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Return to Ch 1 Test Yourself

Question #1

1)  Outcome variables

            a.   Anthropometric Variables

                    -Birth weight

                    -Underweight (wt./age Z score)

                    -Stunting (ht./age Z score)

                    -Wasting (wt./ht. Z score)

                    -Middle upper Arm Circumference

            b.   Micronutrient Deficiencies

-Total goiter rate in school children

-Urinary iodine concentration

-Salt iodization surveys

-Clinical measure of night-blindness

-Bitot's spots

-Serum retinol <70mg/l

-Food frequency questionnaire

-Vitamin A distribution

-Hemoglobin/hematocrit readings

-Anemia

-Distribution of ferrous sulfate

-Consumption of absorption inhibitors/enhancers

2)  Classifying variables

                -Area

                -Gender

                -Age

                -Occupation

                -Distance from health post

                -Rural/Urban location

                -Education level of mother/Literacy

                -Socio-economic status (usually a proxy indicator)

                -Water source, sanitation

3)  Determining Variables

                -Breastfed in first hour

                -Exclusive breast-feeding

                -Age breast-feeding ceased

                -Age complementary feeding began

                -Age of immunization

                -Individual types of immunization

                -Percent receiving immunization

                -Access to safe water

                -Habits for water use

                -Hand washing

                -Food washing

                -Access to latrine

                -Type of latrine

4)  Process Variables

                        -Percent receiving immunizations

                        -Coverage of media message

-Number of facilitators trained

                        -Percent of children exclusively breastfed from 4-6 months

Question #2:

  1. Compare your anthropometric index values for the first 30 cases to those in the table below.
  2. Case Summariesa

    Case Number

    waz std. deviations

    haz std. deviations

    whz std. deviations

    1

    -2.22

    -0.97

    -1.87

    2

    0.54

    0.51

    0.54

    3

    -0.51

    -1.05

    0.2

    4

    0.09

    0.13

    0.12

    5

    1.45

    -0.71

    2.33

    6

    0.43

    0.1

    0.56

    7

    -0.89

    -2.04

    0.34

    8

    -1.23

    -0.8

    -0.74

    9

    -2.46

    -3.15

    -0.98

    10

    -2.18

    -2.31

    -1.01

    11

    -1.78

    -2.11

    -0.59

    12

    -1.39

    -1.7

    -0.27

    13

    -1.14

    -1.54

    -0.17

    14

    -1.4

    -2.05

    0.23

    15

    -0.86

    -0.61

    -0.49

    16

    -0.63

    -0.67

    -0.08

    18

    -1.28

    -1.7

    0.15

    19

    -2.16

    -2.16

    -1.22

    21

    -1.22

    -1.18

    -0.46

    23

    -1.68

    -1.94

    -0.55

    24

    -3.04

    -3.36

    -1.75

    25

    2.27

    0.91

    1.64

    26

    0.27

    -0.57

    0.89

    27

    -0.69

    -1.44

    0.28

    28

    0.01

    -1.27

    1.36

    29

    -1.69

    -1.76

    -0.67

    30

    -1.56

    -2.03

    0.04

    Total N

    27

    27

    27

    a = Limited to first 30 cases.

    If your values do not match, go back to the transformations page in Chapter 2 and go through the exercise again. (All I did was go into keast4j.sav and perform the case summaries routine)

  3. The standard cut-offs of Z scores for undernutrition are as follow:

Normal > -1 SDs

Mild Undernutrition -1.01 to -2 SDs

Moderate Undernutrition -2.01 to -3 SDs

Severe Undernutrition <-3 SDs

Question #3:

        1)  Z scores for the following females and classifications (normal, mild, moderate, or severely malnourished) are listed below:

 

Weight (kg) Age (months) Weight/age Z score Classification

5.5

5

-1.33

Mild

8.1

25

-3.08

Severe

7.5

13

-2.09

Moderate

 

If your answers do not match, return to the Chapter 6 sub-module and read through the Z score hand calculation directions to find your errors.

Question #4:

  1. The immediate causes of malnutrition include inadequate dietary intake and disease.
  2. Underlying causes of childhood malnutrition are:

Insufficient food intake

Inadequate Maternal/Child Care

Insufficient Health Services/Unhealthy Environment

Please see the UNICEF conceptual framework through page 1, Chapter 1 if you have any questions.