was higher during adolescence. The grade 3 and 4 goitres were observed in school children from areas uncovered by iodised salt.

These states were mainly dependent on the Goitre Control Programme of the Ministry of Health, for survey, legislations, supply of iodized salt, public awareness etc. The state health departments have not provided any iodine preparation in these affected areas even for treatment of grade 3-4 goitres. These observations suggest that endemic areas should be provided sufficient public awareness, immediate supply of iodised salt and safe drinking water, and calls for local iodization plants and raising the iodine level in salt.

by D. K. AGARWAL, & K.N. Agarwal [in Indian Pediatrics {pages 471 - 477} vol. 20: July 1983.]

Prevalence of Iodine Disorders Among School Children of Delhi: This study showed that IDD continues to be prevalent in mild endemic proportions. Compared to the results of previous surveys, the IDD rate have declined in the last few years. However, it continues to be an important public health problem in Delhi. It is essential to monitor the iodine content of salt on a regular basis. IDD control activities should be done every 3-5 years to monitor the progress achieved in eliminating IDD.

by Pandav, C.S., Mallik, A., Anand, K., Pandav, S., and Karmarker, M.G. [in The National Medical Journal of India {Pages 112-114}:Vol. 10, No. 3, May/June, 1997.]

Salt in Asia's Wound - Lack of Iodine is Still a Major Cause of Disease in India:

by Patel, Tara [in New Scientist {Page 17}, September 1988.]

Prevention of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Kenya - A Preliminary Investigation of the Iodine Content of Salt on Sale in Western Kenya: Iodine deficiency disorders are known to be a potential problem for large numbers of people living in the highland areas of Western Kenya. The principal strategy for preventing these disorders is the fortification of table salt with potassium iodate. The present study shows that samples of salt purchased in small stores in Western Kenya, although labelled as containing iodine, contained a much lower concentration of iodine than desirable.

by D. J. ALNWICK [in East African Medical Journal {Pages 723-726} vol. 65:Number 11, November 1988.]

I disordini extra-tiroidei da carenza iodica. Qual e il real fabbisogno di iodio? (Extrathyroid Iodine Deficiency Disorders. What is the Real Iodine Requirement?):The authors report a recent review of the most important extrathyroid IDD in relation to: stomach, immune system, mammary glands, ovaries, arterial and articular system, epidermis and nervous system. All there organs concentrate about 80% of total body iodine in humans and animals, but the role of this extrathyroid iodine is not known. The hypothesis is that this iodine might have a specific antioxydant role, from primitive algae, which contain the highest level of iodine, and which were the first living cells to produce oxygen. So we believe that this phylogenetically ancient antioxydant role is important also in animals and humans. In fact the thyroid gland is only a phylogenetically modern organ, which was improved from primitive Chordates to more recent Mammalia. In the references are reported different studies on the antioxydant ability of iodine in rates and in humans.

by Venturi S., Guidi A., Venturi M. [Le Basi Razioneali Della Terapia (Journal of Italian Society of Pharmacology) {Pages 267-75}, 1996.]

Seven Deadly Sins in Confronting Endemic Iodine Deficiency, and How to Avoid Them:A useful personal view and up-date from Dr. John Dunn, who has provided technical advice and assistance to many UNICEF offices on IDD. The fact that the article was published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism and therefore presumable reaches many endocrinologists is noteworthy. The article should be of interest to everyone who is concerned with monitoring progress towards IDD elimination and sustaining the progress achieved.

by John T. Dunn [Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metablism {Pages1332-} 1996]

Addressing Micronutrient Malnutrition: This article was adapted from the paper "Best Practices in Addressing Micronutrient Malnutrition".

by J. McGuire [in SCN News No. 9]

TSH-Regulation and Goitrogenesis in Severe Iodine Deficiency: Since goitre prevalence increases sharply during the first two decades of life, age-related changes in adaptation of the thyroid to iodine deficiency may occur. In order to study this, we have measured serum levels of TSH, T4 and T3 in 217 subjects (age range 5 to 60 years) living in an endemic goitre area of North Algeria (group A) and in 64 control subjects living in the non-iodine deficient city of Algiers (group B). TRH tests were also preformed in 88 subjects from the goitrous area and in 30 controls.

Patients from group A had significantly higher serum TSH and T3 and lower serum T4 than those from group B. Analysis of group A by age groups revealed significantly higher TSH concentrations in the 2-9 years group and a moderate but significant decrease in the 50-59 years. No significant changes were demonstrated for T4 and T3.

In the goitrous area, the response of TSH to TRH was exaggerated and prolonged. /\TSH20 was inversely correlated with age. The different age groups showed a significantly progressive and continuous decrease of /\TSH20, /\TSH60, /\TSH120 from age 10-19 to age 50-59 years.

Our findings thus show a sharp increase of TSH during the first decades of life, which coincides with the phase of maximal growth of the thyroid gland. These results suggest that TSH plays a definate role in the genesis of endemic goitre. The subsequent progressive decrease of TSH secretion and reserve, with unchanged T4 and T3, imply a gradual development of autonomous activity in longstanding multinodular goitre.

by H. BACHATARZI, & M. Benmiloud [in Acta Endocrinologica {pages 21 - 27} vol. 103: 1983.]



Other Methods of Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders:

by K. V. BAILEY [in Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Africa-Report of the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD Yaounde, Cameroun, 23-25 March 1987AFR/NUT/99, April 1987.]



Oral Iodized Oil for Correcting Iodine Deficiency: Optimal Dosing and Outcome Indicator Selection:This article discusses a study from Algeria intended to better define the guidelines (using 5 indicators) for the use of iodized oil as a means of correcting iodine deficiency.

by MOULAY BENMILOUD, M.L. Chaoudi, R. Gutekunst, H. Teichert, W.G. Wood, & J.T. Dunn [in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism {p.20-24} vol. 79:1, 1994.]

Nutritional Problems of Developing Countries: This article describes selected aspects of the ecology and epidemiology of the major nutritional problems of developing countries, including both the primary risk factors for undernutrition and the functional consequences of nutritional deficiencies. Because of the presumed audience of this journal, particular attention is directed to relationships between nutrition and infection. Finally, the range of available nutrition intervention programs is briefly discussed, including a special section on IDD.

by Brown, K. and Solomons, N. [in infectious Disease Clinics of North America. vol. 5, 1991.]

The Micronutrient Forum:

Brief summary of The Micronutrient Forum, a symposium held to promote the exchange of information on policies and programs in Geneva, Switzerland Feb 15-16, 1993.

by HOWARTH BOUIS, & F.L. Trowbridge [in SCN News {p.28-32}9, Mid 1993.]



Iodine Deficiency Diseases in Switzerland One Hundred Years after Theodore Kocher's Survey: A historical review with some new goitre prevalance data: In certain regions of Switzerland, before prophylaxis, 0.5% of the inhabitants were cretins, almost 100% of schoolchildren had large goitres and up to 30% of the young men were unfit for military service owing to a large goitre. Iodization of salt was introduced in 1922 at 3.75 mg I per kg and the iodine content was doubled twice, in 1962 and in 1980, to the present 15 mg I per kg. In 1988, 92% of retail salt and 76% of all salt for human consumption (including food industry) was iodized, even though its use is voluntary. Urinary iodine excretion, previously between 18 and 64 mg per day, has now risen to 150 mg per day. No new endemic cretins born after 1930 have been identified. Goitre disappeared rapidly in newborns and school children, more slowly in army recruits and incompletely in elderly adults. In some Cantons (by constitution in charge of health and the salt monopoly) which allowed iodized salt only in 1952, disappearance of goitre lagged behind accordinly, proof that iodized salt was the cause of regression. The Swiss data provide evidence that isolated deafness, mental deficiency, and short stature, each without the other attributes of cretinism have also decreased. Adverse effects of iodized salt were minimal, possibly because the initial iodine content of salt was chosen very low. Iodization of salt has proved a highly cost-effective preventive measure in Switzerland.

by HANS BURGI, Z. Supersaxo, & B. Selz[in Acta Endocrinologica (Copenh) {pages 577 - 590} vol. 123: 1990.]



Childhood IQ Measurements in Infants with Transient Congenital Hypothyroidism:

OBJECTIVE In view of the fact that, during the first period of life, thyroid hormones are critical for brain development, we investigated whether even transient congenital hypothyroidism could affect the long-term intellectual development of affected infants.

DESIGN A case-control study of intellectual development, auxometric parameters and thyroid function per formed in late infancy in children with documented transient congenital hypothyroidism or hyperthyrotrophinaemia at birth.

PATIENTS Nine children born in an endemic goitre area who had short-term transient congenital hypothyroidism or hyperthyrotrophinaemia after birth (TCH) were studied and compared to nine matched children born in the same area at the same time but having normal thyroid function al birth (N).

MEASUREMENTS Global, verbal and performance IQs were evaluated on the Wechsler scale. Height, bone age, total and free thyroid hormones, thyroid volume, thyroglobulin, basal and TRH stimulated TSH were also measured.

RESULTS Height and bone age were similar in the two groups. Thyroid function tests were also similar in the two groups except for basal and TRH stimulated serum TSH and serum Tg which were higher in the TCH than in the control group. Global, verbal and performance lQs were systematically lower in the TCH than in the N group. (78.3±11.1 vs 90.9±14.2 , p<0.05; 84.4±15.4 vs 96.2±14.8, p NS; 75.0±8.5 vs 89.2±12.5, p<0.01 respectively).

CONCLUSION Infants born and living in an endemic goitre area, who had biochemical signs of thyroid hypo-function at birth, had a lower intelligence quotient at the age of 7-8 years than matched controls living in the same environmental conditions but with normal thyroid function at birth. The present findings strongly suggest that abnormalities in thyroid function at birth, even when transient, can adversely affect long-term intellectual development.

by FRANCESCA CALACIURA, G. Mendorla, M. Distefano, S. Castorina, T. Fazio, R.M. Motta, L. Sava, F. Delange, & R. Vigneri [in Clinical Endocrinology {pages 473-477} vol. 43: 1995.]



Iodination of Irrigation Water as a Method of Supplying Iodine to a Severely Iodine-Deficient Population in Xinjiang, China:

This article addresses the advantages and cost-effectiveness of water iodization as a means of supplying iodine in China.

by XUE-YI CAO, J. Xin-Min, A. Kareem, Z. Dou, M.A. Rakeman, Z. Ming-Li, T. Ma, K. O'Donnell, & et al.[in The Lancet {p.107-110} vol. 344: July 9, 1994.]



Timing of Vulnerability of the Brain to Iodine Deficiency in Endemic Cretinism:

This article discusses a study carried out in China which addressed the protective effects of iodine treatment on the fetal brain during different pregnancy periods.

by XUE-YI CAO, J. Xin-Min, Z. Dou, M.A. Rakeman, Z. Ming-Li, K. O'Donnell, T. Ma, & et al. [in New England Journal of Medicine {p.1739-44} vol. 331: Dec 29, 1994.]



Increased Recall Rate at Screening for Congenital Hypothroidism in Breast Fed Infants Born to Iodine Overloaded Mothers:

SUMMARY-Skin disinfection with povidine-iodine (PVP-I) is widely used in obstetrics. We evaluated the influence of PVP-I in mothers at delivery on the serum thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations of their infants at the time of screening for congenital hypothyroidism. The study covered 4745 infants who were either breast fed (3659, 77%) or bottle fed (1086, 23%); 3086 (65%) of them were born to mothers with no iodine overload (controls) and 1659 (35%) to mothers with iodine overload. Compared with the control group, the breast and bottle fed infants born to mothers with iodide overload had a shift of neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone concentration towards higher values. The shift was maximal in the breast fed infants with a 95 to 30 fold increase in the recall rate at screening for congenital hypothyroidism (serum thyroid stimulating hormone >50 mU/l) while in the bottle fed infants the recall rate was barely modified. In conclusion. the use of PVP-I in mothers at delivery induces a transient impairment of thyroid function in their infants, especially if breast fed. This situation is detrimental to screening for congenital hypothyroidism. Consequently, PVP-I is not recommended for obstetric use.

by J. P. CHANOINE, M. Bouvain, P. Bourdoux, A. Pardou, H.V. Van Thi, A.M. Ermans, & F. Delange [in Archives of Disease in Childhood {pages 1207-1210} vol. 63: 1988.]



Letter to the editor: Withdrawal of Iodinated Disinfectants at Delivery Decreases the Recall Rate at Neonatal Screening for Congenital Hypothyroidism:

by J. P. CHANOINE, A. Pardou, P. Bourdoux, & F. Delange [in Archives of Disease in Childhood {pages 1297-1298} vol. 63: 1988.]



Stability of Iodized Salt with Respect to Iodine Content:

This article discusses the results of a study of the stability of iodine in salt that is packed in bags and stored for 10 months.

by S. A. CHAUHAN, A.M. Bhatt, M.P. Bhatt, & K.M. Majeethia [in Research and Industry {p.38-41} vol. 37: Mar 1992.]



Lack of Simple Elements Puts Millions at Risk:

An article in full-color with a picture, diagram (of the thryoid gland) and global map (of IDD prevalence). The article has several sections:

-Tackling a little-known epidemic
-Iodine can't be synthesized
-Effort to cost $ 75 million.

by BROWN DAVID [in Washington Post {Science/Nutrition} Mar 17, 1995.]



Combating Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Kenya: the Need for a Multi-disciplinary Approach:

Examines the possible causes of IDD in Kenya and emphasizes the potential effectiveness of a multi-disciplinary approach in the prevention and control of IDD. Table of contents is:

Introduction
Occurence and control of IDD in Kenya
Possible role of goitrogenes in the etiology of IDD in Kenya
Plan of therapy
The need for a multi-disciplinary approach
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References.

by T. C. DAVIES [in International Journal of Environmental Health Research {p.236-243}4, 1994.]



Invited Commentary: Correction of Iodine Deficiency: Benefits and Possible Side Effects:

by F. DELANGE [in European Journal of Endocrinology {pages 542 - 543} vol. 132: ISSN 0804-4643; May 1995.]



Mother and Child, the Target Population in Conditions of Iodine Deficiency:

-Incidence of iodine deficiency and brain damage
-Mechanism of cretinism and retardation
-Prevention.
by F. DELANGE [in Journal of Endocrinology {Abstract # 18 (half page)} vol. 123 supplemental: November 1989.]
 
 




Reviews/Analyses: Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Europe:

Recent data on iodine excretion in the urine of adults, adolescents and newborns and on the iodine content of breast milk indicate a high prevalence of iodine deficiency (moderate in many cases and severe in a few) in many European countries. These cases may manifest as subclinical hypothyroidism in neonates and as goitre in adolescents and adults. Lack of iodine causes not only goitre, but also mental deficiency, hearing loss and other neurological impairments, and short stature due to thyroid insufficiency during fetal development and childhood. Although iodinated salt is available theoretically in most countries where it is needed, its quality and share of the market are often unsatisfactory. In many countries where only household salt is iodinated the iodine content has been set too low owing to an overestimation of household salt consumption. Governments are therefore urged to pass legislation and provide means for efficient iodination of salt wherever this is necessary.

by F. DELANGE, & H. Burgi [in Bulletin of the World Health Organization {pages 317 - 325} vol. 67:Number 3, 1989.]



Regional Variations of Iodine Nutrition and Thyroid Function During the Neonatal Period in Europe:

In order to evaluate further the possibility that transient hypothyroidism and hyperthyrotropinemia in newborn infants could result from a state of relative iodine deficiency, the urinary concentration of iodine, used as an index of the dietary intake of iodine was determined in casual urine samples collected in 1~_076 full-term infants aged 3-6 days in 1t cities in 10 different European countries and in Toronto, Canada. In addition, the results obtained by programs of systematic neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism in the same areas were compared. There were marked regional differences in iodine nutrition during the neonatal period in Europe (median urinary iodine: 16.2 mg/dl in Rotterdarn, the Nether-lands, and 1.1 mg/dl in Freiburg, FRG. A low iodine supply in newborn populations was accompanied by, and probably explained, an elevated frequency of transient disorders o thyroid function in young infants. Iodine prophylaxis is urgently needed in some European countries not only for the prevention of goiter, but mostly for the prevention of impairment of thyroid function during the critical period of brain development.

by F. DELANGE, P. Heidemann, P. Bourdoux, A. Larsson, R. Vigneri, M. Klett, C. Beckers, & P. Stubbe [in Biology of the Neonate {pages 322-330} vol. 49: 1986.]



Reduction of the Iodine Stores of the Thyroid in Iodine Deficient Newborns:

by F. DELANGE, P. Walfish, H. WIllgerodt, P. Bourdoux, L. Bachrach, & G. Burrow [in Hormone Research {Abstract # 297} vol. 31: 1989.]



An Agricultural Approach to Preventing Iodine Deficiency Disorders: effects of iodination of irrigation water on crop and animal production in China:

In 1992, iodination by dripping an aqueous solution of potassium iodate into irrigation water was instituted for the control of severe IDD in four rural villages. Results indicate that iodine-treatment of irrigation water increased iodine availability levels in crops and livestock.

by G. R. DELONG, X.M. Jiang, M.A. Rakeman, & et al. [in Food-Based Approaches to Preventing Micronutrient Malnutrition {p.35} 1996.]



Clinical Picture of Endemic Cretinism in Central Appennines (Montefeltro), Italy:

1. Abstract
2. Introduction
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
Myxedematous cretinism
Neurologic cretinism
Mixed cretinism
5. Discussion.

by L. DONATI, A. Anatonelli, F. Bertoni, D. Moscogiuri, M. Andreani, S. Venturi, T. Filippi, L. Gasperini, S. Neri, & Baschieri. L [in THYROID {Pages 283 - 290} vol. 2:Number 4, 1992.]



Prevalencia del Bocio, Eliminacion Urinaria de Yodo y Niveles de Tiroxina en Escolares Residentes en Areas Montanosas de Andalucia (Translation is "Urinary Excretion Levels of Iodine and Thyroxine, and the Prevalence of Goiter in Schoolchildren from Mountainous Areas of Andalucia"): En Español/In Spanish.

This article, with an abstract in English, is about a study conducted to investigate the prevalence of goiter, urinary excretion of iodine and serum thyroxine levels in school-children living in mountain areas in Andalucia.

by S. DURAN GARCIA, M. Rivas Fernandez, A. Torres Olivera, C. Costa Mestanza, B. Duarte Ortiz de Zarate, & F. Escobar del Rey [in Endocrinologia Organo de la Sociedad Espanola de Endocrinologia {p.15-22} vol. 34:2, Julio de 1987.]



Iodine Deficiency in Himalayas is Believed to Disable Millions:

by ERIK ECKHOLM [in New York Times {p. C3} Tuesday, April 2nd, 1985.]



Combatting Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) in East Africa:

EDITORIAL [in East African Medical Journal {Pages 721-722} vol. 65:Number 11, November 1988.]



Prevention and Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders:

EDITORIAL [in The Lancet {pages 433-434} vol. 2: August 23, 1986.]



Overview of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Africa Epidemiology and Consequences of IDD:

by O. L. EKPECHI [in Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Africa - Report of the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD Yaounde, Cameroun, 23-25 March 1987AFR/NUT/99, April 1987.]



Goitre and Iodine Deficiency in Spain:

by F. ESCOBAR DEL RAY [in The Lancet {pages 149 - 150} vol. 2: July 29, 1985.]



El Bocio Endemico en Dos Zonas de Guadalajara y su Evolucion Tras la Administracion de Aceite Yodado (Lipido) (Translation is "Endemic Goitre in Two Zones of Guadalajara and its Evolution After the Administration of Iodized Oil (Lipiodol)"): En Español/In Spanish.

This article, with an abstract in English, is from a study conducted among school-children (6-14 years of age) from Atienza and Molina de Aragon; which determined the prevalence of goitre, their urinary iodine and creatinine excretion levels, and circulating thyroxine levels.

by F. ESCOBAR DEL REY, J. Mallol, Turmo C., J.M. Jimenez Bustos, A. Garcia Garcia, Gomez Pan A., & G. Morreale De Escobar [in Endocrinologia Organo de la Sociedad Espanola de Endocrinologia {p.53-60} vol. 34:2, 1987 de Julia.]



Effects of Maternal Iodine Deficiency on the L-Thyroxine and 3, 5, 3'-Triiodo-L-Thyronine Contents of Rat Embryonic Tissues Before and After Onset of Fetal Thyroid Function:

Female rats were placed on a low iodine diet (LID) or LID supplemented with KI. They were mated 3-6 months later. Maternal and embryonic tissues were otained both before the onset of fetal thyroid function, at 11 and 17 days of pregnancy, and at 21 days of gestation. T4 and T3 concentrations were measured by RIA. T4 concentrations were very low in the plasma, liver and lung of LID dams and in all embryonic samples obtained from such mothers, namely 11-day-old embryotrophoblansts, 17-day-old placentas and embryos, 21-day-old placentas, embryos, plasma, liver, lung, and carcass (whole embryos minus the trachea, thyroid, blood, liver, and brain). T3 was low in 17-day-old placentas and embryos and in all fetal tissues obtained at 21 days of gestation from LID dams. These results show that when iodine deficiency is severe enough to result in very low maternal plasma T4 levels, embryonic tissues are deficient in T4 and T3 both before and after the onset of fetal thyroid function. This finding might be relevant to the etiopathology of human iodine deficiency disorders.

by FRANCISCO ESCOBAR DEL REY, R. Pastor, J. Mallol, & G. Morreale de Escobar [in Endocrinology {pages 1259 - 1264} vol. 118:4, 1986.]



Goitre and Iodine Deficiency in Europe:

The prevalence of endemic iodine-deficiency goitre in Europe has been reduced in many areas by the introduction of iodination programmes. Recent reports; however, show that goitre remains a significant problem and that its prevalence has not decreased in a number of European countries. Hetzel has pointed out that the high global prevalence of iodine-deficiency disorders could be eradicated within 5-10 years by introduction of an iodized salt programme. The current World Health Organization recommendation for iodine intake are between 250 and 300 m g/day.

by EUROPEAN THYROID ASSOCIATION, SUBCOMMITTEE FOR THE STUDY OF ENDEMIC GOITRE AND IODINE DEFICIENCY IN EUROPE[in The Lancet {pages 1289-1293} vol. 2: June 8, 1985.]



Endemic Goitre in Sri Lanka:

This survey examined 59,158 children from 87 schools in 17 out of 24 districts in Sri Lanka for goitre. The overall prevalence rate was 18.8%: 23.2% for girls and 14.0% for boys. Prevalence in districts varied from 30.2% in Kalutara to 6.5% in Matale. It was higher in rural than urban areas, and in inland than coastal areas. The sex ratio of prevalence rates was directly related and the ratio of palpable to visible goitre was inversely related to the severity of the endemic. It is suggested that for a rapid epidemiological assessment when the latter ratio is less than four, it is indicative of endemicity for public health purposes and calls for intervention. The iodination of salt is both practical and feasible in Sri Lanka.

by M. A. FERNANDO, S. Balasuriya, K.B. Herath, & S. Katugampola [in Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health {pages 11 - 18} vol. 3:Number 1, 1989.]



100 Anos de Literatura sobre el Bocio Endemico en Espana (Translation is "100 Years of Literature about Endemic Goiter in Spain"): En Español/In Spanish. This article, with an abstract in English, is a bibliographic compilation carried out (1) to give a precise documental information for those wishing to review the subject, starting at a certain moment, and (2) to identify the histographic framework and to analyze the knowledge evolution of endemic goitre in Spain. The compiled literature is arranged in three chronological parts, with distinctive characteristics of each being described:

1. Old bibliography (1885-1921)
2. Modern bibliography (1922-1936)
3. Contemporary bibliography (1945-1986).

by L. FERREIRO ALAEZ, & F. Escobar del Rey[in Endocrinologia Organo de la Sociedad Espanola de Endocrinologia {p.4-12} vol. 34:2, 1987 de Julia.]



A New Approach to Combatting Iodine Deficiency in Developing Countries: The Controlled Release of Iodine in Water by a Silicone Elastomer:

This article addresses a new approach to IDD eradication using the controlled diffusion of iodine into well water supplies from a silicone elastomer.

by ALAN FISCH, E. Pichard, T. Prazuck, R. Sebbag, G. Torres, G. Gernez, & M. Gentilini[in American Journal of Public Health {p.540-545} vol. 83:4, April 1993.]



Thyroid Development and Disorders of Thyroid Function in the Newborn:

1. Normal Development of the Thyroid
- Early Ontogenesis
- Later Maturation
- Adaptation to the Extrauterine Environment
2. Abnormalities of Thyroid Function in the Newborn
- Abnormalities in Early Ontogenesis
- Transient Disorders of Thyroid Function: Immaturities Related to Late Ontogenesis.

by DELBERT A. FISHER, & A.H. Klein [in The New England Journal of Medicine {pages 702 - 712} vol. 304:12, March 19, 1981.]



Alteraciones por Deficiencia de Yodo en Las Hurdes. II. Evaluacion del desarollo psicomotor de escolares(Translation is "Alterations due to Iodine Deficiency in Las Hurdes. II. An evaluation of Psychomotor development in schoolchildren"): En Español/In Spanish. This article, with an abstract in english, describes a study conducted among schoolchildren from a zone of Las Hurdes with very severe iodine deficiency. An evaluation of their mental development, psychomotor abilities, motor-perceptive maturation and personality traits was conducted.

by I. GARCIA, C. Rubio, E. Alonso, C. Turmo, G. Morreale De Escobar, & F. Escobar del Rey [in Endocrinologia Organo de la Sociedad Espanola de Endocrinologia {p.74-87} vol. 34:2, 1987 de Julia.]



Effectos de la Administracion Oral de Aceite Yodado Sobre la Prevalencia del Bocio, Eliminacio Urinaria de Yodo y Niveles de Tiroxina en Areas de Endemica Bociosa de Andalucia Occidental (Translation is "Effects of the Oral administration of Iodized Oil on the Prevalence of Goiter, Urinary Excretion of Iodine and Serum Thyroxine Levels in Areas of Endemic Goiter in Western Andalucia"): En Español/In Spanish. This article, with an abstract in english, is about a research aimed to study the effects of the administration of 2 ml of oral ultrafluid Lipidiol on the prevalence of goiter, iodine urinary excretion and serum thyroxide in a group of school-children living in three endemic areas in mountain zones from western Andalucia.

by S. GARCIA DURAN, B. Duarte Ortiz de Zarate, J.C. Alvarez Benitez, J.E. Hutardo Ayuso, & et el. [in Endocrinologia Organo de la Sociedad Espanola de Endocrinologia {p.23-28} vol. 34:2, 1987 de Julia.]



A Review of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Kenya: Studies of endemic goitre in 4 separate geographical areas of Kenya showed a high prevalence of goitre and low urinary iodine excretion in the highlands east and west of the Rift Valley. There was a highly significant negative correlation between total goitre rates and urinary iodine excretion (r = -0.9987, p< 0.001). Despite a gradual decrease in goitre rates and an increase in urinary iodine between 1969 and 1984, endemic goitre remains an important health problem requiring urgent and effective measures for its prevention and control.

by W. GITAU [in East African Medical Journal {Pages 727-733} vol. 65:Number 11, November 1988.]



A Randomized Trial for the Treatment of Mild Iodine Deficiency During Pregnancy: Maternal and Neonatal Effects:

by DANIEL GLINOER, P. De Nayer, F. Delange, M. Lemone, V. Toppet, M. Spehl, J. Grun, J. Kinthaert, & B. Lejeune[in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism {Pages 258 - 269} vol. 80:Number 1, 1995.]



Micronutrient Deficiencies: Public Health Implications: This article discusses the metabolic inter-relationships between micronutrients and the co-existence of the different micro and macronutrient deficiencies.

by C. GOPALAN [in NFI Bulletin (Bulletin of the Nutrition Foundation of India) {p.1-5} vol. 15:3, July 1994.]



The Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) by Salt Iodization: A Great Opportunity for the Salt Industry: This presentation outlines several issues related to IDD: including the ecology of iodine, the impact of IDD and the issues surrounding iodized salt. Also discussed are national IDD programs, regional support, and the target of elimination.

by BASIL S. HETZEL [in Seventh Symposium on Salt, Volume Two {p.409-414} vol. 2: 1993.]



Occasional Survey: Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) and their Eradication: Disorders resulting from severe iodine deficiency affect more than 400 million people in Asia alone. These disorders include stillbirths, abortions, and congenital anomalies; endemic cretinism, characterised most commonly by mental deficiency, deaf mutism, and spastic diplegia and lesser degrees of neurological defect related to fetal iodine deficiency; and impaired mental function in children and adults with goitre associated with subnormal concentrations of circulating thyroxine. Use of the term iodine deficiency disorders instead of "goitre" would help to bridge the serious gap between knowledge and its application. Iodised salt and iodised oil (by injection or by mouth)are suitable for the correction of iodine deficiency for 3-5 years. Iodised oil offers a satisfactory immediate measure for primary care services until an iodised salt programme can be implemented. The complete eradication of iodine deficiency is therefore feasible within 5-10 years.

by BASIL S. HETZEL [in The Lancet {pages 1126-1129} vol. 2: November 12, 1983.]



The Iodine Deficiency Disorders: Their Nature and Prevention: This is an introductory article to the iodine deficiency diseases and different control strategies.

by BASIL S. HETZEL, & J.T. Dunn [in Annual Review of Nutrition {p.21-38} vol. 9:21, 1989.]



Treatment of Endemic Goitre Due to Iodine Deficiency with Iodine, Levothyroxine or Both: Results of a Multicentre Trial:ABSTRACT- Preliminary clinical studies and recent in vitro investigations suggest that iodine administration may be an effective alternative in the treatment of the diffuse euthyroid goitre of iodine deficiency. Therefore a 12-month multicentre study was initiated in which 166 patients were randomly assigned to take either 150 micrograms levothyroxine day-1 (group A, n=61), 400 micrograms iodine day-1 (group B, n = 50), or a combination of 75 , micrograms levothyroxine and 200 micrograms iodine day-1 (group C, n=55) for 8 months with follow-up examinations at 4 and 8 months as well as 4 months after cessation of treatment Initially, thyroid volume, as determined by ultrasound, was not significantly different in the three groups. In all three groups, during treatment a significant and comparable mean decrease in goitre size was documented (-32.1% in group A,-37.3% in group B,-38.7% in group C). After cessation of treatment in group A mean thyroid volume again increased to near the baseline value (ù12.0% compared to the initial investigation), while the therapeutic effect was sustained in group B (ù32.5%). In group C, only a slight rebound effect was observed (-26.3% vs. baseline volume). Total thyroxine (T4) increased sharply and significantly in group A from 7.8 +/- 1.9 to 10.9 +/- 2.8 micrograms dl- after 8 months (P< 0.001), but only slightly, although significantly in group B (from 7.8 +/- 1.5 micrograms dl-1 to 8.9 +/- 1.6 , micrograms dl-1; P < 0.02). Striking differences between the three groups were evident in the changes of basal and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) stimulated thyrotropin (TSH). After 8 months a sharp and significant decrease of TSH occurred in group A (from 1.2+/-0.53 to 0.4 +/- 0.74 , MicroU ml-1; P<0.001) and in group C (from 1-2 +/- 0.97 to 0.5 +/- 0.56 MicroU ml-1; P<0.001). In group B, TSH was also significantly lower (from 1.3 +/- 1.04 to 0.9 +/- 0.72, MicroU ml-1; P< 0.02), but remained significantly higher compared to group A and group C. Similar changes were observed when the TSH after TRH administration was calculated. After cessation of treatment, the values for basal TSH and TRH-stimulated TSH in the three groups were not significantly different from each other. They had increased to the initial values. Our data clearly show that iodine alone (400 micrograms day-1) or a combination of 75 micrograms levothyroxine and 200 micrograms iodine day-1 are at least equally as effective for goitre reduction as levothyroxine alone (150 micrograms day-1) and offers the further benefit of a sustained effect after cessation of therapy.

by G. HINTZE, D. Emrich, & J. Kobberling[in European Journal of Clinical Investigation {pages 527 - 534} vol. 19:Number 6, ISSN 0014-2972; December 1989.]



Goitre in India: Iodine Prophylaxis Falters:

by K. S. JAYARAMAN [in Nature {"News" section, page 205} vol. 304: July 1983.]



Tanzania to Achieve Universal Salt Iodation One Year Ahead of Goal:Synopsis of progress in Tanzania towards reaching the mid-decade goal of universal salt iodization. Includes the complete text of President H.E. Ali Hassan Mwinyi's speech given on April 21, 1994 when he officially launched a national IDD control and prevention campaign. Also includes the full text of the joint statement by the Ministeries of Health, Water/Energy/Minerals regarding salt iodization in Tanzania.

by FESTO P. (EDITOR) KAVISHE [in Nutrition News in Eastern & Southern Africa Region {p.5-10} vol. 1:2, June 1994.]



Iodine Deficiency and Neonatal Hypothyroidism: The incidence of neonatal hypothyroidism, as reflected in cord-blood thyroxine and thyrotropin levels, varied from 0.6% to 13.3% in iodine-deficient and normal regions of India (selected districs of Uttar Pradesh and Kerala and the city of Delhi), depending on the degree of environmental iodine deficiency. In populations with a high incidence of neonatal hypothyroidism, an increased prevalence of nerve deafness and a shift to the left in the distribution of IQ scores (toward lower scores) have been demonstrated. These indications of mild brain damage suggest that nutritional iodine deficiency can present in other ways than goitre or cretinism. Determination of the incidence of neonatal hypothyroidism using dried cord-blood spot screening appears to be the most useful and reliable method to assess the risk of brain damage in iodine-deficient areas.

by N. KOCHUPILLAI, C.S. Pandav, M.M. Godbole, & M.M.S. Ahuja [in Bulletin of the World Health Organization (WHO) {pages 547 - 551} vol. 64:4, 1986.]



Further Decrease in Thyroidal Uptake and Disappearance of Endemic Goitre in Children after 30 years of Iodine Prophylaxis in the East of Finland: Endemic goitre of moderate severity was mainly found in the east of Finland in the 1930's. Studies in the 1950's showed an average daily iodine intake of 65 - 70 mg in the west and 50 - 65 mg in the east of the country. The use of iodized salt was introduced in the late 1940's but added only 15 mg of iodine to the daily intake. In the late 1950's iodine prophylaxis was intensified and the use of salt containing 25 mg KI/kg was recommended. In 1978 about 95% of all household walt used in the Savonlinna area was iodized. This region in the east of Finland has been used as an area of surveilance and studies have been carried out there in 1959, 1969, and 1979. During this period the thyroidal uptake decreased from 67 to 23% in non-goitrous subjects and from 62 to 28% in goitre patients the difference between the two last figures being statistically significant. The goitre patients also had significantly higher serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels. During the same period the urinary excretion of stable 127I increased from 15 mg to about 250 mg a day. Concomitantly the goitre prevalence among school children has decreased. Having been in the early 1950's in most parts 15 - 30% it is now adequate and that the endemic is gradually subsiding.

by B-A LAMBERG, M. Haikonen, M. Makela, A. Jukkara, E. Axelson, & M. Welin [in Acta Endocrinologica {pages 205 - 209} vol. 98: 1981.]



The Myth of Goiter in Pregnancy:

A common belief is that pregnancy causes goiter. Forty-nine matched pairs each consisting of a pregnant and a nonpregnant woman were examined by means of a blind, multiple-observer design. In 22 pairs the pregnant woman had the larger thyroid, whereas in 20 pairs the opposite was true. In six pairs the thyroid glands were not palpable, and in one pair the thyroid glands were of equal size. Five pregnant and three nonpregnant women had clinically significant goiters None of the differences was statistically significant. No significance appeared when the data were controlled for race, age, body weight, or family history of thyroid disease. Therefore, goiter in pregnancy should be considered to be a pathologic condition in an iodine-replete population.

by RICHARD P. LEVY, D.M. Newman, L.S. Rejali, & D.A.G. Barford [in American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology {pages 701 - 703} vol. 137:Number 6, 1980.]



Endemic Goitre in the Island of S. Miguel (the Azores): A survey of endemic goitre in the island of S. Miguel (the Azores) was performed. The prevelance of goitre in school-children varied between 11 and 41%. In the most affected region, 16% of the adult males and 48% of the women had goitre, in some cases grade 3. The median urinary excretion of iodine was very low in school-children, varying between 10 and 49 m g I/g creatinine. The reasons for such a low iodine intake in the population of the oceanic island are the scarcity of fish in the diet and, possibly, the leaching of the soil of its iodine content due to high pluviosity.

by A. LOPES DE OLIVERIA, M.J. Goncalves, & L.G. Sobrinho [in Acta Endocrinologica {pages 200-203} vol. 111: 1986.]



Progress with Salt Iodization in China: The Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorder from 40% of the One Billion by Salt Iodization Programme:

This article discusses the current IDD situation in China, the history of salt iodization in China, and associated problems, and methods of amelioration.

by T. MA [in Seventh Symposium on Salt {p.427-9} vol. 2: 1993.]



Programs Against Micronutrient Malnutrition: Ending Hidden Hunger:This article provides a description of the nature and magnitude of the micronutrient malnutrition problem and a framework for action at the national level. Ideas include using communications, social marketing and advocacy. Several interventions are discussed, including dietary diversification, fortification, massive treatment and indirect methods. Also, several methods of monitoring and surveillance are described.

by G. F. MABERLY, F.L. Trowbridge, R. Yip, K.M. Sullivan, & C.E. West [in Annual Review of Public Health {p.277-301} vol. 15: 1994.]



Effect of Vagional Douching with Povidone-Iodine during Early Pregnancy on the Iodine Supply to Mother and Fetus:

ABSTRACT- Vaginal douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone iodine (PVP-I) during pregnancy results in maternal iodine overload and increases the iodine content of amniotic fluid. We evaluated the possible effects of this therapy on the thyroid of the fetus by investigating 62 women with a mean duration of amenorrhea of 20 weeks who solicited controlled abortion. Nineteen of them douched daily with PVP-I for 7 consecutive days before abortion (treated group). The other 43 [UVC1]women were not treated (control group). In both groups the iodine content was determined in the fetal thyroid and in amniotic fluid and maternal urine at the time of abortion. In addition, in the treated group the concentrations of iodine were also determined in amniotic fluid and urine before therapy and in urine after 4 days of therapy There were no differences in the concentrations of iodine in urine and amniotic fluid in the control group and in the treated group before therapy. In the treated group urinary iodine increased from 6.1 +- (SEM) 0.8 micrograms/dl before therapy to 91 +- 20 micrograms/dl after 4 days and to 153 +- 60 micrograms/dl after 7 days of therapy (p < 0.001). In parallel, iodine in amniotic fluid increased from 1.2 +- 0.2 micrograms/dl before therapy to 3.7 +- 1.3 micrograms/dl after 7 days (p < 0 05) ID both groups the thetreated group (from 1 to 7.7 micrograms) than in the control group (from I to 2.5 micrograms) p < 0.05. In iodine content of the fetal thyroid increased with gestational age. However, it increased more rapidly in conclusion, routine vaginal douching with PVP-I during early pregnancy induces maternal iodine overload and markedly increases the iodine content not only of the amniotic fluid but also of the fetal thyroid, as soon as the trapping mechanism of iodide by the thyroid has started to develop. In view of the well-documented hypersensitivity) of the fetal and neonatal thyroid to the blocking effect of excess iodide, the vaginal application of PVP-I is not recommended during pregnancy.

by I. MAHILLON, W. Peers, P. Bourdoux, A.M. Ermans, & F. Delange [in Biology of the Neonate {pages 210-217} vol. 56: 1989.]



Global Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders Through the Iodization of Salt:

This article outlines the development and constraints of salt iodization and offers criteria for effective programs and examples of program development.

by M. G. VENKATESH MANNAR [in Seventh Symposium on Salt {p.415-420} vol. 2: 1993.]



Strategy for Establishment and Intensification of Salt Iodization Programmes in African Countries:

by M. G. VENKATESH MANNAR [in Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Africa - Report of the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD Yaounde, Cameroun, 23-25 March 1987AFR/NUT/99, April 1987.]



Letter to the Editor: Role of Iodine in Delayed Immune Response:

by LORENZO MARANI, S. Venturi, & R. Masala[in Israel Journal of Medical Sciences {Page 864} vol. 21:Number 10, October 1985.]



Estudio Epidemiologico del Bocio Endemico en Poblacion Escolar Asturiana(Translation is "Epidemiologic Study of Endemic Goiter in Schoolchildren of the Asturias") En Español/In Spanish. This article, with an abstract in english, is about a survey performed in 6876 schoolchildren in Asturias to investigate the prevalence of goiter.

by E. L. MENDEZ TORRES, F.J. Diaz Cadorniga, J. Aranda Regules, P. Boix Pallares, J. Aller Granda, & A. Rabal Artal[in Endocrinologia Organo de la Sociedad Espanola de Endocrinologia {p.29-34} vol. 34:2, Julia de 1987.]



Enquete Sur la Prevalence du Goitre en France: En Français/In French (Translation is "Survey on the Prevalence of Goiter in France"):

En 1982, sur la Societe francaise d'endocrinologie a cree un groupe de travail destine a etudier la prevalence du goitre en France. Ce groupe a diligente des enquetes dans 13 academies.

by RENE MORNEX [in Bulletin de L'Academie Nationale de Medecine {pages 301 - 306} vol. 171:number 3, March 3, 1987.]



Consultative Meeting on Iodized Salt:

-Service delivery
-Delivery of Iodized oil supplements to preschool and school children in the cordelera administrative region
-Training and Advocacy
-Information Education Communication
-Research.

by NCP BULLETIN [in NCP Bulletin {p.1/9} ISSN -0115-4265; January-June 1994.]



Iodine Deficiency and Salt Iodization: Editorial.

by NCP BULLETIN [in NCP Bulletin {p.2} ISSN -0115-4265; January-June 1994.]



Lao PDR Succeeds in Iodizing 80% of Salt:

by ANDREW NETTE [in First Call for Children: A UNICEF Quarterly {Page 7}Number 4, October - December 1995.]



Brief Communication: Endemic Goitre in Guinea-Bissau: A survey was performed of endemic goitre in the Oio, Gabu, and Cacheu regions of Guines-Bissau. Among adult women, the following prevalences of goitre were observed: 53% (Oio), 48% (Gabu), and 27% (Cacheu). For goitres of grades 2 and 3 only, the prevalence was 20% (Oio), 13% (Gabu), and 2% (Cacheu). No cretinism or cases of thyroid disfunction were found. The mean urinary iodine excretions in Oio, Gabu, and Cacheu were 17 mg/g, 24 mg/g and 33 mg/g creatinine, respectively.

by A. L. OLIVERIA, J.L. Batista, A.P. Silva, L.G. Sobrinho, & L.C. Rocha [in Bulletin of the World Health Organization {pages 347-348} vol. 69:3, 1991.]



Misconception of IDD Prevalence Obstacle to Strong Legislation:

This brief article addresses the problems that developing countries are having in passing anti-IDD legislation.

by PAMM [in PAMM News {p.2} Jan 1995.]



Towards the Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in India:

1. Assessment of the Problem
2. Strategies Available
3. Political Commitment
4. Advocacy
5. Legislation
6. Capacity Building/Training
7. Issues Related to Salt Iodization
8. Information Education and Communication
9. Monitoring
10. Community Participation
11. Building a Partnership
12. Sustainability.

by C. S. PANDAV, & K. Anand [in The Indian Journal of Pediatrics {Pages 545 - 555} vol. 62:Number 5, 1995.]



Iodine Deficiency in India: Reviews of Control Measures:

1. Introduction - National Goitre Control Programme, IDD
2. Constraints in Iodated Salt Distribution
3. Iodine Deficiency Disorders - Magnitude
4. Alternate Intervention Programmes.

by C. S. PANDAV, N. Kochupillai, M.G. Karmarkar, & L.M. Nath [in Indian Pediatrics {pages 325-329} vol. 23: May 1986.]



A Role for Non-governmental Organization in Monitoring the Iodine Content of Salt in Northern India(Resume disponible en Français): In English with resume in French.

This article discuss the feasability of using nongovernmental organizations (NGOS) to monitor the iodine content of salt. A Study was conducted in Uttar Pradesh, northern India, where IDD are endemic.

(In French = "Un role pour les organisations non gouvernementales dans la surveillance de la teneur du sel en iode dans le nord de l'Inde"). by C. S. PANDAV, S. Pandav, K. Anand, S.A. Wajih, S. Prakash, J. Singh, & M.G. Karmarkar [in Bulletin of the World Health Organization {pages 71-75} vol. 73: 1995.]



Sustaining Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders: Editorial on sustaining elimination of IDD.

by C. S. PANDAV, H. Viswanathan, & D.P. Haxton[in The National Medical Journal of India {p.49-51} vol. 8:2, ISSN 0970-258x; March/April 1995.]



A Controlled Trial of Iodinated Oil for Prevention of Endemic Cretinism: A Long Term Follow-Up:

A double blind controlled trial designed to examine the effectiveness of intramuscular iodinated oil as a prophylactic for the nervous type of endemic cretinism, was begun in 1966 in the highlands of Papua, New Guinea. Infants born into the trial between 1966 and 1972 were followed up until 1982. The results showed that if the iodine supplement was given before conception the nervous form of endemic cretinism was prevented. Also a striking difference in the 15-year cumulative survival rate in favor of the test (iodinated oil) group was observed. Measures of motor function revealed that children born to mothers given an iodine supplement performed significantly better. This observation shows that iodine deficiency leads to sub-clinical as well as clinical defects. It also justifies the use of the term iodine deficiency disorder to cover the polymorphic nature of the abnormalities attributable to iodine deficiency.

by P. O. D. PHAROAH, & K.J. Connolly [in International Epidemiological Association {pages 68 - 73} vol. 16:Number 1, 1987.]



Maternal Thyroid Hormone Levels in Pregnancy and the Subsequent Cognitive and Motor Performance of the Children:

Serum levels of thyroxine and triiodothyronine during pregnancy were measured in women from a severely iodine deficient region in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Subsequently the children born to these women were examined when aged 10 - 12 years and measures made of intellectual ability and motor competence. A significant correlation between these measures in the children and the maternal thyroxine but not maternal triiodothyronine level was observed. It is speculated that maternal thyroxine and not triiodothyronine may be essential for normal neurological maturation of the fetus before the fetal thyroid becomes functional.

by P. O. D. PHAROAH, K.J. Connolly, R.P. Ekins, & A.G. Harding [in Clinical Endocrinology {Pages 265-270} vol. 21: 1984.]



Maternal Thyroid Function and Motor Competence in the Child:

Serum thyroid horomone levels were measured in women living in an area of severe dietary iodine deficiency in a remote region of Papua, New Guinea. Levels of maternal hormone were found to related to the motor competence of the women's offspring, who were aged between six years and 11 years (10 months at the time of assessment). Motor competency in the children was measured by two tests of manual dexterity which demanded speed and accuracy in performance. A significant correlation was obtained between the children's motor performance and maternal serum thyroxine levels, but not with maternal serum triiodothyronine levels. The implications of the findings for the pathogenesis of some forms of cerebral palsy were considered.

-Résumé en français aussi disponible
-Zusammenfassung
-Tambien, Resumen en español.

by PETER PHAROAH, K. Connolly, B. Hetzel, & R. Ekins [in Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology {p. 76-82} vol. 23: 1981.]



Iodine Supplementation: Comparision of Oral or Intramuscular Iodized Oil with Oral Potassium Iodide. A Controlled Trial in Zaire:

A community-based controlled trial of iodine supplementation comparing oral or intramuscular iodized oil with oral potassium iodide has been carried out in 23 severely iodine-deficient villages in Eastern Zaire. The overall goitre prevalence in the population (n= 5999) was 61% and mean urinary iodine excretion in samples of 57 women 10.9 (SD 6.8) m g/g creatinine. All adults in three groups of four villages were given single doses of potassiom iodide of 0.5 g, 1.0 g. and 2.0 g respectively. A fourth group was given oral iodized oil (2ml) and a fifth placebo-treated. A further three villages were given intramuscular iodized oil (2 ml). The effectiveness of supplementation was assessed by measurements of bloodspot thyroxine (T4) concentration in women of reproductive age in the villages. The effects of iodide were small and insonsistent. Eight months after supplementation with oral iodized oil the distribution of T4 concentrations was similar to that seen with intramuscular oil. We conclude that oral iodized oil is an effective alternative to injected oil and would be feasible for iodine supplementation in remote areas with untrained people.

by DAVIS I. W. PHILLIPS, T.D. Lusty, C. Osmond, & D. Church [in International Journal of Epidemiology {pages 142 - 147} vol. 17:Number 1, 1988.]



Iodine: Maintenance of Optimal Intake:

by J. A. PITTMAN, & C.S. Pittman [in Endocrine Practice {p.100-101} vol. 1:2, March/April 1995.]



Iodine Deficiency A Major Threat to Public Health:

by ZIAUR RAHMAN [in Financial Express 3/21/94.]



Consensus Statement: Clinical Thyroidology 1992: "What do we really Need?":

1. Survey programs
1.1 Assessment and monitoring of iodine supply
1.2 Screening for neonatal hypothyroidism
1.3 Monitoring of irradiated populations
1.2 Survey programs in "risk groups" for thyroid disease
2. Pathology
2.1 Histological classification of thyroid tumors
2.2 Fine needle biopsy
3. Pathophysiology
3.1 Molecular biology of thyroid tumors
3.2 Nonthyroidal illness = euthyroid sich syndrome
4. Clinical diagnosis
4.1 General strategy
4.2 Special considerations
5. Clinical management
5.1 Primary hypothyroidism
5.2 Nontoxic goiter
5.3 Grave's disease
5.4 Plummers' disease
5.5 Thyroid Cancer
5.6 Thyroiditis
6. Prophylazis and follow-up after therapy.

by G. RICCABONA, L.J. DeGroot, F. Delange, J.T. Dunn, G. Galvan, R.D. Piyasena, D. Reinwein, H. Roher, & et al.[in Journal of Endocrinological Investigations {pages 297 - 302} vol. 16:Number 4, April 1993.]



The Effects of Iodoprophylaxis on Thryoid Size During Pregnancy:

Thyroid gland size was ultrasonographically determined in 35 pregnant women who live in an area with moderate iodine deficiency. Iodide salt was administered to group A (n = 17), whereas group B (n = 18) was used as a control. Each group was tested for thyroid-stimulating hormone serum levels, iodine excretion, and thyroid volume In both groups thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were similar and did not change throughout pregnancy. The iodine excretion at the third trimester in the treated group was significantly (p < 0.01 ) higher than that of group B (100.0 +- 39.0 versus 50.0 +- 37.0 mg iodine per 24 hours, respectively). Initially, thyroid volume did not differ between the two groups. At the end of pregnancy, no difference was found in thyroid size in group A, whereas in the untreated women it increased significantly (p < 0.0001) with a mean increase of 1.6 +- 0.6 ml (16.2% +- 6.0%). These results show that the increased thyroid size in the control group was mainly a result of relative iodine deficiency and that iodoprophylaxis should be warranted even in areas with moderate iodine deficiency to prevent the increase in thyroid size and, probably, to avoid the risk of maternal and fetal hypothyroidism.

by ROSSELLA ROMANO, E.A. Jannini, M. Pepe, A. Grimaldi, M. Olivier, P. Spennati, F. Cappa, & M. D'Armiento[in American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology {pages 482 - 485} vol. 164: Feburary 1991.]



Combined Treatment with Growth Hormone and Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone Analogues in Children with Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency: In subjects with an isolated GH deficiency the inhibition of puberty by GnRH-analogue administration may be attempted to delay the onset. or to prolong the duration of pubertal maturation in order to improve final height. We report our experience on the matter in 10 subjects (6M, 4F) suffering from isolated GH deficiency with a chronological age ranging from 6.5 to 10.6 years at diagnosis. After a period of 1-5.1 years of GH treatment, GnRH-analogues (long-acting D-Trp-6-GnRH) were added to GH for 12 months. when six subjects were still prepubertal and four in early puberty. During combined therapy, a regression in pubertal development was shown in three out of four children in early puberty. while serum testosterone or estradiol decreased. Height velocity decreased (from 5.23 + 1.49 (mean + SD) to 4.12 + 0.67 cm/year; p <0.02), whereas height SD scores for bone age increased (from -0.75 + 0.42 to -0.47 + 0.55; p < 0.02 ) . During the year of combined therapy. bone age increased only 0.57 + 0.27 years. The values for predicted height (TW2 and Bayley-Pinneau method) after combined treatment were also higher than those after treatment with GH alone (p<0.02 and p<0,001, respectively). Our preliminary data showed that the addition of GnRH-analogues to GH in subjects with isolated GH deficiency reduces the effect of GH on height velocity, but determines an improvement in statural prognosis. although a proper answer will not be obtained until final height has been achieved.

by G. SAGGESE, G. Cesaretti, G. Andreani, & C. Carlotti [in Acta Endocrinologica {pages 307 - 312} vol. 127: ISSN 0001-5598; July-December 1992.]



Alteraciones por Deficiencia de Yodo en Las Hurdes. (III) Cretinismo(Translation is "Disorders due to Iodine Deficiency in Las Hurdes. III. Cretinism".) En Español/In Spanish: This article, with an abstract in english, is about a study conducted among 878 adults, of whom 44 were recognized by the population itself as mental defectives. The authors describe a series of mental defectives which they have classified as endemic cretins.

by F. SANCHEZ FRANCO, L. Ferreiro Alaez, L. Cacivedo, M.D. Garcia, G. Morreale de Escobar, & F. Escobar del Rey[in Endocrinologia Organo de la Sociedad Espanola de Endocrinologia {p.88-93} vol. 34:2, Julia de 1987.]



Review of Experiences with Iodized Oil in National Programmes for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders:

1. Introduction
2. Efficacy of Iodized Oil
3. Safety of Iodized Oil
4. Use of Iodized Oil in National IDD Control Programs
5. IDD Elimination in India.

by R. SANKAR, C.S. Pandav, F.U. Ahmed, P. Rao, M.P. Dwivedi, V. Desai, M.G. Karmarker, & L.M. Nath[in The Indian Journal of Pediatrics {Pages 381 - 393} vol. 64:Number 4, 1995.]



Bocio Endemico y Deficiencia de Yodo en Cataluna (Translation is "Endemic Goiter and Iodine Deficiency in Catalona"): En Español/In Spanish.

This article, with an abstract in English, is about a study conducted among 2883 individuals (ages 2-65 years) from a random sample of the Catalan population to evaluate the prevalence of endemic goiter in Catalonia and determine the areas with a higher iodine deficiency. Prevalence of goiter in Catalonia is 21% (8%-52%). Goiter more common in Women (highest in ages 45-64 yrs) than men.

by LL. SERRA MAJEM, J. Canela Soler, M. Gavalda Aran, Ll. Jover Armengol, Ll. Salleras Sanmarti, & G. LLoveras Valles [in Endocrinologia Organo de la Sociedad Espanola de Endocrinologia {p.35-47} vol. 34:2, Julia de 1987.]



Iodine Deficiency: This brief article describes the problem of IDD, its causes and solutions.

by THE TASK FORCE FOR CHILD SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENT[in World Immunization News {p.24-5} vol. 5:4, July-Aug 1989.]



Le Goitre Endemique: Plus Jamais?(Translation is "Endemic Goiter: Never Again?"): En Français/in French, Part of a 4-page publication, this 2-page article is in 3 sections:

1. La Prophylaxie de la Carence Iodee
2. Le goitre dans le Monde
3. Les Consequences du Goitre sont un Maillon du Sous-Developpement.

by C. H. THILLY, & E.M. deMaeyer [in ALGEPA - Association pour la Lutte contre le Goitre Endemique et les Pathologies Associees)



Prevention of Severe Iodine deficiency by Iodized Salt:

by C. H. THILLY, K. Luvivila, B. Swennen, & P. Bourdoux [in Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Africa - Report of the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD Yaounde, Cameroun, 23-25 March 1987AFR/NUT/99, April 1987.]



Estudio del Bocio Endemico en Galicia. Repercusion sobre el Creciemento y Desarollo(Translation is "Study of Endemic goiter in Galicia. Its Consequences on Growth and Development") En Español/In Spanish:

This article, with an abstract in English, is about a study conducted among 3872 children aged 4-18 years, from rural areas in the provinces of Lugo and La Curuna.

by R. TOJO, J.M. Fraga, F. Escobar del Rey, A. Rodrigez Martinez, E. Vazquez, & C. Esquete [in Endocrinologia Organo de la Sociedad Espanola de Endocrinologia {p.48-52} vol. 34:2, Julia de 1987.]



China Tackles Ravages of Iodine Deficiency:

Renowned for its success in fighting disease, China is belatedly campaigning against a preventible medical catastrophe that it somehow overlooked: cretinism, and mental retardation caused by iodine deficiency.

by PATRICK E. TYLER [in San Jose Mercury News {World section} June 4, 1996.]



The Public Health Importance of IDD in Tanzania:

1. Definition of IDD
2. Origins of Iodine Deficiency and its Disorders
3. Manifestations and Consequences of IDD
4. Assessment of the Public Health Dimension of IDD
5. Epidemiology of IDD in Tanzania
6. Control of IDD as a National Priority.

by F. VAN DER HAAR, P. Kavishe, & M.G. Medhin[in Central African Journal of Medicine {Pages 60-65} vol. 43:Number 3, March 1988.]



Salt Iodation in the Control of Iodine Deficiency: Increasing the Cooperation among Government, Industry, and Science:

This article discusses the roles of different sectors in IDD prevention and the need for industry alliance against IDD.

by FRITZ VAN DER HAAR [in Seventh Symposium on Salt {p.421-426} vol. 2: 1993.]



Endemic Infantile Hypothydroidism in a Severe Endemic Goitre Area of Central Africa:

Thyroid function and exposure to dietary goitrogenic factors (iodine deficiency and thiocyanate overload) were studied at birth and from birth to 7 years in 200 neonates and 347 children living in the severe endemic goitre area of Ubangi, Northern Zaire. Serum T4 was at the lower limit of normal at birth (104 +-4 nmol/l) and stayed at that level during the first year of life ( 123 +- 9) (NS). but decreased to 75 +- 8 (P<0 001) at 7-4 years and to 69+-6 (P<0.001) at 5-7 years of age. Mean serum TSH decreased from 10.4 +- 0.9 pmol I during the first year to 8.2 +- 1.0 (NS) at 2-4 years (NS) and to 7 .7 +- 0.9 (P < 0.05) at 5-7 years. Mean serum TSH was 10.4 (8.4 - 12.9) mU/l (geometic mean +- I SEM) during the first years. 10.1 (7.5-13.7) (NS) at 2-4 years and 24.3 (18.5- 31.9) (P<0.05) at 5-7 years. Mean serum T3 was 3.23 +- 0.12 nmol/l during the first year and remained stable thereafter. The frequencies of low T4 (T4 < 77 nmol/l), high TSH TSH (TSH > 50 mU/l), and low T4 and T3 (T3 < 1.69 nmol 1) were twice as high at 5-7 years as in the first year (respectively 65%, 42%, and 15%). The urinary iodide concentration of the children was stable and low throughout the study period. By contrast, serum thiocyanate concentration which was high at birth (129 +- 5 micro mol/l) decreased to normal values between 3 and 17 months of age and increased again during and after weaning ( I to 3 years of age) to reach a value of 138 micro mol/l which was comparable to that observed in adults in the same area. Thiocyanate concentration was high (133 +- 7 micro mol/l) in the mothersÆ serum but low in the mothers' milk (57+-3 micro mol/l) (P < .001). Multivariate analysis showed that both iodine deficiency and thiocyanate overload were explanatory factors of the serum levels of T4, F: T4 and TSH in children. In conclusion, our results show that infantile hypothyroidism is much more frequent at 5-7 years of age than at birth or during the first year of life. The deterioration in thyroid function during and after weaning is linked to persistent iodine deficiency accompanied by an increase in thiocyanate overload. The variability in the age of onset, the severity, and the duration of infantile hypothyroidism might explain the wide range of psychomotor and physical abnormalities observed in a large proportion of subjects in this area.

by J. VANDERPAS, P. Bourdoux, R. Lagasse, M. Rivera, M. Dramaix, D. Lody, G. Nelson, F. Delange, A.M. Ermans, & C.H. Thilly [in Clinical Endocrinology {pages 327-340} vol. 20: 1984.]



A New Hypothesis: Iodine and Gastric Cancer:

The authors have hypothesized that iodine deficiency or in some cases iodine excess is associated with the development of gastric cancer. They report a short review of their own work and general literature on this subject in three fields: (1) Epidemiology, where geographical and temporal correlations between territories with iodine deficiency or excess endemic goitre and high GC-death rate are reported; (2) immunology, where the possible correlations between Iodine deficiency, immune deficiency and GC are reported; and (3) thyroid gland and stomach correlations, both being embryologically derived from primitive gut and able to concentrate iodine. This ability is impaired by nitrates, thiocyanates, salt and by iodine excess, which in fact can cause goitre. In the study Iodine deficient, goitrous people have shown more atophic gastritis than normal subjects. These data enable the authors to hypothesize that iodine deficiency or excess might constitute a new risk factor for gastric cancer, both by regulating gastric trophism and by antagonizing the action of those Iodine inhibitors (such as nitrates, thiocyantes and salt) previously studied as risk factors for gastric cancer.

by S. VENTURI, A. Venturi, C. Cimini, M. Venturi, & A. Guidi [in European Journal of Cancer Prevention {p.17-23} vol. 2:1, January 1993.]



Defective Neuromotor and Cognitive Ability in Iodine-Deficient Schoolchildren of an Endemic Goiter Region in Sicily:

ABSTRACT. Visual-perceptual integrative motor ability was investigated in 719 6-to 12-yr.-old, presumably normal, primary schoolchildren living in 2 iodine-deficient endemic goiter areas in Sicily. Subjects were identified on the basis of the presence (area A) or absence (area B) of endemic cretinism, by administrating the Bender Gestalt test. All of these clinically euthyroid schoolchildren were also examined neurologically by an investigator unaware of the result of the Bender test. Ninety-nine (13.76%) schoolchildren were found to be defective by the Bender test; this prevalence was significantly higher than that (3.0%) found in an iodine-sufficient goiter-free control area (area C) Iying at sea level (Chi Square = 36.25; P < 0.000001). No difference in the prevalence of Bender abnormalities was apparent if the children were divided according to the area of provenience (area A, 14.4%; area B, 13.1%). A high percentage of children falling in the lower range of normality was found in both area A (15.5%) and area B (19.0%); this was significantly higher than that in area C (3.8%; Chi Square = 77.55; P < 0.000001). Neuromuscular and neurosensorial abnormalities, including increased tendon reflexes, clonus of the foot, Babinski sign, minor disturbances in balance, and gait, and minor defects in hearing and speech, were apparent in 19.3% (area A) and 18.5% (area B) of the children. These disorders were significantly more frequent in defective children identified by the Bender test (33.3%) than in normal children (15 3%; (Chi Square = 17.29; P <0.00005). The general intellectual aptitude in Bender deficient subjects was evaluated by the Terman Merrill test and was found to be impaired in 95%, thus confirming the existence of an endemic cognitive deficiency (ECD), distinct from the endemic mental deficiency previously found in other endemic goiter, iodine-deficient areas. ECD seems to be epidemiologically independent of the existence of endemic cretinism. Further clinical auxological and biochemical studies in a selected group of ECD children suggested the epidemiological and, possibly, pathogenic association of cognitive impairment with iodine deficiency.

by G. VERMIGLIO, M. Sidoti, M.D. Finocchiaro, S. Battiato, V.P. Lo Presti, & et al. [in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism {pages 379 - 384} vol. 70:Number 2, Feburary 1990.]



IDD Survey Under Way in TFYR Macendonia:

by T. WEAVER [in First Call for Children: A UNICEF Quarterly {Page 7}Number 4, October - December 1995.]

PRESENTATIONS














Health is the Responsibility of All of Us:

This presentation provides an overview of the progress made in the field of public health by the Ministry of Health of Ecuador. Special mention is made of the positive steps made in iodine deficiency elimination.

by P. ABAD HERRERA {Presenter} [in/atRegional Meeting for Universal Salt Iodization towards the Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in the Americas: Quito, Ecuador, April 9-11, 1994]. in Quito, Ecuador.



Supplementation of Iodine and Vitamin A with Reference to Nepal:

This presentation focuses on the national iodine and vitamin A supplementation programs in Nepal. Acharya examines the achievements, problems and recommendations.

by SUNITI ACHARYA {Presenter} [in/atEnding Hidden Hunger (A Policy Conference on Micronutrient Malnutrition): {p. 13-27} Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Publ. byTask Force for Child Survival and Development inAtlanta, Georgia. (Oct 10-12, 1991)





Issues in Salt Iodation Programmes in Africa:

A six-page presentation addresses recommended levels of iodation, quality control methods for iodine levels, legislation issues and evaluation methods.

by K. V. BAILEY [in/atInter-Country Workshop on Iodated Salt for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Southern Africa: Francistown, Botswana, Publ. byICCIDD in Adelaide, Australia. (Apr 21-24, 1992)



Training Needs for IDD Control:

Four-page presentation addresses the importance of training, communications and constant monitoring in order to ensure correct execution and sustainability of iodization program.

by K. V. BAILEY [in/atInter-Country Workshop on Iodated Salt for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Southern Africa: Francistown, Botswana, Publ. byICCIDD in Adelaide, Australia. (Apr 21-24, 1992)



Summary Presentation: Conference on Ending Hidden Hunger:

Brief summary of conference recommendations looking at the "promise, policy and progress" issues addressed at the conference. This presentation is also available in the Selected Papers with Policy Implications from the Ending Hidden Hunger Conference on p. 27.

by LINCOLN CHEN {Presenter} [in/atEnding Hidden Hunger (A Policy Conference on Micronutrient Malnutrition): {p. 215-223} Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Publ. by Task Force for Child Survival and Development inAtlanta, Georgia. (October 10-12, 1992)



The End of Hidden Hunger is in Sight:

Selected papers from the International Conference on "Ending Hidden Hunger." The conference was held to discuss international micronutrient malnutrition in order to accelerate progress towards implementing the goals set out in the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children.

by JAMES P. GRANT [in/atSelected Papers with Policy Implications from Ending Hidden Hunger (A Policy Conference on Micronutrient Malnutrition): Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Oct 10-12, 1991]. in Task Force on Child Survival.



The Challenge of the Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders through Salt Iodisation:

This presentation describes, step-by-step, the different strategies needed to combat IDD at the country level. The focus is on the need for communication and the sustainability of salt iodization programs.

by BASIL S. HETZEL {Presenter} [in/atRegional Meeting on Elimination of IDD in the Americas: Quito, Ecuador, Apr 9-11, 1994].



Iodine Deficiency: A Global Perspective:

This presentation examines the current global impact of IDD and the necessary components of national IDD control programs. Hetzel also describes the inputs and outputs of iodization projects and the global progress towards IDD elimination.

by BASIL S. HETZEL {Presenter} [in/atEnding Hidden Hunger: A Policy Conference on Micronutrient Malnutrition: {p.185-193} Montreal, Quebec, Canada, October 10-12, 1991]. Publ. by Task Force for Child Survival and Development inAtlanta, Georgia.



A Brief Outline of Iodine Deficiency Disorders: Three-page outline of IDD causes and methods of IDD control with a focus on Southern Africa.

by FESTO P. KAVISHE [in/atInter-Country Workshop on Iodated Salt for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Southern Africa: Francistown, Botswana, April 21-24, 1992]. Publ. byICCIDD in Adelaide, Australia.



The Control of Micronutrient Malnutrition: The Experience of Tanzania:

This 22-page presentation examines the problem of micronutrient malnutrition in Tanzania. Kavishe describes the development of national programs and policies and the implementation and results of these national control programs. There are extensive statistics specific to Tanzania.

by FESTO P. KAVISHE {Presenter} [in/atEnding Hidden Hunger (A Policy Conference on Micronutrient Malnutrition),: {page 89 - 130} Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Oct 10-12, 1991]. Publ. by Task Force for Child Survival and Development in Atlanta,Georgia.



Social Mobilization: Journey Among Partners - A Strategic Process Model For Iodine Deficiency Disorders:

This presentation suggests a conceptual framework based on the principles of social mobilization to combat iodine deficiency disorders.

by JACK C. S. LING [in/atJoint UNICEF, MENA and WHO - EMRO meeting on IDD,: Alexandria, Egypt, April 25-6, 1993].



Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in the Southern African Region through the Iodation of Salt: Nine-page presentation addressing the need for global action for IDD control and the development, status and constraints of salt iodization programs.

by M. G. VENKATESH MANNAR [in/atInter-Country Workshop on Iodated Salt for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Southern Africa: Francistown, Botswana, Apr 21-24, 1992]. Publ. by ICCIDD in Adelaide, Australia.



Status and Perspectives of Goals for Children at Mid Decade:

This 15-page presentation addresses the changing social and economic situation in Latin America and the effects these have had on the status of children. Also included are goals for the year 2000 which favor children.

by MARTA PEREZ MAURAS {UNICEF Regional Director for Latin America and the Caribbean} [in/atAgenda 2000: Today is for the Children. Second Latin American Meeting On Children and Social Policies: Bogota, Colombia, (April 1994)



Lifting the Tragic Burden of Micronutrient Deficiency:

Welcoming presentation of conference participants. Nakajima also provides a brief summary of global micronutrient deficiency.

by HIROSHI NAKAJIMA {Presenter} [in/atSelected Papers with Policy Implications from Ending Hidden Hunger (A Policy Conference on Micronutrient Malnutrition): Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Oct 10-12, 1991]. Publ. byTask Force for Child Survival and Development inAtlanta, Georgia.



Challenges and Opportunities:

This is a general overview of global micronutrient malnutrition. Ramalingaswami addresses the lessons learned from past programs concerning technology and service delivery and the importance of making effective use of research. Finally, future strategies involving diet diversification, fortification and supplementation are examined. This presentation is also available in Selected Papers with Policy Implications from the Ending Hidden Hunger conference on p. 15.

by V. RAMALINGASWAMI {Presenter} [in/atEnding Hidden Hunger:A Policy Conference on Micronutrient Malnutrition: Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Oct 10-12, 1992]. Publ. byTask Force for Child Survival and Development inAtlanta, Georgia.



Iodine Deficiency is Today, Unacceptable and Unjust:

Three-page address outlining the need for governments to take action against IDD.

by HELENA RESTREPO {Presenter} [in/atRegional Meeting for Universal Salt Iodization Towards the Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in the Americas: Quito, Ecuador, Apr 9-11, 1994].



Ecuador: Micronutrients Situation:

Short presentation (6 pages) illustrating the extent of micronutrient deficiency in Ecuador and the results of recent national control programs.

by MAURO A. RIVADENEIRA {Presenter} [in/at Ending Hidden Hunger (A Policy Conference on Micronutrient Malnutrition): Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Oct 10-12, 1991]. Publ. by Task Force for Child Survial and Development in Atlanta, Georgia.



Communications Planning Guidelines for IDD Control:

Informal three page presentation intended to help in the planning steps of the IEC component of IDD elimination programs. It highlights the importance of definitions (messages, target-groups, instruments, coverage, production and distribution schemes), resources and evaluation.

by MARIA JOSE RODRIGUES [in/atInter-Country Workshop on Iodated Salt for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Southern Africa: Francistown, Botswana, Apr 21-24, 1992]. Publ. by ICCIDD in Adelaide, Australia.



Encouraging Production and Consumption of Micronutrient Rich Foods:

This 11-page presentation examines the communications oriented approaches to micronutrient deficiency elimination. Smitasiri describes the "Triple-C" conceptual framework (communication, collaboration and concentration) as an important cyclical process for implementing dietary diversification programs.

by SUTTILAK SMITASIRI {Presenter} [in/atEnding Hidden Hunger (A Policy Conference on Micronutrient Malnutrition): {p.49-70} Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Oct 10-12, 1991]. Publ. byTask Force for Child Survival and Development in Atlanta, Georgia.



Priorities in Dealing with Micronutrient Problems in Indonesia:

This 18-page presentation examines the history and effectiveness of micronutrient deficiency policies in Indonesia. Soerkirman and Jalal provide statistics and graphs of region specific information.

by SOEKIRMAN & F. Jalal{Presenters} [in/at Ending Hidden Hunger (A Policy Conference on Micronutrient Malnutrition): {p.71-88} Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Oct 10-12, 1991]. Publ. by Task Force for Child Survival and Development in Atlanta, Georgia.


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