The following are examples of types of cross-references that should particularly be considered when you are
establishing a name or uniform title heading or looking at an LC/NACO authority record for a
heading. In addition, other types of information are indicated that can be helpful in certain cases,
particularly when trying to distinguish individuals, bodies, or titles with the same name.
- Personal names
- Variant names; e.g.:
- Real name vs. pseudonym
- Multiple pseudonyms
- Name changes
- Variant forms of the same name, including different degrees of fullness, if the surname is
affected. (CAVEAT: Generally, do not add a cross-reference for a form not
given prominently on the piece.)
- Variant permutations of the same name; different entry elements, especially:
- Compound surnames
- Surnames including prepositions and/or articles
- Entry under forename when a surname or some element that might be interpreted
as surname is present
- Entry under title of nobility
NOTE: Normally, a permutation is made only on the form chosen for the 100 field;
generally do not add permutations of the 400 field; do not add permutations of the 500 field.
- Variant romanizations of the same name: standard LC romanization vs. versions
found in piece or reference sources.
- Variant language forms of the same name (do not go overboard), particularly in the case of
well-known individuals or individual living before 1500.
- Any information that could be particularly helpful in distinguishing an individual with a
common name. Examples include:
- Birth and/or death dates
- Nationality or biographical information about place of birth, residence, etc.
- Occupation or profession
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- Corporate and Conference Names
- Variant names, including conventional vs. official names. (NOTE: Be careful to
distinguish occasional variants of a name from actual name changes; in the latter, separate
headings need to be identified or established.)
- Variant forms or spellings of the same name, including different degrees of fullness
(especially acronyms versus spelled-out forms). (NOTE: Again, be careful to
distinguish occasional variant forms from actual name changes.)
- Variant permutations of the same name and different entry elements, especially involving
“direct ” vs. “subordinate” entry.
- Variant language forms of the same name, particularly in the case of international bodies,
bodies in countries with more than one official or unofficial language, or international conferences.
- Variant romanizations of the same name.
- Historical information about the corporate body if it has a fairly generic name.
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- Uniform titles
- Forms of title
- Language forms
- Relevant information regarding the bibliographical history of the work, particularly if the
title needs to be distinguished from other works or related to other works.
Mar. 22 1989; rev. December 16, 1999
HTML document last reviewed: 21 December 1999