Return to Chapter 4 Pg 4 Confounding

**Direct Method: Specific rates applied to standard
population
**This weighted average of specific rates with the standard
population provides a rate of the number of events that

would have been expected if the populations compared had identical distribution of the variable of interest.

**Indirect Method: Standard rates applied to specific
population distribution or structure of interest
**The weighted average of category specific expected number
of cases is calculated by multiplying the stratum-specific rates by the weights of each
category. This results in a ratio of observed number of cases to the expected number
of cases.