- 1. According to Kanasawa's analysis of outcome versus expectancy effects in
spontaneously draw attributions
- when an outcome is unexpected
- 2. What is the fundamental attribution error?
- a tendency to draw dispositional inferences about others' behavior
- 3. The idea that negative outcomes elicit spontaneous attributional activity
- is refuted by the study that showed that expectancy, not outcome,
- 4. Which of the following is true of the fundamental attribution error?
- It is more evident in Western than Eastern cultures
- 5. Circularity, which was discussed in the paper about causal knowledge structures
for defection, means
- that a phenomenon is inferred from the same data that are used to test the
- 6. Why is a script a unique type of schema?
- a script includes chronological information that schemas typically do not
- 7. Memory for schema-inconsistent information is
- typically is enhanced when perceivers elaborate on information
- 8. Why is there more difficulty dealing with intraindividual inconsistencies than
- intragroup inconsistencies easily can be attributed to a few exceptional group
- 9. Why do communicators use more qualifiers when speaking to an expert?
- expecting to communicate with an expert encourages "unfreezing" one's
- 10. Grician maxims
- are implicit rules that communicators and receivers appear to follow in
- 11. To say that an aspect of the self concept is "chronically accessible" means that
- that this aspect of the self concept guides the encoding and
- 12. The ideal self
- is what an individual wishes that he or she will become
- 13. For a process to be "controlled"
- it typically requires cognitive resources
- 14. What was the main point of the research on baby-facedness?
- people may be attuned to baby-facedness for evolutionary reasons
- 15. If you try to think of a red Volkswagen after having tried not to think of a red
- you'll think more about a red Volkswagen than if you hadn't tried to suppress
- 16. Sarah, Cathy, and Kristi are blonde. Ali is a redhead. Leigh, Amy, and Jennifer
- Dr. Ruscher is organizing by group.
- 17. People use the information that they believe is relevant to their judgments. This is
evident in use of
- an a expert's personality profile for a lawyer, ignoring base rate of
lawyers in the population.
- 18. What is counterfactual thinking?
- thinking about what might have happened (but didn't)
- 19. What was the point of the study in which shoppers generally preferred the socks
furthest to the right?
- people are unaware of the causes of their own behavior, but will evoke
- 20. One general finding about affect is that
- effects for positive mood are more predictable than for negative moods
- 21. If negative affect is evidenced by activity in the brow but not in the cheek, and
positive affect is
evidenced by activity in the cheek
- then activity in the cheek is a source of discriminant validity
- 22. Facial feedback theory argues that
- the face provides information about which emotion is experienced
- 23. Central processing of a message involves
- controlled processes in which participants critically evaluate the
arguments in the message
- 24. In order to reduce cognitive dissonance
- an individual might trivialize the importance of the dissonant elements
- 25. According to Chaiken, defensive processing
- is a type of systematic processing, but in this case the processing is
- 26. If a task is difficult (e.g., walking up an icy hill when one is on crutches), one
- identify the behavior at a relatively low level (e.g., moving one crutch while
- 27. Self-fulfilling prophecies and behavioral confirmation involve
eliciting behavior from someone that defies your expectations
- eliciting behavior from someone that fits your expectations
- 28. What does "between subjects" necessarily mean? That is, what must be true of a
- participants receive only one level of that independent variable
- 29. If a researcher has two dependent variables that essentially tap the same construct
- she should use MANOVA to analyze her data
- 30. What does it mean for a variable to be a mediator?
- the independent variable only affects the dependent variable only to the
extent that the
Back to exam
Back to Ruscher's