Kaplan et al. (2004) Kaplan, S. A., Bradley, J. C., & Ruscher, J. B. (2004). The inhibitory role of cynical disposition in the provision and receipt of social support: the case of the September 11th terrorist attacks. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 1221-1232

Immediately following the September 11th terrorist attacks, people in other areas of the country shared concerns about their friends and relatives. The current research shows that dispositional cynicism influenced not only perceptions of social support received (corroborating previous research), but also both the social support given in response to these shared concerns. Cynicism predicted the provision and receipt of fewer sympathetic responses as well as the perceived receipt of explicitly calloused responses.

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