Ruscher & Fiske (1990) Ruscher, J. B., & Fiske, S. T. (1990). Interpersonal competition can cause individuating processes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 832-843.

This two experiment paper examined how interpersonal competitors attend to and individuate their opponents, extending the work on interdependence and individuation into the realm of competitive interdependence. As expected, competitors increased attention to expectancy-incongruent information, drew dispositional inferences about this infomration, and formed more variable impressions than did noncompetitors. These effects were strongest when the participants felt competent at the task.

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