Beal et al. (2000) Beal, D. J., O'Neal, E. C., Ong, J., & Ruscher, J. B. (2000). The ways and means of interracial aggression: Modern racists' use of covert retaliation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 1225-1238.

Two experiments demonstrated that individuals high in modern racism especially used covert (instead of overt) means of aggression in order to retaliate against an African-American who behaved provocatively in a competitive reaction time game. The second experiment also demonstrated that covert aggression appears to be an intentional strategy, insofar as use of covert aggression is attenuated when cognitive capacity is limited.

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