Duval et al. (2000) Duval, L. L., Ruscher, J. B., Welsh, K., & Catanese, S. P. (2000). Bolstering and undercutting use of the elderly stereotype through communication of exemplars: The role of speaker age and exemplar stereotypicalityBasic and Applied Social Psychology, 22 137-146

Typically, listeners are more influenced by speakers who hail from their own ingroup. However, in some cases, outgroup speakers are quite influential. In this study, elderly speakers who spoke stereotypically (or counterstereotypically) about elderly peers exerted more influence on college age listeners' impressions than did college age speakers. Elderly speakers who spoke counterstereotypically about peers were able to undercut subsequent stereotype use, whereas those who spoke stereotypically bolstered stereotype use.

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