Burkina Faso

Burundi

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General
a
The Republic of Burundi is a land-locked country in central Africa, a little south of the Equator. It shares borders with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania and Rwanda.  The population is approximately 6.4 million with a growth rate of 2.2%.  Life expectancy at birth is only 46 years and there is an infant mortality rate of 118 deaths/1,000 live births.  The population is comprised of three ethnic groups: the Hutu (85%) and the Tutsi (14%) and the Twa (1%). Since the early 1990’s intense ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions has created hundreds of thousands of refugees and left tens of thousands dead.  Burundi has two official languages, Kirundi and French, while Swahili is often used in the business sector. The dominant religion is Christianity (67%) while a large minority still adhere to animist beliefs.

The government is a republic with legislative, executive and judicial branches and 16 administrative provinces.  In the executive branch the president is both chief of state and head of government.  The president is elected by directly by universal adult suffrage.  There is a cabinet consisting of a Council of Ministers appointed by president. The legal system is based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law.  Following the coup of 1996 the Constitution was suspended and it wasn’t until 1998 that a Transitional Constitution was installed. In August 2000 a peace agreement was signed between the warring factions which established power-sharing between the Hutu and Tutsi ethnic groups.

Burundi is a resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The GDP from the 1980’s to the 1990’s fell from US$4.4m to US$-2.9m, primarily a result of the wide-spread ethnic violence.  The GNP annual growth rate in 1998 was -0.5.  During 1990-98, it was estimated that the GNP per capita decreased in real terms, by an average of 5.5% per year.  During the same time period the population increased by 2.6% annually.  The economy is predominantly agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on subsistence agriculture, primarily cassava and sweet potatoes. Its economic health depends on the coffee crop, which accounts for 80% of foreign exchange earnings.  Population displacement as a result of the political crisis has resulted in significant disruption of crop production and most commercial sectors.  Economic sanctions imposed following the 1996 coup further affected production.

 
 
Education                                                               
a
Education is provide free of charge.  Kirundi is the language of instruction in primary schools, while French is use din secondary schools.  Primary education is compulsory and lasts for six years.  Secondary education is optional and last for up to seven years.  The UN Children's Fund estimated primary school attendance in 1996 at 48%. Only 7% of secondary aged students attended school, and only 4% of eligible girls. Less than 1% of the eligible population is attending colleges or universities.  As of 1999, only 39% of women are literate and 55% of men are literate.
 
 
Health
a
The Burundian health care system is rudimentary and medical facilities are limited even in the cities. More than two million people have no access to formal health care. There are very few doctors in rural areas and even in the cities the numbers are inadequate.  Before 1993 the health care system was doing fairly well.  Since the outbreak of internal conflict in 1993 the health care system has deteriorated.  “Medical staff have been caught up in the internal conflict and have, at times, been targets of ethnic violence. Mass displacements, war, a deteriorating road system, and an international embargo have made access to health care difficult if not impossible. There has been a dangerous increase in malnutrition and life threatening diseases. The refugee camps have been hit hard by infectious diseases.” (9)  In 2000 it was reported that the health situation in the country had worsened dramatically, while the resources allocated by the state to health had declined around 70% since the beginning of the civil conflict in 1993.

Immunization rates are low, with only 44% of infants immunized against measles.  With such large population displacements and movements this presents a serious danger.  There are a number of endemic diseases that remain within the population: malaria, cholera, meningitis, tuberculosis, and hepatitis.  The Maternal Mortality Ratio is high at 1,900 deaths/100,000 live births.  Only approximately 50% of the population in 1990-96 had improved access to water and sanitation.

 
 
Food & Diet
a
Daily caloric intake is a minimal 1,613 kcals with only 2.4% coming from an animal source.  The main staple is beans (20% of daily caloric intake) with sweet potatoes (18% of daily caloric intake) coming in a close second. Cassava and maize are the other main staples of the daily diet in Burundi.  Only about 2.4% of total daily caloric intake is through animal products, and this percentage has been slowly decreasing through the years. Malnutrition has increased since the onset of civil war in 1993.  Approximately 43% of the under five population is stunted and 9% of the population is wasted.

In 1992-98, 80% of households consumed iodized salt, nevertheless 42% of the population have goiters.  There is no iron fortification of foods, and anemia prevalence is unknown.  However, there is federal iron supplementation program for pregnant women which started in 2000.  Children and lactating women receive Vitamin A supplements through the Ministry of Health but there is no Vitamin A deficiency prevalence data.

 
 
Indicators
a

Population

                         

1991

1995

1999

2002

Total (millions)

5.4

5.4

5.9

6.4

< 5 years

19.4%

18.8%

17.7%

17.1%

5-14 years

27.5%

29.3%

29.6%

29.4%

> 14 years

53.1%

51.9%

52.7%

53.5%

 

 

 

Population Growth Rate

1980-90

1990-99

2.8

2.2

TFR (Total Fertility Rate)

1980

1998

6.8

6.2

Under- five Mortality Rate

1960

1998

255

176

IMR (Infant Mortality Rate)

1980

1998

122

118

 % Pregnant Women Immunized Against Tetanus

 

1995-98

 

9

DPT Immunization (%<12mos.)

 

1995-98

 

50

Measles Immunization (%<12mos.)

 

1995-98

 

44

 

Economic

 

GDP (US $ billions)

1980-90

1990-99

4.4

-2.9

GNP per capita at PPP (US Dollars)

 

1999

 

553

GNP annual growth rate

 

1998-99

 

-0.5

% Below Poverty Line ($1/day)

(NA)

 

Public Expenditure on Health (% of GDP)

 

1990-1998

 

0.6

Public Expenditure on Education (% of GDP)

1980

1997

3.4

4.0

 

 

 

 

 

Education       

 

 

 

 

 

Literacy pop. over 15

1980

1985

1990

1999

Females

16

21

27

39

Males

41

45

49

55

Gross Primary School Enrollment

(% of age group)

 

 

 

 

Females

21

44

66

46

Males

32

61

79

56

Gross Secondary School Enrollment

(% of age group)

 

 

 

 

Females

2

2

4

6

Males

4

5

7

8

 

Health and Nutrition

 

% of Births Attended

1985

1990

12

20

% Pop. Access Improved Sanitation

 

1990-96

 

51

% Pop. Access Improved Water

 

1990-96

 

52

% Pop. living with HIV/AIDS,

(age 15 -49)

 

1999

 

11.32

Weight/Age (% less than –2 z-score)

 

1990-98

 

9

Height/Age (% less than –2 z-score)

43

Median Duration Breastfeeding

1987  
23.8  

Food and Dietary Indices

1980

1990

1995

1999

Total Calories Consumed (kcals/day)

2,022

1,877

1,665

1,613

Animal Sources of food (kcals/day)

3.5%

3.1%

2.9%

2.4%

 

1.  http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbpyr.html 

2.  http://www.worldbank.org/poverty/wdrpoverty/report/ 

3.  http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html 

4.  http://www.measuredhs.com/data/indicators 

5.  http://apps.fao.org/page/collections?subset=nutrition 

6.  http://genderstats.worldbank.org

7.  http://www.undp.org/hdr2002/indicator/ 

8.  http://www.state.gov 

9.  http://www.sas.upenn.edu/African_Studies/NEH/br-helth.html 

10.  Europa World Year Book 2001, 42nd edition, 1st volume