Return to Page2 Outcome Variables
Outcome variables are usually the dependent variables. They are factors that can be measured and can change over time. These values are usually presented as means or frequencies/percentages by group (e.g., Prevalence of underweight by district) and are often the content of cells in tables and on the Y-axis of graphs.
Birth weight - Is used to detect the nutritional status at birth and sometimes to estimate situation of a group of individuals or a population.Underweight - weight-for-age z-score. Is used as a summary measure of nutritional status of individuals or populations.
Normal: 2500 grams and above
Low birth weight: 1500 to 2499 grams
Severe low birth weight: Less than 1500 gramsStunting - height-for-age z-score. Is used to measure levels of accumulated undernutrition in individuals or populations.
Normal: -1.00 waz and above
Mild underweight: -1.01 to -2.00 waz
Moderate underweight: -2.01 to -3.00 waz
Severe underweight: Less than -3.00 wazWasting - weight-for-height z-score. Is used to measure levels of current undernutrition in individuals or populations - especially useful in emergencies.
Normal: -1.00 haz and above
Mild stunting: -1.01 to -2.00 haz
Moderate stunting: -2.01 to -3.00 haz
Severe stunting: Less than -3.00 hazMid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) - Roughly corresponds to wt/age but is fairly age dependent.
Normal: -1.00 whz and above
Mild wasting: -1.01 to -2.00 whz
Moderate wasting: -2.01 to -3.00 whz
Severe wasting: Less than -3.00 whzBody Mass Index - weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared, or kgs/m2. It is a measure of obesity or thinness in adults - primarily women of childbearing age.
Normal: 13.50 cm and above.
Moderate malnutrition: 12.5 cm to 13.50 cm.
Severe malnutrition: Less than 12.5 cm.
Normal: BMI 18.5-24.99 is the normal range for an individual.
Grade 1 thinness: BMI 17.0-18.49
Grade 2 thinness: BMI 16.0-16.99
Grade 3 thinness: BMI less than 16.00
Grade 1 overweight: BMI 25.0-29.99
Grade 2 overweight: BMI 30.0-39.99
Grade 3 overweight: BMI greater than or equal to 40.00.
Illness prevalence - several common illnesses that greatly affect a child's nutritional status are often targeted in programs to provide prevention and treatment measure; because illness is so directly related to nutritional status, it is measured as an outcome variable.
Micronutrient deficiency measures - use the back button to return here
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