The Honor Code of the Liberal Arts and Sciences of Tulane University defines plagiarism as "Unacknowledged or falsely acknowledged presentation of another person's ideas, expressions, or original research as one's own work." The Honor Code further notes that "Such an act often gives the reader the impression that the student has written or thought something that he or she has in fact borrowed from another. Any paraphrasing or quotation must be appropriately acknowledged." Ignorance of what constitutes plagiarism does not excuse students for this violation of the honor code.
Although consistent with it, the following section is not part of Tulane's Honor Code. Rather, it reflects one instructor's effort to clarify for students what constitutes plagiarism and inappropriate citation of sources. For further information, please consult an excellent insert regarding the appropriate acknowledgment is included in hard copies of Tulane Honor's Code. This insert, based on published sources (Dartmouth College, 1987; Tulane University, 1982) was consulted in preparation of this effort.
Any of the following reflect inappropriate citation,
and involve plagiarism:
Verbatim lifting, no citation:
Near verbatim lifting:
Verbatim lifting, omitting some intermediate text:
Verbatim lifting, rearranging the order of the text:
In contrast, any of the following would reflect an appropriate
citation for use of this
Citation and quotation:
Paraphrase and citation of ideas, in author's own words:
These examples use the citation format of the 4th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Writers should conform to the citation method particular to their discipline.
Dartmouth College (1987). Sources: Their use and
acknowledgment.Dartmouth College: Hanover, New Hampshire
Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc.
Jones, E. E., Farina, A., Hastorf, A. H., Markus, H., Miller, D. T., & Scott, R. A. (1984). Social stigma: The psychology of marked relationships. New York: Freeman.
Jones, E. E., & Gordon, E. (1972). The timing of self-disclosure and its effects on personal interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24, 358-365.
Ruscher, J. B. (1991, June). Skeleton out of the closet: How previously-concealed stigma affects on-going impressions. American Psychological Society, Washington, D.C.
Ruscher, J. B., & Hammer, E. D. (1994). Revising disrupted impressions through conversation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 530-541.
Tulane University (1982). Literary honesty and elementary documentation.Tulane University: New Orleans, Louisiana.