Practice Exam for Psyc345
Psyc345 Practice Exam

The following are final exam questions from a previous section of Psyc345. Most questions are based on the text, theories and concepts from social cognition, and general knowledge about the methods of social cognition. Some questions are based on articles that you may not have read this year, so do not be alarmed if you cannot answer them.
The final exam also has an essay component, based on a short empirical article Essay portion
  • 1. According to Kanasawa's analysis of outcome versus expectancy effects in attribution, people spontaneously draw attributions
    • . when an outcome is expected
    • when an expectancy is positive
    • when an outcome is unexpected
    • when an expectancy is negative

  • 2. What is the fundamental attribution error?
    • an error in which people spontaneously draw external attributions
    • an error that only white people make
    • a tendency to draw dispositional inferences about others' behavior
    • .a tendency to draw situational attributions about unexpected outcomes

  • 3. The idea that negative outcomes elicit spontaneous attributional activity
    • is refuted by the study that showed that expectancy, not outcome, underlies attribution
    • is supported by the study that showed that outcome, not expectancy, underlies attribution
    • is not supported when people are personally involved with the outcome
    • is yet another silly and obvious hypotheses tested by social psychologists

  • 4. Which of the following is true of the fundamental attribution error?
    • It holds constant over time.
    • It is less evident in Western than Eastern cultures
    • It is more evident in Western than Eastern cultures
    • It is weaker in laboratory settings than in "real-world" settings.

  • 5. Circularity, which was discussed in the paper about causal knowledge structures for defection, means
    • that a phenomenon is inferred from the same data that are used to test the phenomenon
    • that a phenomenon is not testable without the use of quasi-experimental techniques
    • that causal knowledge structures comprise "nodes" like any other schema, and nodes are circular
    • that phenomena that cannot be operationalized by definition defy experimental investigation

  • 6. Why is a script a unique type of schema?
    • a script includes tautological principles that schemas typically do not
    • a script includes chronological information that schemas typically do not
    • a script usually aids memory for consistent information
    • a script aids the interpretation of incoming information

  • 7. Memory for schema-inconsistent information is
    • always is worse than memory for schema-consistent information
    • typically is enhanced when the situation is cognitively demanding
    • typically is enhanced when perceivers elaborate on information
    • is predicted (but not supported) by association-network models of memory

  • 8. Why is there more difficulty dealing with intraindividual inconsistencies than intragroup inconsistencies?
    • people have more information about a given group than about a given individual
    • intragroup inconsistencies easily can be attributed to a few exceptional group members
    • intraindividual inconsistencies easily can be attributed to a few exceptional group members
    • intraindividual inconsistencies easily can be attributed to a schizophrenia

  • 9. Why do communicators use more qualifiers when speaking to an expert?
    • expecting to communicate with an expert encourages "unfreezing" one's impressions
    • expecting to communicate with an expert encourages "freezing" of one's impressions
    • expecting to communicate with an expert increases anxiety, which is correlated with qualifier use
    • expecting to communicate with an expert does not encourage qualifier use. It discourages this.

  • 10. Grician maxims
    • are implicit rules that communicators and receivers appear to follow in conversation
    • are implicit rules that specify the structure of schemas for successful communication
    • specify which qualifiers communicators should use for particular conversation domains
    • are a combination of the second-string quarterback of the '49rs and the San Francisco treat

  • 11. To say that an aspect of the self concept is "chronically accessible" means that
    • it was primed with the use of a computer program
    • it usually isn't in working memory, unless the situation encourages it's appearance
    • that response latency to information consistent with that aspect of the self concept is relatively slow
    • that this aspect of the self concept guides the encoding and interpretation of incoming information

  • 12. The ideal self
    • is what an individual wishes that he or she will become
    • is what an individual believes he or she should become
    • is developed similarly as the superego
    • is being a meteorologist in Iceland

  • 13. For a process to be "controlled"
    • it must occur without conscious awareness or intent
    • it typically requires cognitive resources
    • it typically occurs despite cognitive load
    • it must have to do with attributions

  • 14. What was the main point of the research on baby-facedness?
    • there was no point; this question is just trying to confuse us
    • people may be attuned to baby-facedness for evolutionary reasons
    • people may be attuned to attractiveness more than baby-facedness
    • people need to recognize that the ecological perspective is more important than schematic perspectives

  • 15. If you try to think of a red Volkswagen after having tried not to think of a red Volkswagen
    • you'll automatically put marker dots on a piece of paper
    • you'll think more about a red Volkswagen than if you hadn't tried to suppress the thought
    • you'll think less about a red Volkswagen than if you hadn't tried to suppress the thought
    • you'll need to let the controlled distractor search automatically suppress the thought again

  • 16. Sarah, Cathy, and Kristi are blonde. Ali is a redhead. Leigh, Amy, and Jennifer are brunettes.
    • Dr. Ruscher has warped color vision.
    • Dr. Ruscher is organizing by person.
    • Dr. Ruscher is organizing by group.
    • Dr. Ruscher is stereotyping these women.

  • 17. People use the information that they believe is relevant to their judgments. This is evident in use of
    • an a expert's personality profile for a lawyer, ignoring base rate of lawyers in the population.
    • a computer's random personality profile for a lawyer, ignoring base rate of lawyers in the population
    • the fundamental error when explaining their own behavior
    • the actor-observer effect when explaining other's behavior

  • 18. What is counterfactual thinking?
    • thinking about what might have happened (but didn't)
    • thinking about the reasons for doing something
    • thinking that involves primitive, automatic processes
    • thinking about the fact that the lunch counter is red

  • 19. What was the point of the study in which shoppers generally preferred the socks furthest to the right?
    • it provided an excellent example of a field study in which the ethics were questionable
    • people who are chronically accessible on "bargain-hunting" instinctively can find the bargains
    • people are unaware of the causes of their own behavior, but will evoke plausible salient explanations
    • it proves that they read the novel Rabbit Run in which the mother accidentally drowned her baby

  • 20. One general finding about affect is that
    • mood and emotion are essentially the same, except for valence
    • effects for positive mood are more predictable than for negative moods
    • the effects of positive moods are more diffuse than for negative moods
    • people in a good mood help only if reciprocity norms are activated

  • 21. If negative affect is evidenced by activity in the brow but not in the cheek, and positive affect is evidenced by activity in the cheek
    • then the cheek is a poor indicator of affect
    • then the cheek is the best indicator of negative affect
    • then activity in the cheek is a source of convergent validity
    • then activity in the cheek is a source of discriminant validity

  • 22. Facial feedback theory argues that
    • the face provides feedback about why emotion is vascular
    • the face provides information about which emotion is experienced
    • emotion only occurs when people pose their faces into expressions
    • emotion provides information that the face usually is on the head

  • 23. Central processing of a message involves
    • controlled processes in which participants critically evaluate the arguments in the message
    • automatic processes in which participants critically evaluate the arguments in the message
    • controlled processes in which participants rely on structural features like source attractiveness
    • automatic processes in which participants rely on structural features like source attractiveness

  • 24. In order to reduce cognitive dissonance
    • an individual might trivialize the importance of the consonant elements
    • an individual might trivialize the importance of the dissonant elements
    • an individual might increase the number of dissonant elements
    • a vegetarian might not eat meat or fish

  • 25. According to Chaiken, defensive processing
    • is a type of systematic processing, but in this case the processing is unbiased
    • is a type of systematic processing, but in this case the processing is biased
    • involves selective inattention to the message that one finds threatening
    • usually occurs when the individual is relatively uninvolved with the issue

  • 26. If a task is difficult (e.g., walking up an icy hill when one is on crutches), one should
    • identify the behavior at a relatively high level (e.g., walking)
    • identify the behavior at a relatively high level (e.g., moving one crutch while remaining upright)
    • identify the behavior at a relatively low level (e.g., walking)
    • identify the behavior at a relatively low level (e.g., moving one crutch while remaining upright)

  • 27. Self-fulfilling prophecies and behavioral confirmation involve
    • separating people into jigsaw groups in the classroom
    • eliciting behavior from someone that defies your expectations
    • eliciting behavior from someone that fits your expectations
    • making people feel stupid so that you will be superior to them

  • 28. What does "between subjects" necessarily mean? That is, what must be true of a between subjects variable?
    • participants must be assigned randomly to conditions
    • there cannot be confounding variables if internal validity is to be high
    • participants receive only one level of that independent variable
    • the independent variable must be from an impact study (not a judgment study)

  • 29. If a researcher has two dependent variables that essentially tap the same construct
    • she should toss the second one to reduce redundancy
    • she should use MANOVA to analyze her data
    • she should consider using one of them as a mediator
    • she should examine whether they equally influence the measured variable

  • 30. What does it mean for a variable to be a mediator?
    • the independent variable only affects the dependent variable only to the extent that the mediator is present
    • the independent variable is caused by a change in the mediator, and then it affects the dependent variable
    • any dependent variable essentially is a mediator, but it only is called a mediator when there is an equal number of participants per group
    • the interaction between two independent variables involves mediation (which one is labeled mediator is arbitrary)

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