Previous work on the Black Sheep Effect demonstrates that individuals
distance themselves from ingroup members who have negative
characteristics. What comprises as ingroup, however, depends upon which
social identities are salient. Individuals simultaneously may hold
multiple social identities, such as race and nationality. In the present
study, White U.S. college students reviewed a well-written or sub-standard
college admissions essay written by a fellow U.S. citizen or a foreign
citizen. The writer either was white or latino. Participants'
evaluations of the competent writer did not vary with nationality or
ethnicity. However, evaluations of an incompetent white U.S. citizen were
dramatically lower than evaluations of other incompetent writers (i.e., a
black sheep effect).
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