Ruscher et al. (1991) Ruscher, J. B., Fiske, S. T., Miki, H., & Van Manen, S. (1991). Individuating processes in competition: Interpersonal versus intergroup. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 595-605.

Following in the vein of Ruscher & Fiske (1990), this two experiment paper distinguished interpersonal competition from intergroup competition, proposing individuating impression formation for the former and category-based impression formaiton for the latter. Experiment 1 confirmed these predictions by demonstrating increased attention to and dispositional inferences about expectancy-incongruent information under interpersonal competition but increased attention to and dispositional inferences about expectancy- congruent information for intergroup competition. Experiment 2 demonstrated that intergroup competitors primarily focus their attentions on teammates rather than opponents.

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