Notes on LC Subject Subdivisions for Literature:
Works about Individual Literary Authors


Document sections

Introduction Criticism
Biography Other


Introduction

This selective list includes some of the more commonly used subject subdivisions used under the 600 heading for the name of the literary author.

For a fuller list, consult:  Names of Persons in Subject Cataloging Manual:  Subject Headings, section H1110.  For further information, you can consult the SCM sections noted with the subdivision below.

Please note:


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Biography

General biography v Diaries x Homes and haunts x Psychology
x Childhood and youth x Exile v Interviews x Relations with men / women
v Correspondence x Family x Last years x Religion
x Death and burial x Friends and associates x Political and social views x Travel

General biography:  no subdivision.

The heading for the authors name, without subdivision, is appropriate for biographical works and for works that combine biography and criticism, as long as at least 20% of the work is biographical.

E.g.    600 10  a Castellanos, Rosario.

For works with extensive biographical information, also provide a class of persons biography heading or headings reflecting the authors area of literary activity, nationality, and time period.  If the work also discusses other aspects of the persons career, provide additional appropriate class of persons biography headings.

E.g.    650  0  a Women authors, Mexican y 20th century v Biography.
650  0  a Authors, Mexican y 20th century v Biography.

E.g.    650  0  a Poets, Romanian y 19th century v Biography.
650  0  a Loggers z Romania v Biography.

x Childhood and youth

Use for works that focus on the author's childhood and early years rather than on her or his adult or entire life.

E.g.   Title:  Duality of worlds : the Algerian childhood of Assia Djebar.

600 00  a Djebar, Assia, d 1936- x Childhood and youth.

$v Correspondence        (H1480)

Use for letters from and/or to the author.  Can also be used, with x, as topical subdivision for works about the letters.

600 headings should also be provided for other correspondents that are included, as long as there are not more than three.  Provide additional class of persons headings for the individuals involved, with the subdivision v Correspondence.

E.g.    For a collection of letters between the author Marcel Proust and the publisher Gaston Gallimard:

600 10  a Proust, Marcel, d 1871-1922 v Correspondence.
600 10  a Gallimard, Gaston, d 1881-1975 v Correspondence.
650   0  a Novelists, French y 20th century v Correspondence.
650   0  a Publishers z France v Correspondence.

x Death and burial

Use for works that focus on the death, funeral, and/or burial of the author, as well as for works that focus on the author's final illness prior to death.

E.g.    Title:  How and when did Langland die? : a new hypothesis.

600 10  a Langland, William, d 1330?-1400? x Death and burial.
650   0  a Poets, English y Middle English, 1100-1500 x Death.

For works that cover the final years prior to an author's death, use x Last years.

v Diaries        (H1538)

Use for editions of diaries or for collections of diaries by the author.  This subdivision is appropriate for personal journals and other written descriptions of thoughts and events as they occurred.  It is not applicable to memoirs and reminiscences written well after the fact or to official logs.

E.g.    Title:  The garden journal of playwright Sonrisa del Gato.

600 10  a Gato, Sonrisa del, d 1934- v Diaries.
650   0  a Gardens z South America.

The subdivision x Diaries can also be used, with x, as a topical subdivision for works about the diaries.

E.g.    Title:  Verbena in Venezuela, althea in Argentina, and bonsai in Brazil : a study of the garden journal of playwright Sonrisa del Gato.

600 10  a Gato, Sonrisa del, d 1934- x Diaries.
650   0  a Gardens z South America.

x Exile     (May Subd Geog)

Use for works that focus on the period or periods in an author's life when he or she was forced to live away from a native country or home.   (In practice, it has been used both for political exiles banished by government authority and for political refugees who have left for fear of persecution.)   This subdivision may be subdivided by the place of exile.

E.g.    For a work on José Martí's period of exile in Mexico:

600 10  a Martí, José, d 1853-1895 x Exile z Mexico.

x Family        (H1631)

Use for biographical works discussing the relationship of the author with family members or the lives of family members.  This subdivision can also be used for genealogical works.

An additional subject heading should be provided for the family.

E.g.   Title:  Nancy Mitford and her family : a life among eccentrics.

600 10  a Mitford, Nancy, d 1904-1973.
600 10  a Mitford, Nancy, d 1904-1973 x Family.
600 30  a Mitford family.

x Friends and associates

Use for works about the authors close and immediate contacts, such as personal friends, colleagues, agents, et al.

E.g.   Title:  Wright and Baldwin in Paris.

Subject headings would include:

600 10  a Wright, Richard, d 1908-1960 x Friends and associates.
600 10  a Baldwin, James, d 1924-1987 x Friends and associates.

For works that focus on intimate relationships, use x Relations with men or x Relations with women.


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x Homes and haunts     (May Subd Geog)

Use for works about places where the author lived, places that he or she habitually frequented (e.g., annual summer vacation spots), or places commonly associated with the author.  Also generally provide a separate 651 heading for the place, with an appropriate subdivision.

E.g.    600 10  a Tolstoy, Leo, c graf, d 1828-1910 x Homes and haunts z Russia (Federation) z Moscow.
651   0  a Moscow (Russia) x Social life and customs y 19th century.

For places where the author traveled but did not live for more than a brief period, use the subdivision $x Travel.   If the author stayed in a place as an exile, the subdivision $x Exile can be used, further subdivided by place.

v Interviews         (H1678)

Use for works that contain transcriptions of one or multiple interviews with the author, including records of the author's words during the course of informal conversations.

E.g.    For a collection of interviews with Salman Rushdie:

600 10  a Rushdie, Salman v Interviews.

Subject headings can also be assigned covering the major topic or topics discussed during the interviews.

x Last years

Use for works covering the final years of the author's life.

E.g.    Title:  Twilight in Blaenau : the evening years of John Cowper Powys.

Subject headings would include:

600 10  a Powys, John Cowper, d 1872-1963 x Last years.
650   0  a Authors, English y 20th century v Biography.

For works that focus on the death, funeral, and/or burial of the author, use x Death and burial.  Also use x Death and burial for works that focus on the author's final illness prior to death.

x Political and social views

Use for discussions of the authors political and/or social views in general, either explicitly stated in the authors works or inferred from her or his works or life.  Do not use for works by the author on political or social topics.

E.g.    For a work about the social attitudes of poet Georgina Ormsby-Wreake, as revealed through her correspondence,
pattern of marriages, relationship with her servants, and recollections of acquaintances:

600 10  a Ormsby-Wreake, Georgina, d 1894-1948 x Political and social views.

(See also an example of the use of x Political and social views for a critical work.)

x Psychology

Use for works about the authors own personality, character, or personal traits.

E.g.    Title:  Guilt in Hawthornes life and works.

Appropriate biographical subject headings would be:

600 10  a Hawthorne, Nathaniel, d 1804-1864 x Psychology.
650   0  a Novelists, American y 19th century v Biography.

In some cases, the subdivision x Mental health may be appropriate.

For works about the authors familiarity with psychological theories or the authors psychological portrayal of characters, the subdivisions x Knowledge x Psychology or x Characters should be used, as appropriate.

x Relations with men and x Relations with women

Use for discussions of intimate associates of the author.  If the work focuses on the authors relationship with an individual man or woman, also assign a separate 600 heading for that person.  Provide additional appropriate class-of-persons biography headings.

E.g.    For a book about the couple Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir:

600 10  a Sartre, Jean-Paul, d 1905-1980 x Relations with women.
600 10  a Beauvoir, Simone de, d 1908-1986 x Relations with men.
650   0  a Authors, French y 20th century v Biography.
650   0  a Philosophers z France v Biography.
650   0  a Intellectuals z France v Biography.
650   0  a Feminists z France v Biography.

For relations with spouses, the subdivisions x Marriage and x Divorce may be used as appropriate.

For works on other close and immediate contacts of the author, such as personal friends, colleagues, or agents, use x Friends and associates.

x Religion         (H1997)

Use for discussions of the authors religious beliefs and practices, as reflected either in the authors works or in her or his life.

E.g.   For a biography of Kenji Miyazawa that has a strong focus on the author's religious experiences and beliefs:

600 10  a Miyazawa, Kenji, d 1896-1933.
600 10  a Miyazawa, Kenji, d 1896-1933 x Religion.
650   0  a Authors, Japanese y 20th century v Biography.

(See also an example of the use of x Religion for a critical work.)

x Travel    (May Subd Geog)

Use for works about travel undertaken by the author, including particular places where the author visited but did not live for more than a brief time.  Also provide a separate 651 heading for the place, with x Description and travel.

E.g.   The Spanish author Federico Garca Lorca visited Buenos Aires but stayed there for only a few months.  For a book about that visit:

600 10  a Garca Lorca, Federico, d 1896-1936 x Travel z Argentina z Buenos Aires.
651   0  a Buenos Aires (Argentina) x Description and travel.

For works about places where the author lived or that he or she habitually frequented, use the subdivision x Homes and haunts.   If the author stayed in a place as an exile, the subdivision x Exile can be used, subdivided by place.


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Criticism

x Authorship x Fictional works x Poetic works x Stories, plots, etc.
x Characters x Influence x Political and social views x Symbolism
v Concordances x Knowledge x <topic> or z <place> x Prose x Technique
x Criticism and interpretation x Language x Religion x Themes, motives
x Criticism, Textual x Literary style x Settings x Translations x History and criticism
x Dramatic works x Philosophy x Sourcesx Versification

x Authorship

Use for works discussing the attribution of works to the author, generally when there is some doubt or controversy as to whether a particular author wrote specific works or wrote additional works that are no longer extant.

E.g.   Title:  The lost Sophocles

600 10  a Sophocles x Authorship.

E.g.   Title:  Theft in Lakeland : did Jemima Peters really write the Beatrix Potter stories?

600 10  a Potter, Beatrix, d 1866-1943 x Authorship.
600 10  a Peters, Jemima F. q (Jemima Flopsy), d 1874-1952 x Authorship.

x Characters

Use for works that discuss characters in the authors literary works.  By itself, the subdivision x Characters is used for general discussions of multiple characters that fall into multiple categories.  Also possible are:

x Characters x <group or category of character>

E.g.   x Characters x Women

E.g.   x Characters x Physicians

E.g.   x Characters x African Americans

x Characters x <name of individual character>

The name of the individual character should be in uninverted form.

An additional heading should be given for the name of the character.  For historical individuals, a 600 heading should be provided with the name heading for the person followed by x In literature.

E.g.    600 10  a Yourcenar, Marguerite x Characters x Hadrian.
600 00  a Hadrian, c Emperor of Rome, d 76-138 x In literature.

For fictitious or legendary characters, an appropriate qualifier should be used, such as Fictitious character (H1610) or Greek mythology.  Fictitious literary character headings do not need in literature, but legendary and mythological characters do need in literature in their headings.

E.g.    600 10  a Tolkien, J. R. R. q (John Ronald Reuel), d 1892-1973 x Characters x Frodo Baggins.
650   0  a Baggins, Frodo (Fictitious character)

E.g.    600 10  a Sarn, Clun, d 1968- x Characters x Odysseus.
650   0  a Odysseus (Greek mythology) in literature.

v Concordances        (H1670)

Use for indexes to words (or the principal words) used in multiple works by the author.

E.g.   Title:  The Inspector Alleyn mysteries of Ngaio Marsh : a complete word index : with an appendix on characteristic New Zealander phrases.

600 10  a Marsh, Ngaio, d 1895-1982 v Concordances.

x Criticism and interpretation

Use for works at least 80% of which consist of critical analysis or interpretation of the author's literary works, without more than 20% dealing with biographical details.  Use when the analysis covers multiple works and multiple aspects of the works, such as theme, style, characters, and narrative.

E.g.    600 10  a Camus, Albert, d 1913-1960 x Criticism and interpretation.

Note that Criticism and interpretation is considered to be a topical (x) subdivision, not a form (v) subdivision.

For studies that focus on one aspect of an authors work, more specific subdivisions should be used, e.g., x Characters or x Literary style.  (One common limitation in existing records is that other cataloguers often use the general subdivision x Criticism and interpretation for studies that actually focus on only one aspect of the authors literary work.)

For studies that focus on one or two specific literary works by the author, assign 600 author-uniform title headings for each work.

E.g.   600 10  a Camus, Albert, d 1913-1960. t Etranger.

x Criticism, Textual

Use for works that focus on establishing an authoritative text of a work, often by examining its textual history, comparing different manuscripts and published editions.  Under an author's name, it applies to more than two works by that author.

E.g.    For a study tracing the genealogy of different manuscript versions of Chaucers Book of the duchesse, Parliament of fowls, and Troilus and Criseyde:

600 10  a Chaucer, Geoffrey, d d. 1400 x Criticism, Textual.

This subdivision should not be used for critical analyses of the content of a work; for critical studies, use x Criticism and interpretation.

x Dramatic works

Use for discussions of dramatic works by an author who did not principally write (or is not known for writing) dramas.

E.g.   Title:  Essays on the dramatic works of Polish poet Zbigniew Herbert

600 10  a Herbert, Zbigniew x Dramatic works.

The subdivision x Dramatic works should not be used for authors known primarily as playwrights, such as William Shakespeare or Luigi Pirandello.

x Fictional works

Use for discussions of works of fiction written by an author who did not principally write (or is not known for writing) fiction.

E.g.   Title:  Bernard Shaws novels

George Bernard Shaw is primarily known as a playwright and essayist.

600 10  a Shaw, Bernard, d 1856-1950 x Fictional works.

The subdivision x Fictional works should not be used for authors known primarily as writers of novels or short stories, such as Charles Dickens or Gabriel Garca Mrquez.

x Influence         (H1675)

Use for discussions of the authors influence on other people, groups, movements, or national literatures.  Also provide a separate heading for the affected person, group, movement, or literature.

E.g.   For a work discussing influences of Pablo Nerudas work on Allen Ginsberg:

600 10  a Neruda, Pablo, d 1904-1973 x Influence.
600 10  a Ginsberg, Allen, d 1926-1997 x Criticism and interpretation.

E.g.   For a work about the use of themes from Dantes works in 20th-century poetry:

600 10  a Dante Alighieri, d 1265-1321 x Influence.
650   0  a Poetry, Modern y 20th century x Sources.

x Knowledge x <specific topic> or z <specific place>

Use for works about an authors knowledge about a subject, either explicitly stated or inferred, based on the authors works or on her or his life and educational background.  Also provide a separate heading for the specific topic or place.

E.g.   Title:  Understanding the ways of moles : the wisdom of Drago Velimirovic revealed in his novels.

600 10  a Velimirovic, Drago, d 1884-1943 x Knowledge x Moles (Animals)
650   0  a Moles (Animals) in literature.

x Language

Use for discussions of the authors work that focus on linguistic aspects rather than artistic, stylistic ones.

E.g.   Title:  The use of reflexive verbs in the Anglo-Norman poetry of Ralph of Matching Tye.

600 00  a Ralph, c of Matching Tye, d d. 1190 x Language.

For discussions of the authors artistic use of language, use the subdivision x Literary style or x Versification.

x Literary style

Use for discussions of the authors work that focus on the authors artistic use of language, e.g., use of metaphors, prose sentence rhythm.

E.g.    Title:  Alliteration in the trilogy of Terentia T. Tooting.

600 10  a Tooting, Terentia T. q (Terentia Tomasita) x Literary style.

For discussions specifically of an authors poetic style and technique, see the subdivision x Versification.

x Philosophy        (H1929)

Use for works discussing the author's own philosophy.

E.g.    Title:  The theories of life and the world reflected in the poetry of Nissim Ezekiel.

600 10  a Ezekiel, Nissim, d 1924-2004 x Philosophy.

For works about an author's understanding or interpretation of the philosophy of others, the subdivision string x Knowledge $x Philosophy would be more appropriate.


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x Poetic works

Use for discussions of poetry written by an author who did not principally write (or is not known for writing) poetry.

E.g.   Title:  Johnson the poet : the poetic career of Samuel Johnson

Samuel Johnson is primarily known as the author of a dictionary, essays, biographies, and travel writing.

600 10  a Johnson, Samuel, d 1709-1784 x Poetic works.

E.g.   For a work about the poetry of the artist Michelangelo Buonarroti:

600 00  a Michelangelo Buonarroti, d 1475-1564 x Poetic works.

The subdivision x Poetic works should not be used for authors known primarily as poets, such as T.S. Eliot or Dante Alighieri.

x Political and social views

Use for discussions of the authors political and/or social views in general, either explicitly stated in the authors works or inferred from her or his works or life.  Do not use for works by the author on political or social topics.

E.g.   For a study of George Orwells political orientation as revealed in his novels:

600 10  a Orwell, George, d 1903-1950 x Political and social views.

A collection of Orwells war commentaries would not be assigned this heading.

(See also an example of the use of x Political and social views for a biographical work.)

x Prose

Use for discussions of prose written by an author who did not principally write (or is not known for writing) prose.

E.g.   For a work discussing the essays and lectures of the poet and playwright Derek Walcott:

600 10  a Walcott, Derek x Prose.

The subdivision x Prose should not be used for authors known primarily as writers of prose, such as the essayist Joseph Addison or the novelist and political writer Nadine Gordimer.

x Religion         (H1997)

Use for discussions of the authors religious beliefs and practices, as reflected either in the authors work or in her or his life.

E.g.   Title:  Sufi themes in the Divan of Hafez.

600 00  a .H¯afi.z, d 14th cent. t D¯iv¯an.
600 00  a .H¯afi.z, d 14th cent. x Religion.
650   0  a Sufism in literature.

(See also an example of the use of x Religion for a biographical work.)

x Settings

Use for discussions of the places in which works by the author are located.  If a particular place is discussed, also provide a heading for the place, subdivided by x In literature.

E.g.   For a study of Elizabeth Gaskells use of Cheshire as a setting for multiple novels and stories:

600 10  a Gaskell, Elizabeth Cleghorn, d 1810-1865 x Settings.
651   0  a Cheshire (England) x In literature.

x Sources        (H2080)

Use for discussions of the authors sources of inspiration for her or his works or sources for ideas incorporated into the literary works.

E.g.   Title:  The roots of Nedjma : tradition and creation in Kateb Yacine's novel.

600 10  a Kateb, Yacine, d 1929-1989. t Nedjma.
600 10  a Kateb, Yacine, d 1929-1989 x Sources.

The subdivision v Sources, with v, may be used as a form subdivision for a collection of an authors sources.

x Stories, plots, etc.

Use for discussions or -- with v -- summaries of the authors plots, narratives, and so forth.

E.g.   Title:  An analysis of plot in the novels of Chinua Achebe.

600 10  a Achebe, Chinua x Stories, plots, etc.

E.g.   Title:  Five-minute Dostoyevsky : summaries of the novels, each three pages or less.

600 10  a Dostoyevsky, Fyodor, d 1821-1881 v Stories, plots, etc.

x Symbolism

Use for discussions of the symbols that appear in the authors works.  When appropriate, also assign a separate heading for the symbol.

E.g.   For a work about the symbolic significance of swans in the novels of Perugino Bacci:

600 10  a Bacci, Perugino, d 1847-1894 x Symbolism.
650   0  a Swans in literature.

x Technique

Use for discussions of the structural and formal elements of an authors literary works, such as scene structure, varying narrative points of view, repetition, etc.

E.g.   Title:  The function of scene framing in the tragedies of Orlando Lacrimoso

600 10  a Lacrimoso, Orlando, d 1673-1709 x Technique.

x Themes, motives

If a particular theme or motif is discussed, also assign a separate heading for the theme.

E.g.   For a work discussing the treatment of friendship in the poetry of Gaston Le Gros

600 10  a Le Gros, Gaston, d b. 1774 x Themes, motives.
650   0  a Friendship in literature.

x Translations x History and criticism         (H2220)

Use for works about translations of an authors works.

E.g.   Title:  Translating the untranslatable : English-language versions of the works of Borges

600 10  a Borges, Jorge Luis, d 1899-1986 x Translations x History and criticism.

The subdivision Translations appears more often, with v, as a form subdivision for translations of an authors collected or selected works.   It should not be used for individual works in translation.

x Versification

Use for discussions of an authors technique of writing poetry, such as rhyming, poetic structure, or alliteration.

E.g.   Title:  Rhyming sequences in the odes of Damon Raymon

600 10  a Raymon, Damon x Versification.


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Other

v Adaptations v Drama x In literature v Television adaptations
x Appreciation v Fiction v Parodies, imitations, etc.
v Bibliography v Film adaptations v Poetry

v Adaptations

Use for collections of adaptations by other authors of an authors work.

E.g.   For a book containing children's stories by several authors, presented as versions of works of Mark Twain:

600 10  a Twain, Mark, d 1835-1910 v Adaptations.

The subdivision x Adaptations can also be used, with x, as a topical subdivision for works about such adaptations.

E.g.   Title:  Turning sound into vision : an analysis of the transmutation of message in four dramatic sketches based on poems of Tagore.

600 10  a Tagore, Rabindranath, d 1861-1941 x Adaptations.

For collected adaptations on film, use v Film adaptations.  For collected adaptations on TV, use v Television adaptations.

x Appreciation    (May Subd Geog)

Use for works about public response to, reception of, and/or praise of the authors works.  Does not cover critical analysis as such, but rather is often used for books about anniversary commemorations, memorial commemorations and eulogies, popular reception of books by the author or films based on books by the author, etc.

E.g.   Title:  Austen-mania in the 1990s : Jane Austen in popular culture

600 10  a Austen, Jane, d 1775-1817 x Appreciation.

v Bibliography        (H1322)

Use for lists of works by or about the person.

v Drama        (H1780)

Use for dramas about the author, not for dramatic works written by the author.

E.g.   Title:  Homer at the supermarket : a play.

600 00  a Homer v Drama.

For discussions of dramas about the author, use the topical subdivision x In literature.  For discussions about dramas written by authors not primarily known as playwrights, see x Dramatic works.

v Fiction        (H1790)

Use for fiction about the author, not for fiction written by the author.

E.g.   Title:  Cretan rock and Buddhist air : a novel on the life of Kazantzakis.

600 00  a Kazantzakis, Nikos, d 1883-1957 v Fiction.

For discussions of fiction about the author, use the topical subdivision x In literature.  For discussions about fiction written by authors not primarily known as novelists or short story writers, see x Fictional works.

v Film adaptations

Use for collections of motion picture adaptations of an authors works or for videorecording versions of motion picture adaptations.

E.g.   For a book containing cinematic screenplays of The swamp dwellers, Madmen and specialists, and The lion and the jewel:

600 10  a Soyinka, Wole v Film adaptations.

Can also be used, with x, as a topical subdivision for works about such collected adaptations.

E.g.   Title:  The third Richard the Second, the fourth Richard the Third-- : movie versions of Shakespeares history plays through the decades.

600 10  a Shakespeare, William, d 1564-1616 x Film adaptations.

Do not use for individual adaptations.

x In literature

Use for discussions of literary works about the author.

E.g.   Title:  A Quixote in his own right : studies on Cervantes the character.

600 00  a Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de, d 1547-1616 x In literature.

E.g.   Title:  Post-Mycenaean postmodernism : an analysis of the play Homer at the supermarket.

600 10  a Roussillon, Berenike. t Homer at the supermarket.
600 00  a Homer x In literature.

For literary works themselves about the author, use the appropriate form subdivision v Drama, v Fiction, v Literary collections, or v Poetry.

v Parodies, imitations, etc.

Use for imitations of an authors work or works that are either comic or distorted.  (Parody and imitation go beyond adaptation in that they generally involve greater changes from the original; parody also has a comic or satirical purpose.)

E.g.   Title:  A short story of two suburbs, or, The revolution hasnt reached here yet.

600 10  a Dickens, Charles, d 1812-1870 v Parodies, imitations, etc.

v Poetry        (H1800)

Use for poetry about the author, not for poetry written by the author.

E.g.   Title:  Poems on a poet : the life of Dylan Thomas remembered in verse.

600 00  a Thomas, Dylan, d 1914-1953 v Poetry.

For discussions of poetry about the author, use the topical subdivision x In literature.  For discussions about poems written by authors not primarily known as poets, see x Poetic works.

v Television adaptations

Use for collections of television adaptations of an authors works or for videorecording versions of television adaptations.

E.g.    For a DVD set containing dramatizations of Elizabeth Gaskell's novels Cranford, North and south, and Wives and daughters, which were originally broadcast on TV:

600 10  a Gaskell, Elizabeth Cleghorn, d 1810-1865 v Television adaptations.

Can also be used, with x, as a topical subdivision for works about such collected adaptations.

E.g.   Title:  The lure of swashbuckling into the Information Age : a history of televised versions of works of Alexandre Dumas pre.

600 10  a Dumas, Alexandre, d 1802-1870 x Television adaptations.

Do not use for individual adaptations.


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draft, 25 August 2003; rev. 6 August 2004, 4 May 2008, 30 November 2011

HTML document last reviewed:  30 November 2011