What do you want to do? SPSS Computing Steps Data Manipulation Sorting Cases Data-Sort Cases- select one or more sorting variables Selecting Cases Data-Select Cases-Select Cases:If specify the criteria for selecting cases do not indlude an equal sign Splitting File Data-Split File select COMPARE GROUPS if the split-file groups are presented together for comparison purposes or ORGANIZE OUTPUT BY GROUPS if all results are displayed separetely for each split -file group Merging Files - Adding Cases Data-Merge Files-Add cases select the data file taht you want to merge with teh currently opened file remove any variables you don't want and add any variables from the unpaired list taht you do want Merging Files-Adding Variables Data-Merge File-Add Variables select the data file that you want to merge with the currently opened file remove any variables you don't want and add any variables from the excluded list that you do want indicate the key variable that matches the two files (change to have the same name if necessary) Data Transformations Compute Variables Transform-Compute type the name of a single target variable build an expression by highlighting variables and using the arrow dey or type directly into teh Expression field Recoding Variables Transform-Recode-Into Different Variable select variable you want to recode enter a new output name for the new variable and click CHANGE click OLD AND NEW VALUES enter old value or old value range enter new value and click ADD Missing Values Double click variable name Define variable Click missing values Enter discrete values or range of values Bivariate Procedures Independent Samples T-Test use this method to compare means of one continuous variable across independent groups, the samples are independent.  Example:   males and females in the employment file can be divided into independent groups by teh variable gender.  The t-test can determine if the mean current salaries of the males and females are the same. Analyze-Compare Means-Independent T-Test Test variable = the variable whose means you are comparing (ex. salary) Grouping variable = the groups you are comparing (ex.gender) Define groups = indicate the values you are comparing for the grouping variables (1 = male 2 = female) One Sample T-Test to test whether a mean equals a predetermined value.  Example:  you can test whether the average salary in this company differs from a national average. Analyze-Compare Means-One-Sample T-Test Test variable = the variable whose means you are testing (ex. salary) Test value = the value you are comparing to (ex. national average) Chi-Square determines a relationship between two categorical variables (example to test whether gender and job category are related) Analyze-Descriptive Statistics-Crosstabs row (ex. gender) column (ex. job category) Statistics - chi-square box needs to be checked ANOVA used to test for the differences in means among two or more groups simultaneously, if p<0.05 conclude that at least one population mean differs from the others.  We cannot tell at this point which mean is different. Analyze-Compare Means-One-way ANOVA Dependent List: one or more dependent variables that must be coninuous (ex. salary) Factor: a single independent factor variable taht must be categorical (ex. job category) Describing a Population Frequencies Analyze-Descriptive Statistics-Frequencies Descriptives (Mean, Variance, etc) only for continuous variables Analyze-Descriptive Statistics-Descriptives Graphs: Bar Chart (Usually for categorical data) Simple Line Histogram (shows distribution of values by dividing the range into equally-spaced intervals and plotting the count of cases in each interval as a bar) Scatterplot (highlights the relationship between two                         variables) Pie Chart (displays info. in a circular format) Graphs-choose type you want (ex. simple) Graphs-Interactive- Indicate type of graph and use options to improve quality.  For example, for a pie chart select interactive, pie, simple, and then slice by...slice summary is a method to disply information and pie tab allows you to label the pieces Regression Analysis Linear Regression ascertain the probable relationship between two continuous variables, predict or estimate the value of one variable corresponding to a given value of another variable Analyze-Regression-Linear... Dependent (ex. current salary) Independent (ex. education level) Method:  indicate teh method you want the variable to enter/remove