Under a topical subject heading or a subject heading string, a geographic name is used in
indirect subdivision. In other words, the subject heading string is subdivided indirectly through the
larger jurisdiction to the specific place. The form of the larger jurisdiction is the same as its heading form.
When -- as in most cases -- the first geographic $z subdivision is in the qualifier of the 651 heading of the
specific place, it does not need to be repeated as a qualifer for the specific place (H830, sec. 6).
151 field: The 151 field shows the authorized heading form, including qualifier.
781 field: LC has implemented the use of the 781 field in geographic authority records, to spell out the pattern
applied to a place when it is used as a geographic subdivision. Not all geographic authority records yet include 781 fields.
Conflicts (H810, sec. 2b.):
More than one place with same name in same larger jurisdiction:
Same type of place: Use name of the intermediate-level jurisdiction (county, department, etc.) that will distinguish
them. Put it in the qualifier before the larger jurisdiction, separated by a comma, not by using double parentheses.
E.g. 151 $a San Fernando (La Union, Philippines)
151 $a San Fernando (Pampanga, Philippines)
Different types of places: Use term for type of place. Put in qualifier after the larger
jurisdiction, separated by a space-colon-space. Note: Towns and cities represent a “default” type, so
their headings usually do not get a type-of-place qualifier.
E.g. 151 $a Arequipa (Peru : Dept.)
[151 $a Arequipa (Peru) also exists, as a city]
151 $a Cold Lake (Alta. : Lake)
[151 $a Cold Lake (Alta.) also exists, as a city, in Alberta, Canada]
Qualifying: 2 jurisdictions (H810, sec. 3): Use both places in qualifier. Generally
put them in alphabetical order, unless the place is primarily in one larger jurisdiction. Separate by “and.” Exception: Rivers.
E.g. 651 0 $a Chesapeake Bay (Md. and Va.)
651 0 $a Bessarabia (Moldova and Ukraine)
651 0 $a Thar Desert (India and Pakistan)
651 0 $a Savoy (France and Italy)
[as a historic region]
Qualifying: More than 2 jurisdictions (H810, sec. 4): Do not qualify unless qualifier is
needed to resolve conflict or ambiguity.
For the following countries (until further notice):
Although a place in these countries is qualified by state, it is used as an indirect subdivision under
country. It needs to retain the qualifier even as a subdivision, since the qualifier would not
repeat the first subdivision.
E.g. 651 0 $a Great Barrier Reef (Qld.) $x Economic conditions.
650 0 $a Coral reef ecology $z Australia $z Great Barrier Reef (Qld.)
[ “Qld.” needs to be retained here as a
qualifier, because it has not already been used in the preceding $z subfield.]
651 0 $a Kuching (Sarawak) $x History.
650 0 $a Labor market $z Malaysia $z Kuching (Sarawak)
[the state “Sarawak” needs to be retained here as a qualifier,
because it has not already been used in the preceding $z subfield]
Qualifying: If a conflict exists with a current or other historical jurisdiction with the same name, qualify
by an appropriate term for the type of jurisdiction:
E.g. 651 0 $a Leon (Kingdom)
[the headings “León (Spain)” and
“León (Spain : Province)” also exist, each covering
a different geographical extent from the
E.g. 651 0 $a Numidia
[ancient kingdom, incorporated by Roman Empire; no
modern place name of “Numidia” exists]
651 0 $a Dacia
[province of the Roman Empire]
Subdivision: Use in subdivision through the name of the current larger jurisdiction within
which the geographic area of the historical jurisdiction is now located, if it is located entirely within a single jurisdiction.
under Denmark, but geographically far from Denmark]
650 0 $a Climatic changes $z Greenland.
651 0 $a Martinique
an overseas département of France, but geographically far from France]
Please note: Islands of the Caribbean (H807 2c.): Based on the above pattern, qualify and use in indirect subdivision
only when part of a multi-island country or country equivalent (e.g., Bahamas, British Virgin Islands).
Topical heading includes name of larger jurisdiction (H830, 7): In
indirect subdivision, repeat the larger jurisdiction in a $z subfield even if looks
redundant. (Among other reasons, this pattern helps with automatic machine flipping — global
changes — of headings and subdivisions.)
E.g. 650 0 Indians of Mexico $z Mexico $z Yucatán (State)
650 0 Cuban literature $z Cuba $z Santiago de Cuba.
[the 651 heading form would be: Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)]