Ghana

Guinea

Country Profile

Guinea Bissau
           
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General

Guinea is located on the northwest coast of Africa.  It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, Mali, Sierra Leone, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, and Cote d’Ivoire.  The country received its independence in 1958 from France, but had military rule until 1993 when Gen. Lansana Conte, head of military, became civilian president in 1993 and 1998 when he won the elections.

Guinea’s population exceeds 8.5 million, with the majority comprising of a youth population (54.5%-15-65, 42.8%-0-14).  The majority of the population are followers of Islam-Muslims (85%), while the other percentage are split evenly between Christianity (8%) and indigenous beliefs (7%).  The official language is French, but each tribe has its own language and continues to use their language daily.  The tribes that make-up Guinea are Peuhl 40%, Malinke 30%, Soussou 20%, smaller ethnic groups 10%

The government of Guinea is known as Republic Government with laws based on French civil law.  The Head of state or the President is Gen. Lansana Conte, and the Prime Minister is Lamine Sidime, who is appointed by president.  The government also contains Cabinet members or a Council of Ministers, which is also appointed by president

The major social and economic problems in Guinea result from refugees from neighboring Sierra Leone and Liberia because of civil war there.  The influx of refugees has slowed progress of the country because the refugees deplete the economy and the unrest lowers confidence in the national economy.  In addition, the resources that must be provided for the refugees by the government takes money away from projects that the government would have used for the advancement of the nation.  Other problems that face Guinea are the major border incursions from Revolutionary United Front combatants from Sierra Leone, dissident Guinean forces, Liberian Army, and mercenaries between September 2000 and March 2001 that killed over 1,500 Guinean civilians and military personnel; therefore the borders remain mostly sealed

The many problems that encounter Guinea have lead it to become an underdeveloped nation, even though it has an abundance of natural resources.  The main natural resources are riches in minerals, hydropower, and agricultural resources.  Guinea contains over 30% of the bauxite reserves in the world, making it the second largest producer of this mineral.  Due to this particular fact, mining is the biggest exporter (75%) while agriculture is the biggest employer (80%).  Guinea contains a population of 4 million work force even though there are 7.75 million people that are of working age.  The biggest exports of Guinea are agricultural and mineral products, while the biggest imports are technology and mining and some food to help with the influx of refugees.  The government has made tremendous effort to combat the problems faced by the country, by working on budget management and economic reforms.  These types of effort to help stabilize the country have had a positive effect of Guinea, but the continuation of civil war in its neighbors and refugees from the civil war have had negative effects on the country.

                                                                                    
Education
 
The literacy rate in Guinea is a little over 35% (35.9%), and this is due to the lack of enrollment is higher-level schools.  The primary school enrollment for women is 37% and for men it is 54%.  These levels are not high and this is one explanation for the low literacy rate, but the levels drop off dramatically for secondary school enrollment.  The secondary school enrollment for women is 7% and for men it is 18%.  This results in the low levels of literacy, and causes 79% of the women and 49% of the men to be illiterate.  There has been some progress in this area with 54% of people now enrolled in school, but the government continues to spend only 2% of the budget on education. 
Health
.
One of the major concerns in Guinea is the lack of clean water for the general population, desertification, overpopulation and destruction of the natural environment.  The government spends only 2.3% of the national budget on health related issues.  This results in the population having access to only 48% of improved water sources and 58% of improved sanitation, which results in various diseases from the lack of clean water and no disposal of waste.  Due to the fact that the government spends only 19% of the budget on health, 40% of the population live under poverty conditions.  
Food & Diet
.
The Nile River and its tributary Milo have their sources in Guinea highlands, which makes the surrounding lands extremely fertile.  This is why agriculture is a big part of the diet, with vegetables comprising 96% of the diet.  People in Guinea consume 2.320 kcal per day, with 3.9% of their food coming from animal sources.  As stated previously, vegetables and other agricultural products make-up most of the daily diet.  The diet contains a majority of rice along with other starchy roots, such as cassava, potatoes, maise, and cereal/others. Vegetables such as tomatoes, onions, and other vegetables also comprise a major portion of the diet.
Indicators

  

Population         

 

 

 

 

 

1991

1995

1999

2002

Total (millions)

6,727,340

7,681,803

 

8,815,576

% < 5 years

1,207,138

1,374,898

 

1,564,702

% 5-14 years

1,763,409

2,031,796

 

2,355,186

% > 14 years

3,883,579

4,275,082

 

4,495,688

 

 

 

Population Growth Rate

1970-1990

1990-2000

Not reported

  2.23

TFR (Total Fertility Rate)

1990

2000

5.9

5.32

Under- five Mortality Rate

1990

2000

215

161

IMR (Infant Mortality Rate)

1990

2000

121

127

MMR (deaths per 100,000 live births)

1,200

% Pregnant Women Immunized against Tetanus

1998

 

DPT Immunization (% < 12 mths)

 1990

  1995

  2000

17

54

46

Measles Immunization (% < 12mths)

35

61

52

 

 

Economic

 

 

 

 

GNP (US $ billions)

2000

 

15 billion

 

GNP per capita at PPP

2000

1,970

GNP annual growth rate

1999-2000

3

% Below Poverty Line ($1/day)

40 

% Government expenditure on Health

 

1992-2000

2.3 

%Government expenditure on Education

 

1992-2000

2

 

 

 

 

 

Education        

 

 

 

 

 

1990

1995

1999

2002

Literacy pop. over 15

 

 

 

 

Females

44

21.9

 

 

Males

43

49.9

 

 

Gross Primary School Enrollment

(% of age group)

 

 

 

 

Females

24

33

 

37

Males

50

62

 

54

Gross Secondary School Enrollment

(% of age group)

 

 

 

 

Females

 5

 6

 8

Males

15

18

 

21

 

 

Health and Nutrition

 

% of Births Attended

2000

  35

% Pop. Access Improved Sanitation

1990-200

58

% Pop. Access Improved Water

1990-200

48

% Pop. living with HIV/AIDS,

(age 15 -49)

2001

 

Weight/Age (% less than –2 z-score)

33

Height/Age (% less than –2 z-score)

 

Exclusively Breastfed (0-3 months)%

 

Food and Dietary Indices

1990

1995

1999

2002

Total Calories Consumed (kcals/day)

 

 

 

2.320

Animal Sources of food (% of total kcal)

 

 

 

.039

 

Sources

    1.  http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbpyr.html 

    2.  http://www.worldbank.org/poverty/wdrpoverty/report/ 

    3.  http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html 

    4.  http://apps.fao.org/page/collections?subset=nutrition 

    5.  http://genderstats.worldbank.org

    6.  http://www.undp.org/hdr2002/indicator/ 

    7.  http://www.paho.org

    8.  Europa World Year Book 2001, 42nd edition, 1st volume